G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor
G00000661 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000073969 (Ensembl human gene)
4905 (Entrez Gene)
40 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NSF (GeneCards)
601633 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8016 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P46459 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • SKD2

Literature (48)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association study reveals genetic risk underlying Parkinson's disease.

    Simón-Sánchez J, Schulte C, Bras JM, Sharma M, Gibbs JR, Berg D, Paisan-Ruiz C, Lichtner P, Scholz SW, Hernandez DG, Krüger R, Federoff M, Klein C, Goate A, Perlmutter J, Bonin M, Nalls MA, Illig T, Gieger C, Houlden H, Steffens M, Okun MS, Racette BA, Cookson MR, Foote KD, Fernandez HH, Traynor BJ, Schreiber S, Arepalli S, Zonozi R, Gwinn K, van der Brug M, Lopez G, Chanock SJ, Schatzkin A, Park Y, Hollenbeck A, Gao J, Huang X, Wood NW, Lorenz D, Deuschl G, Chen H, Riess O, Hardy JA, Singleton AB and Gasser T

    Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,713 individuals of European ancestry with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 3,978 controls. After replication in 3,361 cases and 4,573 controls, we observed two strong association signals, one in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA; rs2736990, OR = 1.23, P = 2.24 x 10(-16)) and another at the MAPT locus (rs393152, OR = 0.77, P = 1.95 x 10(-16)). We exchanged data with colleagues performing a GWAS in Japanese PD cases. Association to PD at SNCA was replicated in the Japanese GWAS, confirming this as a major risk locus across populations. We replicated the effect of a new locus detected in the Japanese cohort (PARK16, rs823128, OR = 0.66, P = 7.29 x 10(-8)) and provide supporting evidence that common variation around LRRK2 modulates risk for PD (rs1491923, OR = 1.14, P = 1.55 x 10(-5)). These data demonstrate an unequivocal role for common genetic variants in the etiology of typical PD and suggest population-specific genetic heterogeneity in this disease.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 AG000949-03; Medical Research Council: G0400000, G0701075, G0901254, G108/638; NCATS NIH HHS: UL1 TR000448; NCRR NIH HHS: UL1 RR024992; NIA NIH HHS: Z01 AG000949; NIEHS NIH HHS: Z01 ES101986; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS041509, R01 NS041509-09, R01 NS050425, R01 NS050425-05, R01 NS058714, R01 NS058714-03; Parkinson's UK: G-0907, G-0909, J-0804

    Nature genetics 2009;41;12;1308-12

  • Comparative modeling of human NSF reveals a possible binding mode of GABARAP and GATE-16.

    Thielmann Y, Weiergräber OH, Ma P, Schwarten M, Mohrlüder J and Willbold D

    Institut für Strukturbiologie und Biophysik 3 (Strukturbiochemie), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

    Vesicular trafficking is an important homeostatic process in eukaryotic cells which critically relies on membrane fusion. One of the essential components of the universal membrane fusion machinery is NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor), a large hexameric ATPase involved in disassembly of SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) complexes. To improve our understanding of this sophisticated molecular machine, we have modeled the structure of the NSF hexamer in two alternative assemblies. Our data suggest a mechanistic concept of the operating mode of NSF which helps to explain the functional impact of post-translational modifications and mutations reported previously. Furthermore, we propose a binding site for the ubiquitin-like proteins GABARAP and GATE-16, which is supported by experimental evidence, yielding a complex with favorable surface complementarity.

    Proteins 2009;77;3;637-46

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • PTP1B dephosphorylates N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and elicits SNARE complex disassembly during human sperm exocytosis.

    Zarelli VE, Ruete MC, Roggero CM, Mayorga LS and Tomes CN

    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histología y Embriología (IHEM-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, CC 56, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina.

    The reversible phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in proteins is a cornerstone of the signaling pathways that regulate numerous cellular responses. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is controlled through the concerted actions of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. The goal of the present study was to unveil the mechanisms by which protein tyrosine dephosphorylation modulates secretion. The acrosome reaction, a specialized type of regulated exocytosis undergone by sperm, is initiated by calcium and carried out by a number of players, including tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, and fusion-related proteins such as Rab3A, alpha-SNAP, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), SNAREs, complexin, and synaptotagmin VI. We report here that inducers were unable to elicit the acrosome reaction when permeabilized human sperm were loaded with anti-PTP1B antibodies or with the dominant-negative mutant PTP1B D181A; subsequent introduction of wild type PTP1B or NSF rescued exocytosis. Wild type PTP1B, but not PTP1B D181A, caused cis SNARE complex dissociation during the acrosome reaction through a mechanism involving NSF. Unlike its non-phosphorylated counterpart, recombinant phospho-NSF failed to dissociate SNARE complexes from rat brain membranes. These results strengthen our previous observation that NSF activity is regulated rather than constitutive during sperm exocytosis and indicate that NSF must be dephosphorylated by PTP1B to disassemble SNARE complexes. Interestingly, phospho-NSF served as a substrate for PTP1B in an in vitro assay. Our findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of NSF on tyrosine residues prevents its SNARE complex dissociation activity and establish for the first time a role for PTP1B in the modulation of the membrane fusion machinery.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;16;10491-503

  • Large-scale structural analysis of the classical human protein tyrosine phosphatome.

    Barr AJ, Ugochukwu E, Lee WH, King ON, Filippakopoulos P, Alfano I, Savitsky P, Burgess-Brown NA, Müller S and Knapp S

    University of Oxford, Structural Genomics Consortium, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK. alastair.barr@sgc.ox.ac.uk

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a "head-to-toe" dimerization model for RPTPgamma/zeta that is distinct from the "inhibitory wedge" model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cell 2009;136;2;352-63

  • NSF, Unc-18-1, dynamin-1 and HSP90 are inclusion body components in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease identified by anti-SUMO-1-immunocapture.

    Pountney DL, Raftery MJ, Chegini F, Blumbergs PC and Gai WP

    School of Medical Science, Griffith Institute of Health and Medical Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, QLD, 4222, Australia. d.pountney@griffith.edu.au

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease, a progressive ataxia that may be familial or sporadic, is characterized by numerous neuronal intranuclear inclusion bodies similar to those found in polyglutamine repeat diseases. Previously, we found that the intranuclear inclusion bodies are intensely immunopositive for SUMO-1, a protein which covalently conjugates to other proteins in a similar way to ubiquitin. To identify the SUMO-1-associated proteins in the inclusion bodies, we isolated intranuclear inclusion bodies from fresh, frozen brain tissue of a case with familial neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and solubilized the proteins. SUMO-1-associated inclusion body proteins were then immunocaptured using an anti-SUMO-1 antibody. The proteins, NSF, dynamin-1 and Unc-18-1 (rbSEC1), involved in membrane trafficking of proteins, and the chaperone HSP90, were identified following anti-SUMO-1-immunocapture by using tandem mass spectrometry and database searching. Immunohistochemistry of brain sections and crude brain homogenates of three cases of familial neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease confirmed the presence of these proteins in intranuclear inclusions.

    Acta neuropathologica 2008;116;6;603-14

  • Runs of homozygosity reveal highly penetrant recessive loci in schizophrenia.

    Lencz T, Lambert C, DeRosse P, Burdick KE, Morgan TV, Kane JM, Kucherlapati R and Malhotra AK

    Department of Psychiatry Research, Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, 75-59 263rd Street, Glen Oaks, NY 11004, USA. lencz@lij.edu

    Evolutionarily significant selective sweeps may result in long stretches of homozygous polymorphisms in individuals from outbred populations. We developed whole-genome homozygosity association (WGHA) methodology to characterize this phenomenon in healthy individuals and to use this genomic feature to identify genetic risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). Applying WGHA to 178 SCZ cases and 144 healthy controls genotyped at 500,000 markers, we found that runs of homozygosity (ROHs), ranging in size from 200 kb to 15 mb, were common in unrelated Caucasians. Properties of common ROHs in healthy subjects, including chromosomal location and presence of nonancestral haplotypes, converged with prior reports identifying regions under selective pressure. This interpretation was further supported by analysis of multiethnic HapMap samples genotyped with the same markers. ROHs were significantly more common in SCZ cases, and a set of nine ROHs significantly differentiated cases from controls. Four of these 9 "risk ROHs" contained or neighbored genes associated with SCZ (NOS1AP, ATF2, NSF, and PIK3C3). Several of these risk ROHs were very rare in healthy subjects, suggesting that recessive effects of relatively high penetrance may explain a proportion of the genetic liability for SCZ. Other risk ROHs feature haplotypes that are also common in healthy individuals, possibly indicating a source of balancing selection.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: K01 MH065580, K23 MH001760, MH001760, MH065580, MH074543, P30 MH074543

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007;104;50;19942-7

  • N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor regulates beta2 adrenoceptor trafficking and signaling in cardiomyocytes.

    Wang Y, Lauffer B, Von Zastrow M, Kobilka BK and Xiang Y

    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, B523 Burrill Hall, MC-114, 407 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

    Recycling of G protein-coupled receptors determines the functional resensitization of receptors and is implicated in switching beta2 adrenoceptor (beta2AR) G protein specificity in cardiomyocytes. The human beta2AR carboxyl end binds to the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase integral to membrane trafficking machinery. It is interesting that the human beta2AR (hbeta2AR) carboxyl end pulled down NSF from mouse heart lysates, whereas the murine one did not. Despite this difference, both beta2ARs exhibited substantial agonist-induced internalization, recycling, and Gi coupling in cardiomyocytes. The hbeta2AR, however, displayed faster rates of agonist-induced internalization and recycling compared with the murine beta2AR (mbeta2AR) and a more profound Gi component in its contraction response. Replacing the mbeta2AR proline (-1) with a leucine generated a gain-of-function mutation, mbeta2AR-P417L, with a rescued ability to bind NSF, faster internalization and recycling than the mbeta2AR, and a significant enhancement in Gi signaling, which mimics the hbeta2AR. Selective disruption of the mbeta2AR-P417L binding to NSF inhibited the receptor coupling to Gi. Mean-while, inhibiting NSF with N-ethylmaleimide blocked the mbeta2AR recycling after agonist-induced endocytosis. Expressing the NSF-E329Q mutant lacking ATPase activity inhibited the mbeta2AR coupling to Gi in cardiomyocytes. Our results revealed a dual regulation on hbeta2AR trafficking and signaling by NSF through direct binding to cargo receptor and its ATPase activity and uncovered an unprecedented role for the receptor binding to NSF in regulating G protein specificity that has diverged between mouse and human beta2ARs.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1R01-HL71078, 1R01-HL82846, R01 HL082846, R01 HL082846-02; NIDA NIH HHS: R01-DA12864

    Molecular pharmacology 2007;72;2;429-39

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Coordinated action of NSF and PKC regulates GABAB receptor signaling efficacy.

    Pontier SM, Lahaie N, Ginham R, St-Gelais F, Bonin H, Bell DJ, Flynn H, Trudeau LE, McIlhinney J, White JH and Bouvier M

    Département de Biochimie and Groupe de Recherche Universitaire sur le Médicament, Institut de recherche en immunologie et Cancérologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Qc, Canada.

    The obligatory heterodimerization of the GABAB receptor (GBR) raises fundamental questions about molecular mechanisms controlling its signaling efficacy. Here, we show that NEM sensitive fusion (NSF) protein interacts directly with the GBR heterodimer both in rat brain synaptosomes and in CHO cells, forming a ternary complex that can be regulated by agonist stimulation. Inhibition of NSF binding with a peptide derived from GBR2 (TAT-Pep-27) did not affect basal signaling activity but almost completely abolished agonist-promoted GBR desensitization in both CHO cells and hippocampal slices. Taken with the role of PKC in the desensitization process, our observation that TAT-Pep-27 prevented both agonist-promoted recruitment of PKC and receptor phosphorylation suggests that NSF is a priming factor required for GBR desensitization. Given that GBR desensitization does not involve receptor internalization, the NSF/PKC coordinated action revealed herein suggests that NSF can regulate GPCR signalling efficacy independently of its role in membrane trafficking. The functional interaction between three bona fide regulators of neurotransmitter release, such as GBR, NSF and PKC, could shed new light on the modulation of presynaptic GBR action.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U138162357

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;12;2698-709

  • Pctaire1 phosphorylates N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein: implications in the regulation of its hexamerization and exocytosis.

    Liu Y, Cheng K, Gong K, Fu AK and Ip NY

    Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology Research Institute, and Molecular Neuroscience Center, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

    Pctaire1, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-related family, has recently been shown to be phosphorylated and regulated by Cdk5/p35. Although Pctaire1 is expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, its precise functions remain elusive. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with Pctaire1. N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), a crucial factor in vesicular transport and membrane fusion, was identified as one of the Pctaire1 interacting proteins. We demonstrate that the D2 domain of NSF, which is required for the oligomerization of NSF subunits, binds directly to and is phosphorylated by Pctaire1 on serine 569. Mutation of this phosphorylation site on NSF (S569A) augments its ability to oligomerize. Moreover, inhibition of Pctaire1 activity by transfecting its kinase-dead (KD) mutant into COS-7 cells enhances the self-association of NSF. Interestingly, Pctaire1 associates with NSF and synaptic vesicle-associated proteins in adult rat brain. To investigate whether Pctaire1 phosphorylation of NSF is involved in regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis, we examined the effect of expressing Pctaire1 or NSF phosphorylation mutants on the regulated secretion of growth hormone from PC12 cells. Interestingly, expression of either Pctaire1-KD or NSF-S569A in PC12 cells significantly increases high K(+)-stimulated growth hormone release. Taken together, our findings provide the first demonstration that Pctaire1 phosphorylation of NSF regulates the ability of NSF to oligomerize, implicating an unexpected role of this kinase in modulating exocytosis. These findings open a new avenue of research in studying the functional roles of Pctaire1 in the nervous system.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;15;9852-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Lu W and Ziff EB

    Program in Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH067229

    Neuron 2005;47;3;407-21

  • Protein-protein coupling/uncoupling enables dopamine D2 receptor regulation of AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

    Zou S, Li L, Pei L, Vukusic B, Van Tol HH, Lee FJ, Wan Q and Liu F

    Department of Neuroscience, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R8.

    here is considerable evidence that dopamine D2 receptors can modulate AMPA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains essentially unclear. Here we report that D2 receptors inhibit AMPA-mediated neurotoxicity through two pathways: the activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) and downregulation of AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression, both involving a series of protein-protein coupling/uncoupling events. Agonist stimulation of D2 receptors promotes the formation of the direct protein-protein interaction between the third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor and the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) while uncoupling the NSF interaction with the carboxyl tail (CT) of the glutamate receptor GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors. Previous studies have shown that full-length NSF directly couples to the GluR2CT and facilitates AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression. Furthermore, the CT region of GluR2 subunit is also responsible for several other intracellular protein couplings, including p85 subunit of PI-3K. Therefore, the direct coupling of D2-NSF and concomitant decrease in the NSF-GluR2 interaction results in a decrease of AMPA receptor membrane expression and an increase in the interaction between GluR2 and the p85 and subsequent activation of PI-3K. Disruption of the D2-NSF interaction abolished the ability of D2 receptor to attenuate AMPA-mediated neurotoxicity by blocking the D2 activation-induced changes in PI-3K activity and AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression. Furthermore, the D2-NSF-GluR2-p85 interactions are also responsible for the D2 inhibition of ischemia-induced cell death. These data may provide a new avenue to identify specific targets for therapeutics to modulate glutamate receptor-governed diseases, such as stroke.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;17;4385-95

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase.

    Huynh H, Bottini N, Williams S, Cherepanov V, Musumeci L, Saito K, Bruckner S, Vachon E, Wang X, Kruger J, Chow CW, Pellecchia M, Monosov E, Greer PA, Trimble W, Downey GP and Mustelin T

    Program of Inflammation, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, and Program of Signal Transduction, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP-MEG2 is targeted by its amino-terminal Sec14p homology domain to the membrane of secretory vesicles. There it regulates vesicle size by promoting homotypic vesicle fusion by a mechanism that requires its catalytic activity. Here, we identify N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), a key regulator of vesicle fusion, as a substrate for PTP-MEG2. PTP-MEG2 reduced the phosphotyrosine content of NSF and co-localized with NSF and syntaxin 6 in intact cells. Furthermore, endogenous PTP-MEG2 co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous NSF. Phosphorylation of NSF at Tyr 83, as well as an acidic substitution at the same site, increased its ATPase activity and prevented alphaSNAP binding. Conversely, expression of a Y83F mutant of NSF caused spontaneous fusion events. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanism by which PTP-MEG2 promotes secretory vesicle fusion involves the local release of NSF from a tyrosine-phosphorylated, inactive state. This represents a novel mechanism for localized regulation of NSF and the first demonstrated role for a protein tyrosine phosphatase in the regulated secretory pathway.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 13465; NCI NIH HHS: CA96949; NIA NIH HHS: AG00252; NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603, AI48032, AI53585, AI55741

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;9;831-9

  • Novel haplotypes in 17q21 are associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Pastor P, Ezquerra M, Perez JC, Chakraverty S, Norton J, Racette BA, McKeel D, Perlmutter JS, Tolosa E and Goate AM

    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are sporadic neurodegenerative diseases presenting as atypical parkinsonian disorders, characterized by the presence of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles. Recently, an extended haplotype (H1E) of 787.6 kb that comprises several genes including MAPT showed increased association with PSP. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the H1E haplotype associated with PSP and CBD in different populations and to identify specific subhaplotypes in the background of H1E haplotype. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q21 region were genotyped in two case-control samples. The SNPs that were associated with higher risk for the disease in the homozygous state delimit a region of more that 1 Mb. Haplotype analyses in the Spanish sample showed that the most frequent haplotype found among the patients (H1E'), which extends 1.04 Mb and contains several genes such as MAPT, CRHR1, IMP5, Saitohin, WTN3, and NSF. A specific subhaplotype (H1E'A) was present in 16% of PSP patients but was not observed in the controls. Furthermore, the H2E'A haplotype, was rarely present in the disease group suggesting that it plays a protective role. The identification of these specific subhaplotypes that modify risk for PSP/CBD supports the hypothesis that a pathogenic allele exists in a subgroup of PSP patients.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG03991, AG05681

    Annals of neurology 2004;56;2;249-58

  • Ca2+ and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor differentially regulate disassembly of SNARE complexes on early endosomes.

    Yan Q, Sun W, McNew JA, Vida TA and Bean AJ

    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    The endosome-associated protein Hrs inhibits the homotypic fusion of early endosomes. A helical region of Hrs containing a Q-SNARE motif mediates this effect as well as its endosomal membrane association via SNAP-25, an endosomal receptor for Hrs. Hrs inhibits formation of an early endosomal SNARE complex by displacing VAMP-2 from the complex, suggesting a mechanism by which Hrs inhibits early endosome fusion. We examined the regulation of endosomal SNARE complexes to probe how Hrs may function as a negative regulator. We show that although NSF dissociates the VAMP-2.SNAP-25.syntaxin 13 complex, it has no effect on the Hrs-containing complex. Whereas Ca(2+) dissociates the Hrs-containing complex but not the VAMP-2-containing SNARE complex. This is the first demonstration of differential regulation of R/Q-SNARE and all Q-SNARE-containing SNARE complexes. Ca(2+) also reverses the Hrs-induced inhibition of early endosome fusion in a tetanus toxin-sensitive manner and removes Hrs from early endosomal membranes. Moreover, Hrs inhibition of endosome fusion and its endosomal localization are sensitive to bafilomycin, implying a role for luminal Ca(2+). Thus, Hrs may bind a SNARE protein on early endosomal membranes negatively regulating trans-SNARE pairing and endosomal fusion. The release of Ca(2+) from the endosome lumen dissociates Hrs, allowing a VAMP-2-containing complex to form enabling fusion.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH58920

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;18;18270-6

  • Mast cell degranulation requires N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-mediated SNARE disassembly.

    Puri N, Kruhlak MJ, Whiteheart SW and Roche PA

    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Mast cells possess specialized granules that, upon stimulation of surface FcR with IgE, fuse with the plasma membrane, thereby releasing inflammatory mediators. A family of membrane fusion proteins called SNAREs, which are present on both the granule and the plasma membrane, plays a role in the fusion of these granules with the plasma membrane of mast cells. In addition to the SNAREs themselves, it is likely that the SNARE accessory protein, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), affects the composition and structure of the SNARE complex. NSF is a cytoplasmic ATPase that disassembles the SNARE complexes. To investigate the role of NSF in mast cell degranulation, we developed an assay to measure secretion from transiently transfected RBL (rat basophilic leukemia)-2H3 mast cells (a tumor analog of mucosal mast cells). RBL-2H3 cells were cotransfected with a plasmid encoding a human growth hormone secretion reporter along with either wild-type NSF or an NSF mutant that lacks ATPase activity. Human growth hormone was targeted to and released from secretory granules in RBL-2H3 cells, and coexpression with mutant NSF dramatically inhibited regulated exocytosis from the transfected cells. Biochemical analysis of SNARE complexes in these cells revealed that overexpression of the NSF mutant decreased disassembly and resulted in an accumulation of SNARE complexes. These data reveal a role for NSF in mast cell exocytosis and highlight the importance of SNARE disassembly, or priming, in regulated exocytosis from mast cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56652

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;171;10;5345-52

  • Nitric oxide regulates exocytosis by S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

    Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Cambien B, Yang SX, Yamakuchi M, Bao C, Hara MR, Quick RA, Cao W, O'Rourke B, Lowenstein JM, Pevsner J, Wagner DD and Lowenstein CJ

    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular inflammation, but the molecular basis for its anti-inflammatory properties is unknown. We show that NO inhibits exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, endothelial granules that mediate vascular inflammation and thrombosis, by regulating the activity of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). NO inhibits NSF disassembly of soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes by nitrosylating critical cysteine residues of NSF. NO may regulate exocytosis in a variety of physiological processes, including vascular inflammation, neurotransmission, thrombosis, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell killing.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR07002, T32 RR007002; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074945, K08 HL074945, P01 HL056091, P01 HL056091-100003, P01 HL065608, P01 HL065608-050003, P01 HL56091, P01 HL65608, R01 HL063706, R01 HL074061, R01 HL074061-04, R01 HL078635, R01 HL078635-04, R01 HL63706-04, R37 HL041002, R37 HL41002

    Cell 2003;115;2;139-50

  • Mapping of functional domains of gamma-SNAP.

    Tani K, Shibata M, Kawase K, Kawashima H, Hatsuzawa K, Nagahama M and Tagaya M

    School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

    gamma-Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (gamma-SNAP) is capable of stabilizing a 20 S complex consisting of NSF, alpha-SNAP, and SNAP receptors (SNAREs), but its function in vesicular transport is not fully understood. Our two-hybrid analysis revealed that gamma-SNAP, unlike alpha-SNAP, interacts directly with NSF, as well as Gaf-1/Rip11, but not with SNAREs. Gaf-1/Rip11 is a gamma-SNAP-associated factor that belongs to the Rab11-interacting protein family. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the interactions of gamma-SNAP with NSF and Gaf-1/Rip11, we determined the regions of the three proteins involved in protein-protein interactions. gamma-SNAP bound to NSF via its extreme C-terminal region, and the full-length NSF was needed to interact with gamma-SNAP. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of gamma-SNAP were required for the binding to Gaf-1/Rip11. Gaf-1/Rip11 bound to gamma-SNAP via its C-terminal domain comprising a putative coiled-coil region. Although the C-terminal domain of Gaf-1/Rip11 also interacts with Rab11, the binding of gamma-SNAP and Rab11 to Gaf-1/Rip11 was not mutually exclusive. Rather, Gaf-1/Rip11 was capable of serving a link between gamma-SNAP and Rab11. A complex comprising gamma-SNAP and Gaf-1/Rip11 was disassembled in a process coupled to NSF-mediated ATP hydrolysis, suggesting that the interaction between gamma-SNAP and Gaf-1/Rip11 is of functional significance.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;13531-8

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptors by enhancing the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor/GluR2 interaction in developing neocortical neurons.

    Narisawa-Saito M, Iwakura Y, Kawamura M, Araki K, Kozaki S, Takei N and Nawa H

    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan.

    In hippocampal neurons, the exocytotic process of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors is known to depend on activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate channels and its resultant Ca(2+) influx from extracellular spaces. Here we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induced a rapid surface translocation of AMPA receptors in an activity-independent manner in developing neocortical neurons. The receptor translocation became evident within hours as monitored by [(3)H]AMPA binding and was resistant against ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists as evidenced with surface biotinylation assay. This process required intracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by the blockers of conventional exocytosis, brefeldin A, botulinum toxin B, and N-ethylmaleimide. To explore the translocation mechanism of individual AMPA receptor subunits, we utilized the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells carrying the BDNF receptor TrkB. After the single transfection of GluR2 cDNA or GluR1 cDNA into HEK/TrkB cells, BDNF triggered the translocation of GluR2 but not that of GluR1. Subsequent mutation analysis of GluR2 carboxyl-terminal region indicated that the translocation of GluR2 subunit in HEK293 cells involved its N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-binding domain but not its PDZ-interacting site. Following co-transfection of GluR1 and GluR2 cDNAs, solid phase cell sorting revealed that GluR1 subunits were also able to translocate to the cell surface in response to BDNF. An immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that BDNF stimulation can enhance the interaction of GluR2 with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. These results reveal a novel role of BDNF in regulating the surface expression of AMPA receptors through a GluR2-NSF interaction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40901-10

  • Differential roles for NSF and GRIP/ABP in AMPA receptor cycling.

    Braithwaite SP, Xia H and Malenka RC

    Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304-5485, USA.

    alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) stability and movement at synapses are important factors controlling synaptic strength. Here, we study the roles of proteins [N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), glutamate receptor AMPAR binding protein (ABP)-interacting protein (GRIP)/(ABP), and protein interacting with C-kinase-1 (PICK1) that interact with the GluR2 subunit in the control of the surface expression and cycling of AMPARs. Epitope-tagged GluR2 formed functional receptors that exhibited targeting to synaptic sites. Constructs in which binding to NSF, PDZ proteins (GRIP/ABP and PICK1), or GRIP/ABP alone was eliminated each exhibited normal surface targeting and constitutive cycling. The lack of NSF binding, however, resulted in receptors that were endocytosed to a greater extent than wild-type receptors in response to application of AMPA or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). Conversely, the behavior of the GluR2 mutants incapable of binding to GRIP/ABP suggests that these PDZ proteins play a role in the stabilization of an intracellular pool of AMPARs that have been internalized on stimulation, thus inhibiting their recycling to the synaptic membrane. These results provide further evidence for distinct functional roles of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;10;7096-101

  • VAP-A binds promiscuously to both v- and tSNAREs.

    Weir ML, Xie H, Klip A and Trimble WS

    Programme in Cell Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada.

    Proteins that bind to SNAREs may regulate their function. One such protein, VAP-33, was first discovered in Aplysia californica and has two mammalian homologues, VAP-A and VAP-B. VAP-A has been implicated in vesicle targeting to the plasma membrane based on its location in polarized cells and its ability to bind VAMP in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that VAP-A is a widely expressed resident of the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment in COS-7 cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that VAMP-binding and VAP-dimerization require both the N- and C-terminal domains of VAP-A and also that VAP-A binds to a wide range of SNAREs and fusion-related proteins including syntaxin 1A, rbet1, rsec22, alphaSNAP, and NSF. Together, these results suggest that VAP-A is not a regulator of a specific VAMP, but rather may play a more general role in SNARE-mediated vesicle traffic between the ER and Golgi in nonpolarized cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;286;3;616-21

  • The subcellular distribution of GABARAP and its ability to interact with NSF suggest a role for this protein in the intracellular transport of GABA(A) receptors.

    Kittler JT, Rostaing P, Schiavo G, Fritschy JM, Olsen R, Triller A and Moss SJ

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, University College London (UCL), London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    GABA(A) receptors the major sites of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain are composed predominately of alpha, beta, and gamma2 subunits. The receptor gamma2 subunit interacts with a 17-kDa microtubule associated protein GABARAP, but the significance of this interaction remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that GABARAP, which immunoprecipitates with GABA(A) receptors, is not found at significant levels within inhibitory synapses, but is enriched within the Golgi apparatus and postsynaptic cisternae. We also demonstrate that GABARAP binds directly to N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), a protein critical for intracellular membrane trafficking events. NSF and GABARAP complexes could be detected in neurons and these two proteins also colocalize within intracellular membrane compartments. Together our observations suggest that GABARAP may play a role in intracellular GABA(A) receptor transport but not synaptic anchoring, via its ability to interact with NSF. GABARAP may therefore have an important role in the production of GABAergic synapses.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2001;18;1;13-25

  • A quantitative study on the expression of synapsin II and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein in schizophrenic patients.

    Imai C, Sugai T, Iritani S, Niizato K, Nakamura R, Makifuchi T, Kakita A, Takahashi H and Nawa H

    Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 951-8585, Niigata, Japan.

    The application of DNA array technology to schizophrenic studies enabled us to assess molecular features of this disease. The expression of synapsin II and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) mRNAs is reported to decrease in the prefrontal cortex of these patients. We attempted to reproduce this result with two distinct approaches. With high quality samples, mRNA and protein levels for synapsin II and NSF were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunoblotting. Both experiments led to the same conclusion: The expression of these presynaptic markers is not altered significantly in the prefrontal cortex of our schizophrenic samples, compared to that in control subjects. These observations suggest that the neurochemical impairments of synapses reported in schizophrenia are not evident for all presynaptic markers and needs to be re-evaluated at molecular levels.

    Neuroscience letters 2001;305;3;185-8

  • CD28 stimulation regulates its association with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein and other proteins involved in vesicle sorting.

    Heller M, Watts JD and Aebersold R

    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

    CD28 delivers a co-stimulatory signal for T cell antigen receptor induced activation of T cells through a mechanism which remains mostly elusive to date. In order to try and gain insight into CD28 function, we therefore applied state-of-the-art mass spectrometric protein identification technology to the analysis of CD28 immunoprecipitates prepared from Jurkat T cells. We found that N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and other proteins with sequence similarities to proteins part of or implicated in vesicular protein sorting pathways, were associated with CD28 in a CD28 stimulation-dependent manner. Furthermore, N-ethylmaleimide treatment abolished the NSF/CD28 interaction completely, and blocked CD28 association with a tyrosine phosphorylated 103 kDa protein in the activated cells. These results are suggestive of a potential model for CD28 co-stimulation regulated by an NSF-catalyzed mechanism.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: R01 A1 41109-01

    Proteomics 2001;1;1;70-8

  • Calcium-triggered acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa requires the coordinated activation of Rab3A and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

    Michaut M, Tomes CN, De Blas G, Yunes R and Mayorga LS

    Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia (IHEM-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina.

    The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent, regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. However, very little is known about the molecules that mediate and regulate this unique fusion process. Here, we show that N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), a protein essential for most fusion events, is present in the acrosome of several mammalian spermatozoa. Moreover, we demonstrate that calcium-dependent exocytosis of permeabilized sperm requires active NSF. Previously, we have shown that the addition of the active (GTP-bound) form of the small GTPase Rab3A triggers exocytosis in permeabilized spermatozoa. In the present report we show that Rab3A is necessary for calcium-dependent exocytosis. The activation of Rab3A protects NSF from N-ethylmaleimide inhibition and precludes the exchange of the endogenous protein with recombinant dominant negative mutants of NSF. Furthermore, Rab3A activation of acrosomal exocytosis requires active NSF. Our results suggest that, upon calcium stimulation, Rab3A switches to its active GTP-bound form, triggering the formation of a protein complex in which NSF is protected. This process is suggested to be an essential part of the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion leading to the release of the acrosomal contents.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;18;9996-10001

  • Rab1 recruitment of p115 into a cis-SNARE complex: programming budding COPII vesicles for fusion.

    Allan BB, Moyer BD and Balch WE

    Departments of Cell and Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The guanosine triphosphatase Rab1 regulates the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus through interaction with effector molecules, but the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Here, the tethering factor p115 was shown to be a Rab1 effector that binds directly to activated Rab1. Rab1 recruited p115 to coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles during budding from the endoplasmic reticulum, where it interacted with a select set of COPII vesicle-associated SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) to form a cis-SNARE complex that promotes targeting to the Golgi apparatus. We propose that Rab1-regulated assembly of functional effector-SNARE complexes defines a conserved molecular mechanism to coordinate recognition between subcellular compartments.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 33301, GM42336

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;289;5478;444-8

  • GATE-16, a membrane transport modulator, interacts with NSF and the Golgi v-SNARE GOS-28.

    Sagiv Y, Legesse-Miller A, Porat A and Elazar Z

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 Israel.

    Membrane proteins located on vesicles (v-SNAREs) and on the target membrane (t-SNAREs) mediate specific recognition and, possibly, fusion between a transport vesicle and its target membrane. The activity of SNARE molecules is regulated by several soluble cytosolic proteins. We have cloned a bovine brain cDNA encoding a conserved 117 amino acid polypeptide, denoted Golgi-associated ATPase Enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE-16), that functions as a soluble transport factor. GATE-16 interacts with N-ethylmaleimidesensitive factor (NSF) and significantly stimulates its ATPase activity. It also interacts with the Golgi v-SNARE GOS-28 in an NSF-dependent manner. We propose that GATE-16 modulates intra-Golgi transport through coupling between NSF activity and SNAREs activation.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;7;1494-504

  • Preferential association of syntaxin 8 with the early endosome.

    Subramaniam VN, Loh E, Horstmann H, Habermann A, Xu Y, Coe J, Griffiths G and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 117609, Singapore.

    Members of the syntaxin family play a fundamental role in vesicle docking and fusion of diverse transport events. We have molecularly characterized syntaxin 8, a novel member of the syntaxin family. The nucleotide sequence of cloned rat cDNA predicts a polypeptide of 236 residues with a carboxyl-terminal 18-residue hydrophobic domain that may function as a membrane anchor. Characteristic of syntaxins, syntaxin 8 also contain regions that have the potential to form coiled-coil structures. Among the known syntaxins, syntaxin 8 is most homologous to syntaxin 6 which is predominantly associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The syntaxin 8 transcript is detected in all rat tissues examined by northern blot. Antibodies against recombinant syntaxin 8 recognize a 27 kDa protein that is enriched in membrane fractions containing the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Syntaxin 8 in membrane extract could be incorporated into a 20S protein complex in a way that is dependent on the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment protein ((alpha)-SNAP), suggesting that syntaxin 8 is indeed a SNAP receptor (SNARE). Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the majority of syntaxin 8 is localized to the early endosome marked by Rab5. This is corroborated by immunogold labeling experiments showing enrichment of syntaxin 8 in the early endosome and its co-labeling with Rab5.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 6);997-1008

  • Oligomeric complexes link Rab5 effectors with NSF and drive membrane fusion via interactions between EEA1 and syntaxin 13.

    McBride HM, Rybin V, Murphy C, Giner A, Teasdale R and Zerial M

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.

    SNAREs and Rab GTPases cooperate in vesicle transport through a mechanism yet poorly understood. We now demonstrate that the Rab5 effectors EEA1 and Rabaptin-5/Rabex-5 exist on the membrane in high molecular weight oligomers, which also contain NSF. Oligomeric assembly is modulated by the ATPase activity of NSF. Syntaxin 13, the t-SNARE required for endosome fusion, is transiently incorporated into the large oligomers via direct interactions with EEA1. This interaction is required to drive fusion, since both dominant-negative EEA1 and synthetic peptides encoding the FYVE Zn2+ finger hinder the interaction and block fusion. We propose a novel mechanism whereby oligomeric EEA1 and NSF mediate the local activation of syntaxin 13 upon membrane tethering and, by analogy with viral fusion proteins, coordinate the assembly of a fusion pore.

    Cell 1999;98;3;377-86

  • Identification of NSF as a beta-arrestin1-binding protein. Implications for beta2-adrenergic receptor regulation.

    McDonald PH, Cote NL, Lin FT, Premont RT, Pitcher JA and Lefkowitz RJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that beta-arrestin1 serves to target G protein-coupled receptors for internalization via clathrin-coated pits and that its endocytic function is regulated by dephosphorylation at the plasma membrane. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel beta-arrestin1-binding protein, NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein), an ATPase essential for many intracellular transport reactions. We demonstrate that purified recombinant beta-arrestin1 and NSF interact in vitro and that these proteins can be coimmunoprecipitated from cells. beta-Arrestin1-NSF complex formation exhibits a conformational dependence with beta-arrestin1 preferentially interacting with the ATP bound form of NSF. In contrast to the beta-arrestin1-clathrin interaction, however, the phosphorylation state of beta-arrestin1 does not affect NSF binding. Functionally, overexpression of NSF in HEK 293 cells significantly enhances agonist-mediated beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) internalization. Furthermore, when coexpressed with a beta-arrestin1 mutant (betaarr1S412D) that mimics a constitutively phosphorylated form of beta-arrestin1 and that acts as a dominant negative with regards to beta2-AR internalization, NSF rescues the betaarr1S412D-mediated inhibition of beta2-AR internalization. The demonstration of beta-arrestin1-NSF complex formation and the functional consequences of NSF overexpression suggest a hitherto unappreciated role for NSF in facilitating clathrin coat-mediated G protein-coupled receptor internalization.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL16037

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;16;10677-80

  • The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs.

    Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, Vilim FS, Khatri L, Lee LM, States BA, Einheber S, Milner TA, Hanson PI and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and beta-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), as well as dendritic colocalization of these proteins. The assembly of the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is ATP hydrolysis reversible and resembles the binding of NSF and SNAP with the SNAP receptor (SNARE) membrane fusion apparatus. We provide evidence that the molar ratio of NSF to SNAP in the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is similar to that of the t-SNARE syntaxin-NSF-SNAP complex. NSF is known to disassemble the SNARE protein complex in a chaperone-like interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis. We propose a model in which NSF functions as a chaperone in the molecular processing of the AMPA receptor.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620; NIMH NIH HHS: MH42834

    Neuron 1998;21;1;99-110

  • Stimulation of NSF ATPase activity by alpha-SNAP is required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis.

    Barnard RJ, Morgan A and Burgoyne RD

    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-SNAP play key roles in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway. In this study, NH2- and COOH-terminal truncation mutants of alpha-SNAP were assayed for ability to bind NSF and stimulate its ATPase activity. Deletion of up to 160 NH2-terminal amino acids had little effect on the ability of alpha-SNAP to stimulate the ATPase activity of NSF. However, deletion of as few as 10 COOH-terminal amino acids resulted in a marked decrease. Both NH2-terminal (1-160) and COOH-terminal (160-295) fragments of alpha-SNAP were able to bind to NSF, suggesting that alpha-SNAP contains distinct NH2- and COOH-terminal binding sites for NSF. Sequence alignment of known SNAPs revealed only leucine 294 to be conserved in the final 10 amino acids of alpha-SNAP. Mutation of leucine 294 to alanine (alpha-SNAP(L294A)) resulted in a decrease in the ability to stimulate NSF ATPase activity but had no effect on the ability of this mutant to bind NSF. alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to stimulate Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in permeabilized chromaffin cells. In addition, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were able to inhibit the stimulation of exocytosis by exogenous alpha-SNAP. alpha-SNAP, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were all able to become incorporated into a 20S complex and recruit NSF. In the presence of MgATP, alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to fully disassemble the 20S complex and did not allow vesicle-associated membrane protein dissociation to any greater level than seen in control incubations. These findings imply that alpha-SNAP stimulation of NSF ATPase activity may be required for 20S complex disassembly and for the alpha-SNAP stimulation of exocytosis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;139;4;875-83

  • A SNARE involved in protein transport through the Golgi apparatus.

    Lowe SL, Peter F, Subramaniam VN, Wong SH and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore.

    In eukaryotic cells, the Golgi apparatus receives newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and delivers them after covalent modification to their destination in the cell. These proteins move from the inside (cis) face to the plasma-membrane side (trans) of the Golgi, through a stack of cisternae, towards the trans-Golgi network (TGN), but very little is known about how proteins are moved through the Golgi compartments. In a model known as the maturation model, no special transport process was considered necessary, with protein movement along the Golgi being achieved by maturation of the cisternae. Alternatively, proteins could be transported by vesicles or membrane tubules. Although little is known about membrane-tubule-mediated transport, the molecular mechanism for vesicle-mediated transport is quite well understood, occurring through docking of SNAREs on the vesicle with those on the target membrane. We have now identified a protein of relative molecular mass 27K which is associated with the Golgi apparatus. The cytoplasmic domain of this protein or antibodies raised against it quantitatively inhibit transport in vitro from the ER to the trans-Golgi/TGN, acting at a stage between the cis/medial- and the trans-Golgi/TGN. This protein, which behaves like a SNARE and has been named GS27 (for Golgi SNARE of 27K), is identical to membrin, a protein implicated earlier in ER-to-Golgi transport. Our results suggest that protein movement from medial- to the trans-Golgi/TGN depends on SNARE-mediated vesicular transport.

    Nature 1997;389;6653;881-4

  • N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAP) mediate dissociation of GS28-syntaxin 5 Golgi SNAP receptors (SNARE) complex.

    Subramaniam VN, Loh E and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 15 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119076, Singapore.

    Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) GS28 and syntaxin 5 can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from Golgi extracts, suggesting that they exist in a protein complex. When Golgi extract is preincubated with soluble NSF attachment proteins (alpha-SNAP) and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) under conditions that allow ATP hydrolysis by NSF, GS28 and syntaxin 5 become dissociated. GS28 and syntaxin 5 remain in a protein complex when Golgi extract is preincubated with similar amounts of alpha-SNAP and NSF under conditions that prevent ATP hydrolysis by NSF, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis by NSF is necessary for dissociating the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex. Since preincubation of Golgi extract with either alpha-SNAP or NSF alone has no effect on the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex, a concerted action of alpha-SNAP and NSF therefore mediates the dissociation of the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex. Furthermore, GS28 but not syntaxin 5 is capable of binding to immobilized alpha-SNAP when the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex is dissociated.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;41;25441-4

  • NVL: a new member of the AAA family of ATPases localized to the nucleus.

    Germain-Lee EL, Obie C and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    We report the cloning of NVL, a newly recognized human gene that encodes an approximately 110-kDa nuclear protein designated NVLp (nuclear VCP-like protein), which is a member of a rapidly growing family of ATP-binding proteins recently denoted the AAA family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) (W. H. Kunau et al., 1993, Biochimie 75:209-224). NVL was isolated by degenerate PCR using oligonucleotides corresponding to the yeast PEX1 gene, which is necessary for peroxisomal biogenesis. Two cDNAs, designated NVL.1 and NVL.2, may represent alternatively spliced forms of a single gene that maps to chromosome 1q41-q42.2. NVL has greatest similarity to the VCP subfamily of AAA proteins, is widely expressed, and encodes a nuclear protein with two highly similar ATP-binding domains. We speculate that NVLp is involved in an ATP-dependent nuclear process.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD00989, HD10981

    Genomics 1997;44;1;22-34

  • Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.

    Timmers KI, Clark AE, Omatsu-Kanbe M, Whiteheart SW, Bennett MK, Holman GD and Cushman SW

    Experimental Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The vesicle-associated membrane proteins [VAMPs; vesicle SNAP receptors (v-SNAREs)] present on GLUT4-enriched vesicles prepared from rat adipose cells [Cain, Trimble and Lienhard (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11681-11684] have been identified as synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP 2) and cellubrevin (VAMP 3) by using isoform-specific antisera. Additional antisera identify syntaxins 2 and 4 as the predominant target membrane SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs) in the plasma membranes (PM), with syntaxin 3 at one-twentieth the level. Syntaxins 2 and 4 are enriched 5-10-fold in PM compared with low-density microsomes (LDM). Insulin treatment results in an 11-fold increase in immunodetectable GLUT4 in PM and smaller (approx. 2-fold) increases in VAMP 2 and VAMP 3, whereas the subcellular distributions of the syntaxins are not altered by insulin treatment. To determine which of the SNAP receptors (SNAREs) in PM might participate in SNARE complexes with proteins from GLUT4 vesicles, complexes were immunoprecipitated with anti-myc antibody from solubilized membranes after the addition of myc-epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and recombinant alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP). These complexes contain VAMPs 2 and 3 and syntaxin 4, but not syntaxins 2 or 3. Complex formation requires ATP and is disrupted by ATP hydrolysis. When all membrane fractions are prepared from basal cells, few or no VAMPs and no syntaxin 4 are immunoprecipitated in SNARE complexes obtained from LDM alone (or from immunoisolated GLUT4 vesicles). The content of syntaxin 4 depends on the presence of PM, and participation of VAMPs 2 and 3 is enhanced 4-6-fold by the addition of solubilized GLUT4 vesicles to PM. The latter increase is greater than can be explained by the 2-fold higher levels of VAMPs added to the reaction mixture. When all membrane fractions are prepared from insulin-stimulated cells, SNARE complexes formed from PM alone contain similar levels of syntaxin 4 but 5-6-fold higher levels of VAMPs 2 and 3 compared with PM alone from basal cells. Addition of GLUT4 vesicle proteins to PM from insulin-treated cells results in a further 2-fold increase in VAMP 2 recovered in SNARE complexes. Therefore the VAMPs in PM of insulin-treated but not basal cells, and in GLUT4-vesicles from cells in either condition, are in a form that readily forms a SNARE complex with PM t-SNAREs and NSF. Insulin seems to activate PM and/or GLUT4 vesicles so as to increase the efficiency of SNARE complex formation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL056652

    The Biochemical journal 1996;320 ( Pt 2);429-36

  • Molecular components of the exocytotic machinery in the rat pituitary gland.

    Jacobsson G and Meister B

    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Several protein components that are essential for exocytotic membrane fusion in neurons have recently been identified. The expression and cellular localization of such protein components were examined in the rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization using isoform-specific oligonucleotide probes to different exocytotic protein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) showed strong hybridization signal for synaptotagmin I, cysteine string protein (CSP), VAMP-2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein), cellubrevin, munc-18 (mammalian homologue of unc-18), SNAP-25a (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), syntaxin 1A, syntaxin 4, syntaxin 5, and alpha-SNAP (soluble NSF attachment protein) in the anterior and intermediate, but not in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Moderate to weak hybridization signal was detected for synaptotagmin III, SNAP-25b, and syntaxin 2 mRNA in the anterior and intermediate, but not in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Synaptotagmin II, VAMP-1, syntaxin 1B, or syntaxin 3 mRNA expression could not be detected in any part of the pituitary gland. Immunofluorescence histochemistry in combination with confocal laser microscopy revealed that synaptotagmin-, VAMP-, CSP-, NSF-, and alpha-SNAP-like immunoreactivities (-LI) were present in granules of cells in the anterior and intermediate lobe, whereas SNAP-25- and syntaxin-LI were primarily located to the plasma membrane. Synaptotagmin-, VAMP-, CSP-, NSF-, alpha-SNAP-, SNAP-25- and syntaxin-LI were all present in nerve fibers of the posterior lobe. Within cells of the anterior lobe, colocalization could be demonstrated for synaptotagmin I/II- and synaptotagmin III-LI with ACTH-, GH-, PRL- and TSH-, but not FSH- or LH-LI, whereas VAMP, CSP-, NSF-, alpha-SNAP-, SNAP-25- and syntaxin-LI were demonstrated in all hormone-containing cell types of the anterior pituitary. The results show the presence of several protein components and their isoform-specific mRNAs in the rat pituitary gland, suggesting that these proteins, similar to their roles in regulation of synaptic neurotransmitter release, may participate in exocytotic events in endocrine pituitary cells and in neurosecretory nerve endings of the neurohypophysis.

    Endocrinology 1996;137;12;5344-56

  • Localization of human and mouse N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) gene: a two-domain member of the AAA family that is involved in membrane fusion.

    Hoyle J, Phelan JP, Bermingham N and Fisher EM

    Neurogenetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Imperial College of Medicine at St. Mary's, London, UK.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;11;850-2

  • A v-SNARE implicated in intra-Golgi transport.

    Nagahama M, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Lacomis L, Tempst P, Rothman JE and Söllner TH

    Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021, USA.

    We report the identification of a putative v-SNARE (GOS-28), localized primarily to transport vesicles at the terminal rims of Golgi stacks. In vitro, GOS-28, A Golgi SNARE of 28 kD, is efficiently packaged into Golgi-derived vesicles, which are most likely COPI coated. Antibodies directed against GOS-28 block its ability to bind alpha-SNAP, partially inhibit transport from the cis to the medial cisternae, and do not inhibit budding of COP-coated vesicles, but do accumulate docked uncoated vesicles.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5 P30 CA08748-29

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;133;3;507-16

  • The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein and alpha-SNAP induce a conformational change in syntaxin.

    Hanson PI, Otto H, Barton N and Jahn R

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) plays an essential role in intracellular membrane fusion events and has been implicated in the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. NSF binds through soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) to a complex of neuronal membrane proteins comprised of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25. Disassembly of this complex by NSF is thought to be a critical step in the molecular events which lead to vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Here we have studied the interaction of alpha-SNAP and NSF with individual components of this complex and have identified syntaxin as a primary substrate for NSF/alpha-SNAP. We find that alpha-SNAP binds directly to syntaxin 1A as well as weakly to SNAP-25, while it does not bind to synaptobrevin II. NSF binds to syntaxin through alpha-SNAP and in the presence of ATP catalyzes a conformational rearrangement which abolishes binding of itself and alpha-SNAP. This reaction leads to the previously described disassembly of the fusion complex, since synaptobrevin binding to syntaxin is also reduced. alpha-SNAP binds to a carboxyl-terminal syntaxin fragment (residues 194-288) that also binds synaptobrevin and SNAP-25. However, NSF action on this syntaxin fragment has no effect on the binding of alpha-SNAP or synaptobrevin. This suggests that the conformational change normally induced by NSF in syntaxin depends on an interaction between carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains of syntaxin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;28;16955-61

  • N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein: a trimeric ATPase whose hydrolysis of ATP is required for membrane fusion.

    Whiteheart SW, Rossnagel K, Buhrow SA, Brunner M, Jaenicke R and Rothman JE

    Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021.

    The NEM-sensitive fusion protein, NSF, together with SNAPs (soluble NSF attachment proteins) and the SNAREs (SNAP receptors), is thought to be generally used for the fusion of transport vesicles to their target membranes. NSF is a homotrimer whose polypeptide subunits are made up of three distinct domains: an amino-terminal domain (N) and two homologous ATP-binding domains (D1 and D2). Mutants of NSF were produced in which either the order or composition of the three domains were altered. These mutants could not support intra-Golgi transport, but they indicated that the D2 domain was required for trimerization of the NSF subunits. Mutations of the first ATP-binding site that affected either the binding (K266A) or hydrolysis (E329Q) of ATP completely eliminated NSF activity. The hydrolysis mutant was an effective, reversible inhibitor of Golgi transport with an IC50 of 125 ng/50 microliters assay. Mutants in the second ATP-binding site (binding, K549A; hydrolysis, D604Q) had either 14 or 42% the specific activity of the wild-type protein, respectively. Using coexpression of an inactive mutant with wild-type subunits, it was possible to produce a recombinant form of trimeric NSF that contained a mixture of subunits. The mixed NSF trimers were inactive, even when only one mutant subunit was present, suggesting that NSF action requires each of the three subunits in a concerted mechanism. These studies demonstrate that the ability of the D1 domain to hydrolyze ATP is required for NSF activity and, therefore is required for membrane fusion. The D2 domain is required for trimerization, but its ability to hydrolyze ATP is not absolutely required for NSF function.

    The Journal of cell biology 1994;126;4;945-54

  • The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is preferentially expressed in the nervous system.

    Püschel AW, O'Connor V and Betz H

    Abteilung Neurochemie, Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

    NSF and SNAPs (soluble NSF attachment proteins), originally identified as cytosolic components of intracellular vesicular transport mechanisms, have recently been implicated in Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release from synaptic terminals. Here, we have investigated the temporal and spatial expression pattern of the rodent NSF and SNAP genes. A single transcript of 4.5 kb is highly expressed in rat brain, whereas only minor amounts of NSF mRNA are found in liver, kidney, heart, lung and skeletal muscle. In situ hybridisation revealed NSF transcripts as early as embryonic day 10 preferentially in the nervous system of mouse embryos. In the adult brain NSF is widely expressed with particularly high levels in the hippocampus. An identical expression profile was observed for alpha/beta-SNAP. Our data are consistent with a central function of NSF and SNAPs in neurotransmission.

    FEBS letters 1994;347;1;55-8

  • A multisubunit particle implicated in membrane fusion.

    Wilson DW, Whiteheart SW, Wiedmann M, Brunner M and Rothman JE

    Program in Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics, Rockefeller Research Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York 10021.

    The N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is required for fusion of lipid bilayers at many locations within eukaryotic cells. Binding of NSF to Golgi membranes is known to require an integral membrane receptor and one or more members of a family of related soluble NSF attachment proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-SNAPs). Here we demonstrate the direct interaction of NSF, SNAPs and an integral membrane component in a detergent solubilized system. We show that NSF only binds to SNAPs in the presence of the integral receptor, resulting in the formation of a multisubunit protein complex with a sedimentation coefficient of 20S. Particle assembly reveals striking differences between members of the SNAP protein family; gamma-SNAP associates with the complex via a binding site distinct from that used by alpha- and beta-SNAPs, which are themselves equivalent, alternative subunits of the particle. Once formed, the 20S particle is subsequently able to disassemble in a process coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP. We suggest how cycles of complex assembly and disassembly could help confer specificity to the generalized NSF-dependent fusion apparatus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK27044

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;117;3;531-8

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000039 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H8 Human orthologues of cluster 8 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 3
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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