G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001901
Gene symbol
MAG (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
myelin associated glycoprotein
Orthologue
G00000652 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071399 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000105695 (Ensembl human gene)
4099 (Entrez Gene)
1067 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MAG (GeneCards)
Literature
159460 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6783 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P20916 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • S-MAG
  • SIGLEC-4A
  • SIGLEC4A

Literature (42)

Pubmed - other

  • Detection of anti-MAG antibodies in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    Kuijf ML, Eurelings M, Tio-Gillen AP, van Doorn PA, van den Berg LH, Hooijkaas H, Stork J, Notermans NC and Jacobs BC

    Erasmus MC, s'-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. m.kuijf@erasmusmc.nl

    Background: Detection of serum antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) by Western blot (WB) is a valuable assay to diagnose a distinct type of demyelinating polyneuropathy with immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of a new and more practical ELISA to detect these antibodies was validated.

    Methods: Routine WBs from 2 independent laboratories and ELISA were used to detect anti-MAG IgM in serum from 207 patients with neuropathy and controls. The sensitivity and specificity of these assays were compared and related to the patient clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics.

    Results: In ELISA, anti-MAG antibodies were found in serum from 49 (72%) of 68 patients with demyelinating polyneuropathy and IgM monoclonal gammopathy. However, in this subgroup of patients, only 30 (44%) and 37 (54%) were positive in the 2 WBs. All of the patients positive in the 2 WBs were also positive in ELISA. A high correlation was found for IgM activity in ELISA to MAG and sulfate-3-glucuronyl paragloboside (SGPG) (Spearman rho = 0.72, p < 0.0001), supporting the notion that the shared sulfated glucuronic acid moiety of MAG and SGPG is preserved. Most patients positive in anti-MAG ELISA had a slowly progressive sensory-motor demyelinating polyneuropathy, even if the WB was negative. In control groups, however, 4 WB-negative patients with a nondemyelinating monoclonal gammopathy-related polyneuropathy were positive in anti-MAG ELISA. The remaining samples were negative in ELISA.

    Conclusion: ELISA is more sensitive than Western blot to diagnose anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein related polyneuropathy, although a positive serology may be found in other forms of polyneuropathy as well.

    Neurology 2009;73;9;688-95

  • Immunoglobulin M deposition in cutaneous nerves of anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein polyneuropathy patients correlates with axonal degeneration.

    Stalder AK, Erne B, Reimann R, Renaud S, Fuhr P, Thomann S, Arnold A, Probst A, Schaeren-Wiemers N and Steck AJ

    Neurobiology, Department of Biomedicine and Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

    Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is an antibody-mediated polyneuropathy. We correlated clinical features, immunoglobulin (Ig) M blood levels, IgM deposition and axonal degeneration in skin biopsies of anti-MAG neuropathy patients. By confocal microscopy, IgM deposits were found exclusively within perineurium-enclosed nerves; they were not found on single, non-perineurium-ensheathed myelinated axons. There was a linear correlation between IgM accumulation in nerve fascicles with IgM blood levels but not with anti-MAG antibody titer or disease duration. Axons with specific IgM deposits had signs of axonal damage, including neurofilament disintegration. Nodal structures were intact even at sites where the axons showed pathologic changes. Ultrastructural analysis revealed degeneration of myelinating Schwann cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that in anti-MAG neuropathy patients, IgM deposits are entrapped within cutaneous perineurium-ensheathed nerve bundles where they accumulate in the endoneurial space. High local IgM levels in the endoneurium may be required for IgM deposition on myelin and subsequent axonal injury and degeneration. This study underlines the importance of early, effective anti-B-cell treatments for preventing progression of this neuropathy.

    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 2009;68;2;148-58

  • Axial myoclonus in paraproteinemic polyneuropathy.

    Vetrugno R, Liguori R, D'Alessandro R, D'Angelo R, Alessandria M and Montagna P

    Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche dell'Università di Bologna, Via Ugo Foscolo 7, 40123 Bologna, Italy. roberto.vetrugno@unibo.it

    We describe a patient with a paraproteinemic anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) antibody polyneuropathy and concomitant axial myoclonic jerks. Neurophysiological investigation revealed that axial jerks were asymmetrical and exaggerated by lying in bed. They disappeared during mental arousal and sleep. Analysis of axial myoclonus showed that the first activated muscle was the left rectus abdominis with subsequent rostral and caudal propagation of a propriospinal type. Plasmapheresis substantially reduced the frequency and intensity of axial myoclonic jerks. In our patient, propriospinal myoclonus was associated with anti-MAG polyneuropathy, but the causal relationship remains unclear.

    Muscle & nerve 2008;38;4;1330-5

  • A family-based association study of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase genes with schizophrenia.

    Voineskos AN, de Luca V, Bulgin NL, van Adrichem Q, Shaikh S, Lang DJ, Honer WG and Kennedy JL

    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    A recent surge of evidence implicating myelin abnormalities in the etiology of schizophrenia has been found. This study is a family-based genetic association analysis examining the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) genes in schizophrenia. About 246 families of primarily European-Caucasian origin were genotyped for MAG rs2301600, rs720308, rs720309, rs756796, and CNP rs2070106 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The FBAT program (v1.7.2) and Transmit were used to analyze individual SNPs and haplotypes, respectively. The CNP SNP (rs2070106) was potentially associated with schizophrenia (P=0.027). MAG variants were not associated with disease transmission based on single marker or haplotype analysis. A significant maternal parent-of-origin effect for the CNP risk allele for schizophrenia was found (P=0.003). No CNP-MAG gene-gene interaction conferred increased risk for schizophrenia. Our finding provides support for potential association of the CNP gene but not the MAG gene in schizophrenia in a Caucasian population.

    Psychiatric genetics 2008;18;3;143-6

  • Antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-Mag) in IgM amyloidosis may influence expression of neuropathy in rare patients.

    Garces-Sanchez M, Dyck PJ, Kyle RA, Zeldenrust S, Wu Y, Ladha SS and Klein CJ

    Peripheral Nerve Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    We have examined whether antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) influence neuropathy occurrence and phenotype in primary (AL IgM) amyloidosis. Anti-MAG and the cross-reacted sulfoglucuronyl paragloboside antibodies (SGPG) were studied in 46 patients with IgM amyloidosis (21 with polyneuropathy), and 21 matched IgM MGUS (monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance) controls without neuropathy. We assessed the occurrence, phenotype of neuropathy, and attributes of nerve conduction and their relation to antibody activity. Twenty of 46 patients with IgM amyloidosis (7 with and 13 without polyneuropathy) had elevation of anti-MAG or SGPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two of the polyneuropathy patients with IgM amyloidosis had antibodies to MAG based on Western blot (WB) positivity. One of these patients, with the highest anti-MAG titer, had a painful sensory ataxia, with prominent demyelination, and amyloid deposition in sural nerve. The other anti-MAG WB-positive amyloid patient had an axonal neuropathy and dysautonomia. Low levels of anti-MAG antibodies were found in 12 of 21 IgM MGUS controls without neuropathy (mean follow-up, 11 years). We conclude that finding serum anti-MAG antibodies does not exclude the diagnosis of primary amyloidosis. They do not appear to affect the occurrence or expression of polyneuropathy, except possibly in occasional cases with WB positivity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 62242; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 36797

    Muscle & nerve 2008;37;4;490-5

  • Expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia.

    Mitkus SN, Hyde TM, Vakkalanka R, Kolachana B, Weinberger DR, Kleinman JE and Lipska BK

    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Section on Neuropathology, DIRP/NIMH/NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1385, USA.

    Prior studies have found decreased mRNA expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which specific genes are affected and whether the changes occur in the cortical white or grey matter. We assessed the mRNA expression levels of four oligodendrocyte-related genes: myelin-associated basic protein (MOBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) and oligodendrocyte-lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) in DLPFC white and grey matter using quantitative-PCR (approximately 70 controls and approximately 30 patients with schizophrenia). We also examined the effects of high-risk polymorphisms in CNP and OLIG2 on mRNA levels of these genes. We found that genetic polymorphisms in CNP (rs2070106) and OLIG2 (rs1059004 and rs9653711), previously associated with schizophrenia, predicted low expression of these genes. Expression of MAG, CNP and OLIG2 did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and controls in the grey or white matter but MOBP mRNA levels were increased in the DLPFC white matter in patients with a history of substance abuse. MOBP and CNP protein in the white matter was not altered. Although previously reported reductions in the expression of myelin-related genes in the DLPFC were not detected, we show that individuals carrying risk-associated alleles in oligodendrocyte-related genes had relatively lower transcript levels. These data illustrate the importance of genetic background in gene expression studies in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 MH002399-18, Z99 MH999999

    Schizophrenia research 2008;98;1-3;129-38

  • A novel function of RING finger protein 10 in transcriptional regulation of the myelin-associated glycoprotein gene and myelin formation in Schwann cells.

    Hoshikawa S, Ogata T, Fujiwara S, Nakamura K and Tanaka S

    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been detected in Schwann cells prior to the onset of myelination, suggesting its functions in the initiation of myelination. However, transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of MAG remain to be elucidated. Here, we analyzed the promoter of the MAG gene by using luciferase reporter systems in the primary rat Schwann cells. We identified a novel cis-acting element located 160 bp upstream from the MAG transcription initiation site. Using the identified cis-element as a bait, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening and isolated a cDNA encoding a RNF10 as a putative trans-acting protein. When overexpressed in Schwann cells, RNF10 enhanced the activity of the MAG promoter. When RNF10 expression in Schwann cells was knocked down by siRNA, endogenous MAG mRNA and protein expression decreased. Furthermore, we evaluated myelin synthesis using Schwann cell-DRG neuron cocultures. When Schwann cells were infected with retrovirus expressing RNF10 siRNA, myelin formation was inhibited. These data suggest that RNF10 regulates MAG expression and is required for myelin formation.

    PloS one 2008;3;10;e3464

  • MUC1 is a counter-receptor for myelin-associated glycoprotein (Siglec-4a) and their interaction contributes to adhesion in pancreatic cancer perineural invasion.

    Swanson BJ, McDermott KM, Singh PK, Eggers JP, Crocker PR and Hollingsworth MA

    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases and the Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6805, USA.

    Perineural invasion in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a common pathologic phenomenon whereby cancer cells invade and intimately contact the endoneurium of pancreatic nerves, is thought to contribute to both pain and local disease recurrence. MUC1, a type I transmembrane mucin that can affect the adhesive properties of cells, contains a large extracellular tandem repeat domain, which is heavily glycosylated in normal epithelia, but is overexpressed and differentially glycosylated in pancreatic cancer. This altered glycosylation includes the shortened core I O-glycans for monosialyl and disialyl T antigens. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a membrane-bound protein expressed on oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, binds myelin to neurons. MAG's preferred ligands are derivatives of the monosialyl and disialyl T antigen. We investigated whether MUC1 is a counter-receptor for MAG and if their interaction contributed to pancreatic perineural invasion. Results showed that MAG binds pancreatic cells expressing MUC1, that this binding is sialidase-sensitive, and that MAG physically associates with MUC1. Heterotypic adhesion assays between pancreatic cancer cells and Schwann cells revealed that increased expression of MUC1 or MAG enhanced adhesion. Conversely, specific inhibition of MAG or sialyl-T MUC1 partially blocked adhesion. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic perineural invasion showed the expression of both MUC1 and MAG. These results support the hypothesis that the adhesive interactions between MUC1 and MAG are of biological significance in pancreatic cancer perineural invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09476, P30CA36727, R01CA57362

    Cancer research 2007;67;21;10222-9

  • Roles of glial p75NTR in axonal regeneration.

    Zhou XF and Li HY

    Department of Human Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. xin-fu.zhou@flinders.edu.au

    The neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) is expressed by both neurons and glia. Nerve injury triggers up-regulation of p75NTR in Schwann cells (SC) but not in central glia. In contrast to neuronal p75NTR, which mediates negative signals from myelin-associated proteins resulting in neurite collapse, glial p75NTR may play a positive role in nerve regeneration by forming neurotrophin chemoattractant gradients or by competitively antagonizing the NOGO/NgR/LINGO-1 signal through cell-cell contact or regulated intramembranous proteolysis (RIP) of p75NTR. This piece presents some recent evidence supporting this hypothesis.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2007;85;8;1601-5

  • Polymorphisms of myelin-associated glycoprotein gene are associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.

    Wan C, Yang Y, Feng G, Gu N, Liu H, Zhu S, He L and Wang L

    Center for Human and Animal Genetics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

    Results of gene expression microarray and quantitative PCR studies have suggested abnormalities in the expression of myelin-related genes including myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in schizophrenic patients. Research provides strong evidence for oligodendrocyte dysfunction in schizophrenics. In order to further assess the role of MAG in schizophrenia, we examined four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely rs2301600, rs3746248, rs720309 and rs720308, of this gene in Chinese schizophrenic patients (n=470) and healthy controls (n=470). The distribution of rs720309 T/A genotypes showed a strong association with schizophrenia (chi(2)=14.58, d.f.=2, P=0.0008). A haplotype constructed of rs720309-rs720308 also revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (chi(2)=11.914, d.f.=3, P=0.0084). Our findings of a significant associations between schizophrenia and the MAG gene suggest that this gene may be involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.

    Neuroscience letters 2005;388;3;126-31

  • Possible association of the MAG locus with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han cohort of family trios.

    Yang YF, Qin W, Shugart YY, He G, Liu XM, Zhou J, Zhao XZ, Chen Q, La YJ, Xu YF, Li XW, Gu NF, Feng GY, Song H, Wang P and He L

    Bio-X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, PR China.

    Neurotransmitter-based hypotheses have so far led to only moderate success in predicting new pathogenetic findings in etiology of schizophrenia. On the other hand, the more recent oligodendroglia hypotheses of this disorder have been supported by an increasing body of evidence. For example, the expression level of the myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene has been shown to be significantly lower in schizophrenia patient groups compared to control groups. Such an effect might be a result of genetic variations of the MAG gene. In order to test this hypothesis, we genotyped four markers within the MAG locus in 413 trios sample of the Han Chinese using allele-specific PCR. None of the four markers revealed noticeable allelic significance. However, the four-marker and two-marker haplotypes covering components rs720309 and rs720308 were observed to be significantly associated with schizophrenia (P < 0.0001) in this study. In addition, we identified one common risk haplotype TA (rs720309-rs720308, present in 78.5% of the general population) that showed increased evidence of overtransmission from parents to affected offspring (P = 0.0001). The results demonstrated MAG might play a role in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Furthermore, our finding of a possible association between the MAG locus and schizophrenia is in agreement with the hypotheses of oligodendrltic and myelination dysfunction.

    Schizophrenia research 2005;75;1;11-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues.

    Schmitt-Ulms G, Hansen K, Liu J, Cowdrey C, Yang J, DeArmond SJ, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB and Baldwin MA

    Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

    Because of their sensitivity to solubilizing detergents, membrane protein assemblies are difficult to study. We describe a protocol that covalently conserves protein interactions through time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking (tcTPC) before disruption of tissue integrity. To validate tcTPC for identifying protein-protein interactions, we established that tcTPC allowed stringent immunoaffinity purification of the gamma-secretase complex in high salt concentrations and detergents and was compatible with mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked aph-1, presenilin-1 and nicastrin. We then applied tcTPC to identify more than 20 proteins residing in the vicinity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), suggesting that PrP is embedded in specialized membrane regions with a subset of molecules that, like PrP, use a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor for membrane attachment. Many of these proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion/neuritic outgrowth, and harbor immunoglobulin C2 and fibronectin type III-like motifs.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: NCRR RR01614; NIA NIH HHS: AG010770, AG02132

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;724-31

  • The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.

    Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM and Lucas SM

    Stanford Human Genome Center, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 975 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. jane@shgc.stanford.edu

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

    Nature 2004;428;6982;529-35

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Myelin-associated inhibitors of axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS.

    Filbin MT

    Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA. Filbin@genectr.hunter.cuny.edu

    Nature reviews. Neuroscience 2003;4;9;703-13

  • The p75 receptor acts as a displacement factor that releases Rho from Rho-GDI.

    Yamashita T and Tohyama M

    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    The neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) is involved in the regulation of axonal elongation by neurotrophins as well as several myelin components, including Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (OMgp). Neurotrophins stimulate neurite outgrowth by inhibiting Rho activity, whereas myelin-derived proteins activate RhoA and thereby inhibit growth. Here we show that direct interaction of the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI) with p75(NTR) initiates the activation of RhoA, and this interaction between p75(NTR) and Rho-GDI is strengthened by MAG or Nogo. We also found that p75(NTR) facilitates the release of prenylated RhoA from Rho-GDI. The peptide ligand that is associated with the fifth alpha helix of p75(NTR) inhibits the interaction between Rho-GDI and p75(NTR), thus silencing the action mediated by p75(NTR). This peptide has potential as a therapeutic agent against the inhibitory cues that block regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Nature neuroscience 2003;6;5;461-7

  • The immunoglobulin-superfamily molecule basigin is a binding protein for oligomannosidic carbohydrates: an anti-idiotypic approach.

    Heller M, von der Ohe M, Kleene R, Mohajeri MH and Schachner M

    Department of Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.

    Recognition molecules that carry carbohydrate structures regulate cell interactions during development and play important roles in synaptic plasticity and regeneration in the adult. Glycans appear to be involved in these interactions. We have searched for binding proteins for oligomannosidic structures using the L3 antibody directed against high mannose-type glycans in an anti-idiotypic approach. A selected monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody was used for affinity chromatography and identified basigin as a binding protein from mouse brain detergent lysates. Basigin was found to bind to high mannose-carrying cell recognition molecules, such as myelin-associated glycoprotein, L1, the beta2-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase and an oligomannosidic neoglycolipid. Furthermore, basigin was involved in outgrowth of astrocytic processes in vitro. A striking homology between the first immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of basigin and the fourth Ig-like domain of NCAM, previously shown to bind to oligomannosidic glycans, and the lectin domain of the mannose receptor confirms that basigin is an oligomannose binding lectin. To our knowledge this is the first report that anti-idiotypic antibodies can be used to identify binding partners for carbohydrates.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;84;3;557-65

  • Preferential loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein reflects hypoxia-like white matter damage in stroke and inflammatory brain diseases.

    Aboul-Enein F, Rauschka H, Kornek B, Stadelmann C, Stefferl A, Brück W, Lucchinetti C, Schmidbauer M, Jellinger K and Lassmann H

    Division of Neuroimmunology, Brain Research Institute, University of Vienna, Austria.

    Destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes leading to the formation of large demyelinated plaques is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. In a subset of MS patients termed pattern III, actively demyelinating lesions show preferential loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and apoptotic-like oligodendrocyte destruction, whereas other myelin proteins remain well preserved. MAG is located in the most distal periaxonal oligodendrocyte processes and primary "dying back" oligodendrogliopathy may be the initial step of myelin degeneration in pattern III lesions. In the present study, various human white matter pathologies, including acute and chronic white matter stroke, virus encephalitis, metabolic encephalopathy, and MS were studied. In addition to a subset of MS cases, a similar pattern of demyelination was found in some cases of virus encephalitis as well as in all lesions of acute white matter stroke. Brain white matter lesions presenting with MAG loss and apoptotic-like oligodendrocyte destruction, irrespective of their primary disease cause, revealed a prominent nuclear expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha in various cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Our data suggest that a hypoxia-like tissue injury may play a pathogenetic role in a subset of inflammatory demyelinating brain lesions.

    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 2003;62;1;25-33

  • A p75(NTR) and Nogo receptor complex mediates repulsive signaling by myelin-associated glycoprotein.

    Wong ST, Henley JR, Kanning KC, Huang KH, Bothwell M and Poo MM

    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), an inhibitor of axon regeneration, binds with high affinity to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Here we report that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is a co-receptor of NgR for MAG signaling. In cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing NgR, p75(NTR) was required for MAG-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation. Co-immunoprecipitation showed an association of NgR with p75(NTR) that can be disrupted by an antibody against p75(NTR) (NGFR5), and extensive coexpression was observed in the developing rat nervous system. Furthermore, NGFR5 abolished MAG-induced repulsive turning of Xenopus axonal growth cones and Ca2+ elevation, both in neurons and in NgR/p75(NTR)-expressing HEK cells. Thus we conclude that p75(NTR) is a co-receptor of NgR for MAG signaling and a potential therapeutic target for promoting nerve regeneration.

    Nature neuroscience 2002;5;12;1302-8

  • Myelin proteolipid protein, basic protein, the small isoform of myelin-associated glycoprotein, and p42MAPK are associated in the Triton X-100 extract of central nervous system myelin.

    Arvanitis DN, Yang W and Boggs JM

    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    To further our understanding of the functions of the major myelin proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), and other myelin proteins, such as 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), bovine brain myelin was extracted with Triton X-100, and protein complexes in the detergent-soluble fraction were isolated by coimmunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient sedimentation. MBP, PLP, and the small isoform of MAG (S-MAG) were coimmunoprecipitated from the detergent-soluble fraction by anti-PLP, anti-MBP or anti-MAG monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, a 30 kDa phosphoserine-containing protein and two phosphotyrosine-containing proteins (M(r) 30 and 42 kDa) were found in the coimmunoprecipitates. The 42 kDa protein is probably p42MAPK, in that MAPK was shown also to be present in the immunoprecipitated complex. CNP, the small PLP isoform DM20, the large MAG isoform L-MAG, MOG, CD44, MEK, p44MAPK, and actin were not present in the immunoprecipitates, although they were present in the detergent-soluble fraction. Lipid analysis revealed that the PLP-MBP-S-MAG coimmunoprecipitated with some phospholipids and sulfatide but not cholesterol or galactosylceramide. However, the complex had a high density, indicating that the lipid/protein ratio is low, and it was retained on a Sepharose CL6B column, indicating that it is not a large membrane fragment. Given that MAG is localized mainly in the periaxonal region of myelin, where it interacts with axonal ligands, the PLP-MBP-S-MAG complex may come from these regions, where it could participate in dynamic functions in the myelin sheath and myelin-axonal interactions.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2002;70;1;8-23

  • Myelin-associated glycoprotein as a functional ligand for the Nogo-66 receptor.

    Liu BP, Fournier A, GrandPré T and Strittmatter SM

    Department of Neurology and Section of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

    Axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited by two proteins in myelin, Nogo and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). The receptor for Nogo (NgR) has been identified as an axonal glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored protein, whereas the MAG receptor has remained elusive. Here, we show that MAG binds directly, with high affinity, to NgR. Cleavage of GPI-linked proteins from axons protects growth cones from MAG-induced collapse, and dominant-negative NgR eliminates MAG inhibition of neurite outgrowth. MAG-resistant embryonic neurons are rendered MAG-sensitive by expression of NgR. MAG and Nogo-66 activate NgR independently and serve as redundant NgR ligands that may limit axonal regeneration after CNS injury.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002;297;5584;1190-3

  • Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with the Nogo66 receptor to inhibit neurite outgrowth.

    Domeniconi M, Cao Z, Spencer T, Sivasankaran R, Wang K, Nikulina E, Kimura N, Cai H, Deng K, Gao Y, He Z and Filbin M

    The Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    Myelin inhibitors of axonal regeneration, like Nogo and MAG, block regrowth after injury to the adult CNS. While a GPI-linked receptor for Nogo (NgR) has been identified, MAG's receptor is unknown. We show that MAG inhibits regeneration by interaction with NgR. Binding of and inhibition by MAG are lost if neuronal GPI-linked proteins are cleaved. Binding of MAG to NgR-expressing cells is GPI dependent and sialic acid independent. Conversely, NgR binds to MAG-expressing cells. MAG, but not a truncated MAG that binds neurons but does not inhibit regeneration, precipitates NgR from NgR-expressing cells, DRG, and cerebellar neurons. Importantly, NgR antibody, soluble NgR, or dominant-negative NgR each prevent inhibition of neurite outgrowth by MAG. Also, MAG and Nogo66 compete for binding to NgR. These results suggest redundancy in myelin inhibitors and indicate therapies for CNS injuries.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 37060, NS41073

    Neuron 2002;35;2;283-90

  • The p75 receptor transduces the signal from myelin-associated glycoprotein to Rho.

    Yamashita T, Higuchi H and Tohyama M

    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. tyama@anat2.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth from a variety of neurons. The receptor for MAG or signals that elicit morphological changes in neurons remained to be established. Here we show that the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR)) is the signal transducing element for MAG. Adult dorsal root ganglion neurons or postnatal cerebellar neurons from mice carrying a mutation in the p75(NTR) gene are insensitive to MAG with regard to neurite outgrowth. MAG activates small GTPase RhoA, leading to retarded outgrowth when p75(NTR)) is present. Colocalization of p75(NTR) and MAG binding is seen in neurons. Ganglioside GT1b, which is one of the binding partners of MAG, specifically associates with p75(NTR). Thus, p75(NTR) and GT1b may form a receptor complex for MAG to transmit the inhibitory signals in neurons.

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;157;4;565-70

  • Identification of single nucleotide variations in the coding and regulatory regions of the myelin-associated glycoprotein gene and study of their association with multiple sclerosis.

    D'Alfonso S, Mellai M, Giordano M, Pastore A, Malferrari G, Naldi P, Repice A, Liguori M, Cannoni S, Milanese C, Caputo D, Savettieri G, Momigliano-Richiardi P and Italian Group for the Study of Multiple Sclerosis Genetics

    Laboratorio di Genetica Umana, Dipartimento Scienze Mediche, Univ. Piemonte Orientale, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy. dalfonso@med.unipmn.it

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene is an appealing candidate in the 19q13 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) candidate region. Using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), we identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MAG coding and regulatory regions, and we tested their possible association with MS in Italian patient and control DNA pools. Eight variations had a frequency <0.05, i.e. below the detection limit in the pools. Of these, Arg537Cys was further studied with individually genotyped individuals and was detected in 1/189 patients and 0/85 controls. The frequency of the six remaining SNPs were not significantly different in pools including a total of 1266 patient and 1612 control chromosomes. Considering the statistical power of the experimental design, these results exclude the MAG gene as an MS susceptibility factor with an odds ratio (OR) equal or higher than 1.3.

    Journal of neuroimmunology 2002;126;1-2;196-204

  • Microtubule-associated protein 1B: a neuronal binding partner for myelin-associated glycoprotein.

    Franzen R, Tanner SL, Dashiell SM, Rottkamp CA, Hammer JA and Quarles RH

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4440, USA.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is expressed in periaxonal membranes of myelinating glia where it is believed to function in glia-axon interactions by binding to a component of the axolemma. Experiments involving Western blot overlay and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that MAG binds to a phosphorylated neuronal isoform of microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) and axolemma-enriched fractions from myelinated axons of brain, but not to the isoform of MAP1B expressed by glial cells. The expression of some MAP1B as a neuronal plasma membrane glycoprotein (Tanner, S.L., R. Franzen, H. Jaffe, and R.H. Quarles. 2000. J. Neurochem. 75:553-562.), further documented here by its immunostaining without cell permeabilization, is consistent with it being a binding partner for MAG on the axonal surface. Binding sites for a MAG-Fc chimera on DRGNs colocalized with MAP1B on neuronal varicosities, and MAG and MAP1B also colocalized in the periaxonal region of myelinated axons. In addition, expression of the phosphorylated isoform of MAP1B was increased significantly when DRGNs were cocultured with MAG-transfected COS cells. The interaction of MAG with MAP1B is relevant to the known role of MAG in affecting the cytoskeletal structure and stability of myelinated axons.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;155;6;893-8

  • Fibronectin is a binding partner for the myelin-associated glycoprotein (siglec-4a).

    Strenge K, Brossmer R, Ihrig P, Schauer R and Kelm S

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Kiel, Germany. kstrenge@biochem.uni-kiel.de

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) mediates cell-cell interactions between myelinating glial cells and neurons. Here we describe the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin as a binding partner of MAG. It has been identified by affinity precipitation with MAG-Fc from NG108-15 cells and by microsequencing of two peptides derived from a 210-kDa protein band. Western blot analysis showed that fibronectin is also present in MAG binding partners isolated from N(2)A (murine neuroblastoma) cells, rat brain and rat spinal cord. Different fibronectin isoforms have been isolated from brains of young and adult rats, indicating that the expression of MAG binding fibronectin changes during development.

    FEBS letters 2001;499;3;262-7

  • Myelin-associated glycoprotein binding to gangliosides. Structural specificity and functional implications.

    Schnaar RL, Collins BE, Wright LP, Kiso M, Tropak MB, Roder JC and Crocker PR

    Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which mediates certain myelin-neuron cell-cell interactions, is a lectin that binds to sialylated glycoconjugates. Gangliosides, the most abundant sialylated glycoconjugates in the brain, may be the functional neuronal ligands for MAG. Cells engineered to express MAG on their surface adhered specifically to gangliosides bearing an alpha 2,3-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid on a terminal galactose, with the following relative potency: GQ1b alpha > GD1a, GT1b > GM3, GM4 (GM1, GD1b, GD3, and GQ1b did not support adhesion). MAG binding was abrogated by modification of the carboxylic acid, any hydroxyl, or the N-acetyl group of the ganglioside's N-acetylneuraminic acid moiety. Related immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members either failed to bind gangliosides (CD22) or bound with less stringent specificity (sialoadhesin), whereas a modified form of MAG (bearing three of its five extra-cellular Ig-like domains) bound only GQ1b alpha. Enzymatic removal of sialic acids from the surface of intact nerve cells altered their functional interaction with myelin. These data are consistent with a role for gangliosides in MAG-neuron interactions.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1998;845;92-105

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Identification of tyrosine 620 as the major phosphorylation site of myelin-associated glycoprotein and its implication in interacting with signaling molecules.

    Jaramillo ML, Afar DE, Almazan G and Bell JC

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a myelin-specific cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin supergene family and is tyrosine-phosphorylated in the developing brain. To define the role of MAG in signal transduction, the tyrosine phosphorylation sites were analyzed. The major tyrosine phosphorylation residue was identified as Tyr-620, which was found to interact specifically with the SH2 domains of phospholipase C (PLC gamma). This domain may represent a novel protein binding motif that can be regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. MAG also specifically bound the Fyn tyrosine kinase, suggesting that MAG serves as a docking protein that allows the interaction between different signaling molecules.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;44;27240-5

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Identification of the glycosylated sequons of human myelin-associated glycoprotein.

    Burger D, Pidoux L and Steck AJ

    Department of Neurology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a neural cell adhesion molecule expressing the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope. MAG is heavily glycosylated containing 30% carbohydrate by weight. In this study, human MAG glycopeptides were isolated and sequenced. Of the 9 MAG sequons 7 were glycosylated and 1 was partially glycosylated at Asn106. Asn332 which was not recovered in the glycopeptide fractions was probably not glycosylated. Furthermore, preliminary data indicate that all MAG glycosylated sequons might bear the L2/HNK-1 epitope.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;197;2;457-64

  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers.

    Trask B, Fertitta A, Christensen M, Youngblom J, Bergmann A, Copeland A, de Jong P, Mohrenweiser H, Olsen A, Carrano A et al.

    Human Genome Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550.

    We report here the band location of 540 cosmids mapped to chromosome 19. The cosmids were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) relative to chromosomal bands produced by DAPI/actinomycin staining. The cosmids are distributed throughout the chromosome, with a sampling bias for the q-arm. A detailed analysis of the distribution of three different subtelomeric and 22 pericentromeric chromosome 19 cosmids on other chromosomes is also reported. Colony hybridization identified 142 cosmids that contain sequences representing genes or DNA markers that map to chromosome 19. FISH mapping of these cosmids sublocalizes a total of 70 genes and DNA markers on chromosome 19, revises the previously published map assignments of 2 genes, and narrows the location of over 20 markers.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00256

    Genomics 1993;15;1;133-45

  • The gp120 glycoprotein of HIV-1 binds to sulfatide and to the myelin associated glycoprotein.

    van den Berg LH, Sadiq SA, Lederman S and Latov N

    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York NY 10032.

    We investigated the binding of the gp120 glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to neural glycolipids and glycoproteins by ELISA. The gp120 protein bound to sulfatide (GalS), a sulfated glycolipid autoantigen implicated in sensory neuritis, and to the myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), an autoantigen in demyelinating neuropathy. Binding of gp120 to MAG was inhibited by the HNK-1 antibody, which recognizes a sulfated glucuronic acid epitope, suggesting that the interaction involves carbohydrate determinants. Sulfatide and MAG are potential receptors for gp120 in peripheral nerve and may have a role in the neuropathy associated with HIV-1 infection.

    Journal of neuroscience research 1992;33;4;513-8

  • Molecular cloning of human myelin-associated glycoprotein.

    Spagnol G, Williams M, Srinivasan J, Golier J, Bauer D, Lebo RV and Latov N

    Department of Neurology, College of Physician and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY 10032.

    The nucleotide sequence for human myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and its deduced amino acid sequence, obtained by analysis of two overlapping cDNA clones isolated from a human brain cDNA library, is presented and compared to that reported for rat MAG. The sequence provides an open reading frame of 1,878 nucleotides encoding a peptide of 626 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 69.1 kD. It is 89% homologous in nucleotide sequence to the large isoform of rat MAG, with 95% homology in the amino acid sequence. It contains 9 potential glycosylation sites, one more than in rat, and shares other key features with rat MAG, including 5 immunoglobulin-like regions of internal homology, an RGD sequence, and potential phosphorylation sites. Its structure appears to be highly conserved in evolution, possibly suggesting a close interdependence between its structure and function. The human gene is located on the proximal long arm of chromosome 19 (19q12----q13.2).

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5 P01 NS11766

    Journal of neuroscience research 1989;24;2;137-42

  • cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence for human myelin-associated glycoprotein.

    Sato S, Fujita N, Kurihara T, Kuwano R, Sakimura K, Takahashi Y and Miyatake T

    Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan.

    cDNA clones of human myelin-associated glycoprotein were isolated and analyzed. The combination of the two overlapping cDNA clones covered the full coding region and the complete amino acid sequence was deduced. In rat and mouse, expression of the two forms of mRNA is developmentally regulated; the mRNA without exon 12 portion is expressed mainly in the actively myelinating stage of development. Although the cDNA library used here was prepared from adult human brain poly(A)+ RNA, all five clones obtained corresponded to the mRNA without exon 12 portion.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1989;163;3;1473-80

  • Modulated adhesion: a proposal for the role of myelin-associated glycoprotein in myelin wrapping.

    Attia J, Tropak M, Johnson PW, Newerly-Abranow W, Pawson T, Roder JC and Dunn RJ

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a 100-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein expressed by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. It is found first in loosely wrapped myelin and then periaxonally after compaction. Clinical findings, structural analysis, and cell assays indicate a role for MAG in adhesion. We propose that the phosphorylation state of MAG modulates its adhesion and that a minimum spatial requirement for the separation of the kinase and phosphatase activities postulated by this model may explain the correlation between axon size and myelination state.

    Clinical chemistry 1989;35;5;717-20

  • Myelin-associated glycoprotein in demyelinating disorders.

    Quarles RH

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a 100-kD, integral membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and appears to function in interactions between myelin-forming cells (both oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells) and the axolemma. Its early loss in the development of multiple sclerosis plaques in comparison to other myelin proteins suggests that it could play a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. This selective loss of MAG may relate to the high susceptibility of human MAG to cleavage by a Ca2+-activated neutral protease. Human MAG also contains a highly immunogenic carbohydrate determinant that is also expressed on other neural glycoconjugates and is the antigen recognized by many human IgM paraproteins that occur in patients with peripheral neuropathy. This article emphasizes the role of MAG in multiple sclerosis and peripheral neuropathies occurring in association with IgM paraproteinemia.

    Critical reviews in neurobiology 1989;5;1;1-28

  • The myelin-associated glycoprotein gene: mapping to human chromosome 19 and mouse chromosome 7 and expression in quivering mice.

    Barton DE, Arquint M, Roder J, Dunn R and Francke U

    Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a membrane glycoprotein of 100 kDa, is thought to be involved in the process of myelination. A cDNA encoding the amino-terminal half of rat MAG has recently been isolated and sequenced. We have used this cDNA in Southern blot analysis of DNA from 32 somatic cell hybrids to assign the human locus for MAG to chromosome 19 and the mouse locus to chromosome 7. Since the region of mouse chromosome 7-known to contain several other genes that are homologous to genes on human chromosome 19-also carries the quivering (qv) locus, we considered the possibility that a mutation in the MAG gene could be responsible for this neurological disorder. While MAG-specific DNA restriction fragments, mRNA, and protein from qv/qv mice were apparently normal in size and abundance, we have not ruled out the possibility that qv could be caused by a point mutation in the MAG gene.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26105

    Genomics 1987;1;2;107-12

  • Characterization of binding properties of the myelin-associated glycoprotein to extracellular matrix constituents.

    Fahrig T, Landa C, Pesheva P, Kühn K and Schachner M

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Heidelberg, FRG.

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) can be obtained from adult mouse brain from detergent-lysates of a crude membrane fraction as a 96-100 kd form (detergent solubilized MAG), and from 100,000 g supernatants of homogenates as a 90-96 kd form (soluble MAG). The soluble form distributes into the Triton X-114-poor aqueous phase, while detergent-solubilized MAG predominantly enters the Triton X-114-rich phase. Both molecular forms bind to heparin in hypo- and isotonic buffers. Soluble MAG binds to several collagens (type G, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, IX) with a kd of 5.7 X 10(-8) M for collagen type IX and 2.0 X 10(-7) for collagen type IV. Binding of 125I-labeled MAG to collagen G can be completely inhibited by unlabeled MAG and collagen G, but not by heat-denatured collagen. MAG does not bind to itself, laminin, fibronectin, or the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and N-CAM. Binding of MAG to collagen G is most effectively blocked by a high molecular weight dextran sulfate, heparan sulfate and heparin, with chondroitin sulfate and a low molecular weight dextran sulfate being less potent blockers. These findings are in agreement with previous observations on the localization of MAG in basal lamina and interstitial collagens of the sciatic nerve in situ.

    The EMBO journal 1987;6;10;2875-83

  • Presence of the myelin-associated glycoprotein correlates with alterations in the periodicity of peripheral myelin.

    Trapp BD and Quarles RH

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is an integral membrane protein (congruent to 100,000 mol wt) which is a minor component of purified peripheral nervus system (PNS) myelin. In the present study, MAG was localized immunocytochemically in 1-micrometer thick Epon sections of 7-d and adult rat peripheral nerves, and its localization was compared to that of the major structural protein (Po) of PNS myelin. To determine more precisely the localization of MAG, immunostained areas in 1 micrometer sections were traced on electron micrographs of identical areas from adjacently cut thin sections.l MAG was localized in periaxonal membranes. Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, paranodal membranes, and the outer mesaxon of PNS myelin sheaths. Compact regions of PNS myelin did not react with MAG antiserum. The results demonstrate MAG's presence in "'semi-compact" Schwann cell or myelin membranes that have a gap of 12-14 nm between extracellular leaflets and a spacing of 5 nm or more between cytoplasmic leaflets. In compact regions of the myelin sheath which do not contain MAG, the cytoplasmic leaflets are "fused" and form the major dense line, whereas the extracellular leaflets are separated by a 2.0 nm gap appearing as paired minor dense lines. Thus, it is proposed that MAG plays a role in maintaining the periaxonal space, Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, paranodal myelin loops, and outer mesaxon by preventing "complete" compaction of Schwann cell and myelin membranes. The presence of MAG in these locations also suggests that MAG may serve a function in regulating myelination in the PNS.

    The Journal of cell biology 1982;92;3;877-82

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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