G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3
G00000578 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000068223 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000082397 (Ensembl human gene)
23136 (Entrez Gene)
1011 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EPB41L3 (GeneCards)
605331 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3380 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y2J2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • 4.1B
  • DAL1
  • KIAA0987

Literature (41)

Pubmed - other

  • A Golgi-associated protein 4.1B variant is required for assimilation of proteins in the membrane.

    Kang Q, Wang T, Zhang H, Mohandas N and An X

    Red Cell Physiology Laboratory, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

    The archetypal membrane skeleton is that of the erythrocyte, consisting predominantly of spectrin, actin, ankyrin R and protein 4.1R. The presence in the Golgi of a membrane skeleton with a similar structure has been inferred, based on the identification of Golgi-associated spectrin and ankyrin. It has long been assumed that a Golgi-specific protein 4.1 must also exist, but it has not previously been found. We demonstrate here that a hitherto unknown form of protein 4.1, a 200 kDa 4.1B, is associated with the Golgi of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. This 4.1B variant behaves like a Golgi marker after treatment with Brefeldin A and during mitosis. Depletion of the protein in HBE cells by siRNA resulted in disruption of the Golgi structure and failure of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, ZO-1 and ZO-2 to migrate to the membrane. Thus, this newly identified Golgi-specific protein 4.1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining the structure of the Golgi and in assembly of a subset of membrane proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL78826; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK26263, DK32094

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 8;1091-9

  • Frequent concomitant epigenetic silencing of the stress-responsive tumor suppressor gene CADM1, and its interacting partner DAL-1 in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    Fu L, Gao Z, Zhang X, Tsang YH, Goh HK, Geng H, Shimizu N, Tsuchiyama J, Srivastava G and Tao Q

    Johns Hopkins Singapore, Singapore.

    Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NL) is a rare but clinically important entity of lymphoma. Its preferential incidence in Orientals but not Caucasians suggests possible genetic predisposition. 11q deletion is common in NL, indicating certain tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) at this locus involved in its pathogenesis. We investigated the expression and methylation of an 11q23.2 TSG, CADM1 (or TSLC1), and its partner DAL-1 (or EPB41L3) in NL. Methylation and silencing of CADM1 were detected in 2 NL and 4 of 8 (50%) of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cell lines, but not in normal NK cells and normal PBMC. Absence of CADM1 protein was also detected in NL cell lines. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) demethylation or genetic knockout of both DNMT1 and 3B genes restored CADM1 and DAL-1 expression. CADM1 methylation was further detected in 36 of 45 (80%) of NL tumors. Concomitantly, DAL-1 was epigenetically inactivated in NL cell lines and virtually all the tumors with methylated CADM1. A significant correlation between the methylation of both genes was found (p < 0.0001). Homozygous deletion of CADM1 was detected in only 3 of 18 (17%) of tumors. The stress-response of CADM1 was abolished when its promoter becomes methylated. Our results demonstrate a frequent, predominant epigenetic silencing of CADM1 and DAL-1 in NL, which likely play a synergic role in NL pathogenesis.

    International journal of cancer 2009;124;7;1572-8

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Potential role of EPB41L3 (protein 4.1B/Dal-1) as a target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Bernkopf DB and Williams ED

    Monash University, Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash Medical Centre, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia.

    Background: Loss of erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3 (EPB41L3; aliases: protein 4.1B, differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (Dal-1)) expression has been implicated in tumor progression.

    Objective: To evaluate literature describing the role of EPB41L3 in tumorigenesis and metastasis, and to consider whether targeting this gene would be useful in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Methods: A literature review of studies describing EPB41L3 and its aliases was conducted. Online databases (NCBI, SwissProt) were also interrogated to collect further data.

    A growing body of evidence supports a role for loss of EPB41L3 in tumor progression, including in prostate cancer. Therapeutic strategies that could be harnessed to upregulate EPB41L3 gene expression in prostate cancer cells are currently being developed.

    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 2008;12;7;845-53

  • Protein 4.1B suppresses prostate cancer progression and metastasis.

    Wong SY, Haack H, Kissil JL, Barry M, Bronson RT, Shen SS, Whittaker CA, Crowley D and Hynes RO

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    Protein 4.1B is a 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain-containing protein whose expression is frequently lost in a variety of human tumors, including meningiomas, non-small-cell lung cancers, and breast carcinomas. However, its potential tumor-suppressive function under in vivo conditions remains to be validated. In a screen for genes involved with prostate cancer metastasis, we found that 4.1B expression is reduced in highly metastatic tumors. Down-regulation of 4.1B increased the metastatic propensity of poorly metastatic cells in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer. Furthermore, 4.1B-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility for developing aggressive, spontaneous prostate carcinomas. In both cases, enhanced tumor malignancy was associated with reduced apoptosis. Because expression of Protein 4.1B is frequently down-regulated in human clinical prostate cancer, as well as in a spectrum of other tumor types, these results suggest a more general role for Protein 4.1B as a negative regulator of cancer progression to metastatic disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 17007, R01 CA017007, U54 CA 112967, U54 CA112967

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007;104;31;12784-9

  • Downregulation of TSLC1 and DAL-1 expression occurs frequently in breast cancer.

    Heller G, Geradts J, Ziegler B, Newsham I, Filipits M, Markis-Ritzinger EM, Kandioler D, Berger W, Stiglbauer W, Depisch D, Pirker R, Zielinski CC and Zöchbauer-Müller S

    Clinical Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

    TSLC1 and DAL-1 are tumor suppressor genes involved in cell adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression and methylation pattern of these genes in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast carcinomas. TSLC1 expression was lost in 5 of 8 (63%) and DAL-1 expression was lost in 6 of 8 (75%) breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Downregulation of TSLC1 expression was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) and of DAL-1 expression in 26 of 55 (47%) primary breast carcinomas. TSLC1 methylation was found in 4 of 8 (50%) and DAL-1 methylation was observed in 6 of 8 (75%) breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Of 95 primary breast carcinomas 46 (48%) were TSLC1 methylated and 26 (27%) were DAL-1 methylated. Twenty of 43 (47%) and 10 of 26 (38%) primary breast cancer samples which showed downregulation of TSLC1 and DAL-1 expression were unmethylated for these genes. Re-expression of TSLC1 and DAL-1 was observed after treatment of BT-20 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and TSA. Samples from patients with grade 3 tumors were more frequently TSLC1 and TSLC1 and/or DAL-1 methylated than samples from patients with grade 1 and 2 tumors (P = 0.032, P = 0.023). Moreover, TSLC1 methylation correlated with loss of both ER and PgR staining (P = 0.011, P = 0.02). Our findings suggest that TSLC1 and DAL-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and are frequently inactivated by methylation.

    Breast cancer research and treatment 2007;103;3;283-91

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium.

    Calinisan V, Gravem D, Chen RP, Brittin S, Mohandas N, Lecomte MC and Gascard P

    Life Sciences Division, Department of Genome Biology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physio-pathology.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32094, DK56355

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2006;11;1646-66

  • Promoter hypermethylation of the potential tumor suppressor DAL-1/4.1B gene in renal clear cell carcinoma.

    Yamada D, Kikuchi S, Williams YN, Sakurai-Yageta M, Masuda M, Maruyama T, Tomita K, Gutmann DH, Kakizoe T, Kitamura T, Kanai Y and Murakami Y

    Tumor Suppression and Functional Genomics Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

    Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) is a malignant tumor with poor prognosis caused by the high incidence of metastasis to distal organs. Although metastatic RCCC cells frequently show aberrant cytoskeletal organization, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. DAL-1/4.1B is an actin-binding protein implicated in the cytoskeleton-associated processes, while its inactivation is frequently observed in lung and breast cancers and meningiomas, suggesting that 4.1B is a potential tumor suppressor. We studied a possible involvement of 4.1B in RCCCs and evaluated it as a clinical indicator. 4.1B protein was detected in the proximal convoluted tubules of human kidney, the presumed cell of origin of RCCC. On the other hand, loss or marked reduction of its expression was observed in 10 of 19 (53%) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and 12 of 19 (63%) surgically resected RCCC by reverse transcription-PCR. Bisulfite sequencing or bisulfite SSCP analyses revealed that the 4.1B promoter was methylated in 9 of 19 (47%) RCC cells and 25 of 55 (45%) surgically resected RCCC, and inversely correlated with 4.1B expression (p < 0.0001). Aberrant methylation appeared to be a relatively early event because more than 40% of the tumors with pT1a showed hypermethylation. Furthermore, 4.1B methylation correlated with a nuclear grade (p = 0.017) and a recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0036) and provided an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.038, relative risk 10.5). These results indicate that the promoter methylation of the 4.1B is one of the most frequent epigenetic alterations in RCCC and could predict the metastatic recurrence of the surgically resected RCCC.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS41520

    International journal of cancer 2006;118;4;916-23

  • Expression and methylation pattern of TSLC1 cascade genes in lung carcinomas.

    Heller G, Fong KM, Girard L, Seidl S, End-Pfützenreuter A, Lang G, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Zielinski CC and Zöchbauer-Müller S

    Clinical Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, University Hospital, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

    TSLC1 (tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1, IGSF4) encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily molecules, which is involved in cell-cell adhesion. TSLC1 is connected to the actin cytoskeleton by DAL-1 (differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1, EPB41L3) and it directly associates with MPP3, one of the human homologues of a Drosophila tumor suppressor gene, Discs large. Recent data suggest that aberrant promoter methylation is important for TSLC1 inactivation in lung carcinomas. However, little is known about the other two genes in this cascade, DAL-1 and MPP3. Thus, we investigated the expression and methylation patterns of these genes in lung cancer cell lines, primary lung carcinomas and nonmalignant lung tissue samples. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, loss of TSLC1 expression was observed in seven of 16 (44%) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and in one of 11 (9%) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, while loss of DAL-1 expression was seen in 14 of 16 (87%) NSCLC cell lines and in four of 11 (36%) SCLC cell lines. By contrast, MPP3 expression was found in all tumor cell lines analysed. Similar results were obtained by microarray analysis. TSLC1 methylation was seen in 13 of 39 (33%) NSCLC cell lines, in one of 11 (9%) SCLC cell lines and in 100 of 268 (37%) primary NSCLCs. DAL-1 methylation was observed in 17 of 39 (44%) NSCLC cell lines, in three of 11 (27%) SCLC cell lines and in 147 of 268 (55%) primary NSCLCs. In tumors of NSCLC patients with stage II-III disease, DAL-1 methylation was seen at a statistically significant higher frequency compared to tumors of patients with stage I disease. A significant correlation between loss of expression and methylation of the genes in lung cancer cell lines was found. Overall, 65% of primary NSCLCs had either TSLC1 or DAL-1 methylated. Methylation of one of these genes was detected in 59% of NSCLC cell lines; however, in SCLC cell lines, methylation was much less frequently observed. The majority of nonmalignant lung tissue samples was not TSLC1 or DAL-1 methylated. Re-expression of TSLC1 and DAL-1 was seen after treatment of lung cancer cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our results suggest that methylation of TSLC1 and/or DAL-1, leading to loss of their expression, is an important event in the pathogenesis of NSCLC.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA 70907

    Oncogene 2006;25;6;959-68

  • The tumor suppressor DAL-1/4.1B and protein methylation cooperate in inducing apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Jiang W and Newsham IF

    Hermlein Brain Tumor Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W, Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan, USA. nswei@neuro.hfh.edu

    Background: DAL-1 (Differentially Expressed in Adenocarcinoma of the Lung)/4.1B is a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily that has been shown to suppress growth in lung, breast and brain tumor cells. In the case of the caspase-3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells, this growth suppression has been shown to be partially mediated by the induction of apoptosis. However the exact mechanism of action of DAL-1/4.1B is unknown. Recently, protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) was identified as a DAL-1/4.1B interacting protein. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) posttranslationally methylate the arginine residues of proteins, a modification which has been implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, signal transduction, and transcription.

    Results: To investigate the role of protein methylation in cell death induced by DAL-1/4.1B, DAL-1/4.1B-inducible MCF-7 cells were examined for apoptosis and caspase activation in the absence and presence of the protein methylation inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde (AdOX). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that apoptosis was primarily associated with the activation of caspase 8, and inhibition of this activation blocked the ability of DAL-1/4.1B to induce cell death.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that protein methylation cooperates with DAL-1/4.1B-associated caspase 8-specific activation to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Molecular cancer 2006;5;4

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Inactivation patterns of NF2 and DAL-1/4.1B (EPB41L3) in sporadic meningioma.

    Nunes F, Shen Y, Niida Y, Beauchamp R, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Ramesh V, Gusella J and MacCollin M

    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. fnunes@partners.org

    The molecular basis of tumorigenesis and tumor progression in meningiomas is not fully understood. The neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) locus is inactivated in 50-60% of sporadic meningiomas, but the genetic basis of sporadic meningiomas not inactivated at the NF2 locus remains unclear. Specifically, there is conflicting data regarding the role of the tumor suppressor gene DAL-1/4.1B. Using microsatellite markers, we studied 63 sporadic meningiomas to determine loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the NF2 and DAL-1/4.1B loci. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 52 of these tumors was performed to determine copy number changes on chromosomes 18 and 22. Forty-one of 62 informative tumors showed LOH at the NF2 locus (66%) while only 12 of 62 informative tumors (19%) showed LOH of DAL-1/4.1B. Eleven of 12 (92%) tumors with DAL-1/4.1B LOH also had NF2 LOH. Monosomy or large deletions of chromosomes 18 and 22 were the main mechanism for LOH in these tumors. These studies implicate the DAL-1/4.1B locus in sporadic meningiomas less commonly than reported previously, and suggest that it is a progression rather than an initiation locus. Furthermore, we found the majority of meningiomas developed monosomy rather than isodisomy at the NF2 and DAL-1/4.1B loci as the mechanism for LOH.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS24279

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2005;162;2;135-9

  • Mutational analysis of the DAL-1/4.1B tumour-suppressor gene locus in meningiomas.

    Martinez-Glez V, Bello MJ, Franco-Hernandez C, De Campos JM, Isla A, Vaquero J and Rey JA

    Unidad de Investigación, Laboratorio de Oncogenetica Molecular, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

    The DAL-1/41B gene (differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung), located in the chromosome 18p11.3 region, belongs to the protein family 4.1 (membrane-associated proteins), which includes the product of the NF2 gene (merlin), and the proteins, ezrin, radixin, and moesin. DAL-1/4.1B is normally expressed at high levels in the brain, with lower levels in the kidney, intestine, and testis. DAL-1/4.1B is known to suppress growth in meningiomas and can be lost in about 60% of sporadic meningiomas as an early event in tumorigenesis; it is a critical growth regulator in the pathogenesis of neoplastic transformation. The similarity between the DAL-1/4.1B protein and merlin, with their high levels of expression in the brain and their recurrent loss in meningiomas, and the lack of previous DAL-1/4.1B mutational analysis reports initiated this mutational study of DAL-1/4.1B in a series of 83 meningiomas. We found the following sequence variations; Ala555Thr (G1663A in exon 13) and Thr950Lys (C2849A in exon 19) in two cases each, and one case with a 5pb deletion (del taaaa) in intron 18. A polymorphism in exon 14 (C2112T/Thr704Thr, also known as C2166T) was also identified; the tumoral allelic constitutions were heterozygous C/T in 15, homo- or hemizygous C in 67 and hemizygous T in one tumour. The low mutational frequency in our study discounts sequence variations in DAL-1/4.1B as the main mechanism underlying participation of this gene in the neoplastic transformation of meningiomas, and suggests that other inactivating mechanisms, such as epigenetic changes, may participate in DAL1/4.1B silencing.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2005;16;4;771-4

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Alterations of protein 4.1 family members in ependymomas: a study of 84 cases.

    Rajaram V, Gutmann DH, Prasad SK, Mansur DB and Perry A

    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110-1093, USA.

    Ependymomas are common pediatric and adult CNS malignancies with a wide biologic spectrum that is often hard to predict using classic prognostic variables. The molecular pathogenesis is also poorly understood and few reproducible genetic alterations have been identified. The most common genetic alteration has been the loss of the Protein 4.1 family member, NF2, predominantly in spinal ependymomas. In contrast, a pilot study suggested that 4.1B deletions might be more common in intracranial ependymomas. These findings prompted us to study Protein 4.1 family members (NF2, 4.1B, 4.1R, 4.1G) in a larger cohort of 84 ependymomas (51 intracranial and 33 spinal; 11 WHO grade I, 43 grade II, 30 grade III). Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using NF2, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1G probes and immunohistochemical staining was performed in a subset using merlin, Protein 4.1B and Protein 4.1R antibodies. Additionally, frozen tissue from nine ependymomas (four intracranial and five spinal) was obtained for Western blot analysis for merlin, 4.1B and 4.1R expression. The majority of cases harbored one or more detectable genetic alterations, but we found that 4.1B gene deletions and 4.1R loss of expression were statistically more common in the pediatric vs adult, intracranial vs spinal, and grade III vs grade I/II subsets (P-values of 0.038 to <0.001). Also, 4.1G deletions were seen in 11/27 (41%) patients who either died of disease or had residual/recurrent tumor vs 5/41 patients with no evidence of disease at last follow-up (P=0.009). We conclude that alterations of Protein 4.1 family members are common in ependymal tumors and that specific alterations are associated with distinct clinicopathologic subsets.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2005;18;7;991-7

  • Promoter methylation of DAL-1/4.1B predicts poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Kikuchi S, Yamada D, Fukami T, Masuda M, Sakurai-Yageta M, Williams YN, Maruyama T, Asamura H, Matsuno Y, Onizuka M and Murakami Y

    Tumor Suppression and Functional Genomics Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan. ymurakam@gan2.ncc.go.jp

    Purpose: DAL-1/4.1B is an actin-binding protein originally identified as a molecule whose expression is down-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. We have previously shown that a lung tumor suppressor, TSLC1, associates with DAL-1, suggesting that both proteins act in the same cascade. The purpose of this study is to understand the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of DAL-1 inactivation in lung cancer.

    We studied aberration of the DAL-1 in 103 primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and 18 lung cancer cells. Expression and allelic and methylation status of DAL-1 was examined by reverse transcription-PCR, microsatellite analysis, and bisulfite sequencing or bisulfite single-strand conformational polymorphism, respectively.

    Results: Loss of DAL-1 expression was strongly correlated with promoter methylation in lung cancer cells, whereas DAL-1 expression was restored by a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The DAL-1 promoter was methylated in 59 (57%) primary NSCLC tumors, 37% of which were associated with loss of heterozygosity around the DAL-1 on chromosomal region 18p11.3. In squamous cell carcinomas, DAL-1 methylation was observed in 9 of 10 tumors at stage I, whereas the incidence of methylation gradually increased in adenocarcinomas as they progressed [13 of 36 (36%), 4 of 12 (33%), 14 of 17 (82%), and 3 of 3 (100%) tumors at stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P = 0.0026]. Furthermore, in adenocarcinomas, disease-free survival and overall survival were significantly shorter in patients with tumors harboring the methylated DAL-1 (P = 0.0011 and P = 0.045, respectively).

    Conclusions: DAL-1 methylation is involved in the development and progression of NSCLC and provides an indicator for poor prognosis.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2005;11;8;2954-61

  • Membrane localization of the U2 domain of Protein 4.1B is necessary and sufficient for meningioma growth suppression.

    Robb VA, Gerber MA, Hart-Mahon EK and Gutmann DH

    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis are largely undefined. Previous work has implicated Protein 4.1B as an important tumor suppressor involved in the development of these neoplasms. In this report, we demonstrate that the U2 domain is necessary and sufficient for the ability of Protein 4.1B to function as a meningioma growth suppressor. Using a series of truncation and deletion constructs of DAL-1 (a fragment of Protein 4.1B that retains all the growth suppressive properties), we narrowed the domain required for 4.1B growth suppression to a fragment containing a portion of the FERM domain and the U2 domain using clonogenic assays on meningioma cells. Deletion of the U2 domain in the context of the full-length DAL-1 molecule eliminated growth suppressor function, as measured by thymidine incorporation and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, targeting the U2 domain to the plasma membrane using a membrane localization signal (MLS) reduced cell proliferation, similar to wild-type DAL-1. Collectively, the data suggest that the U2 domain, when properly targeted to the plasma membrane, contains all the residues necessary for mediating Protein 4.1B growth suppression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1-F32-CA-097816-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41520

    Oncogene 2005;24;11;1946-57

  • Immunolocalization of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 during neoplastic transformation of mouse and human intestinal epithelium.

    Ohno N, Terada N, Murata S, Yamakawa H, Newsham IF, Katoh R, Ohara O and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Tamaho, 409-3898 Yamanashi, Japan. sohno@yamanashi.ac.jp

    Recently, we have reported that the protein 4.1B immunolocalization occurred only in matured columnar epithelial cells of normal rat intestines. This finding suggested that protein 4.1B expression could be examined for a possible change during neoplastic transformation of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we first present the distribution of mouse protein 4.1B in normal intestinal epithelial cells and tumor cells using the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mutant mouse model. A low level of protein 4.1B expression coincided with the phenotypic transition to carcinoma. To examine the protein 4.1B expression in human intestinal mucosa, we used another antibody against an isoform of the human protein 4.1B, DAL-1 (differentially expressed adenocarcinoma of the lung). Human DAL-1 was also expressed in matured epithelial cells in human colons, with a definite expression gradient along the crypt axis. In human colorectal cancer cells, however, DAL-1 expression was not detected. These results suggest that mouse protein 4.1B and human DAL-1 might have a striking analogy of functions, which may be integrally involved in epithelial proliferation. We propose that loss of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 expression might be a marker of intestinal tumors, indicative of a tumor suppressor function in the intestinal mucosa.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2004;122;6;579-86

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • DAL-1/4.1B tumor suppressor interacts with protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) and inhibits its ability to methylate substrates in vitro and in vivo.

    Singh V, Miranda TB, Jiang W, Frankel A, Roemer ME, Robb VA, Gutmann DH, Herschman HR, Clarke S and Newsham IF

    Department of Neurosurgery, David and Doreen Hermelin Laboratory of Molecular Oncogenetics, Hermelin Brain Tumor Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

    DAL-1 (differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung)/4.1B is a tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 18p11.3 whose expression is lost in >50% of primary non-small-cell lung carcinomas. Based on sequence similarity, DAL-1/4.1B has been assigned to the Protein 4.1 superfamily whose members interact with plasma membrane proteins through their N-terminal FERM (4.1/Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin) domain, and cytoskeletal components via their C-terminal SAB (spectrin-actin binding) region. Using the DAL-1/4.1B FERM domain as bait for yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning, we identified protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) as a specific DAL-1/4.1B-interacting protein. PRMT3 catalyses the post-translational transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to arginine residues of proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments using lung and breast cancer cell lines confirmed this interaction in mammalian cells in vivo. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that this was an interaction occurring via the C-terminal catalytic core domain of PRMT3. DAL-1/4.1B was determined not to be a substrate for PRMT3-mediated methylation but its presence inhibits the in vitro methylation of a glycine-rich and arginine-rich methyl-accepting protein, GST (glutathione-S-transferase-GAR (glycine- and arginine-rich), which contains 14 'RGG' consensus methylation sites. In addition, induced expression of DAL-1/4.1B in MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed that the DAL-1/4.1B protein significantly inhibits PRMT3 methylation of cellular substrates. These findings suggest that modulation of post-translational methylation may be an important mechanism through which DAL-1/4.1B affects tumor cell growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77030, F32-CA-097816-01; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26020, T32 GM07185; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41520

    Oncogene 2004;23;47;7761-71

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Allele-specific loss of heterozygosity at the DAL-1/4.1B (EPB41L3) tumor-suppressor gene locus in the absence of mutation.

    Kittiniyom K, Mastronardi M, Roemer M, Wells WA, Greenberg ER, Titus-Ernstoff L and Newsham IF

    David and Doreen Hermelin Laboratory of Molecular Oncogenetics, Hermelin Brain Tumor Center and Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.

    DAL-1/4.1B (EPB41L3)is a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, which encompasses structural proteins that play important roles in membrane processes via interactions with actin, spectrin, and the cytoplasmic domains of integral membrane proteins. DAL-1/4.1B localizes within chromosomal region 18p11.3, which is affected by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in various adult tumors. Reintroduction of this protein into DAL-1/4.1B-null lung and breast tumor cell lines significantly reduced the number of cells, providing functional evidence that this protein possesses a growth suppressor function not confined to a single cell type. For characterization of the mutational mechanisms responsible for loss of DAL-1/4.1B function in tumors, the exon-intron structure of DAL-1/4.1B was examined for mutations in 15 normal/tumor pairs of non-small cell lung carcinoma by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. These studies revealed that small intragenic mutations are uncommon in DAL-1/4.1B. Furthermore, LOH analysis on 129 informative early-stage breast tumors utilizing a new intragenic C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 14 revealed that LOH resulted in preferential retention of the C-containing allele, suggesting that allele-specific loss is occurring. These studies indicate that mechanisms such as imprinting or monoallelic expression in combination with loss of heterozygosity may be responsible for loss of the DAL-1/4.1B protein in early breast disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29 CA77730

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2004;40;3;190-203

  • Disruption of 14-3-3 binding does not impair Protein 4.1B growth suppression.

    Robb VA, Li W and Gutmann DH

    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8111, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors; however, the mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis are largely unknown. Collaborative studies from our laboratory demonstrated a direct association of 14-3-3 with the meningioma tumor suppressor Protein 4.1B, which was not observed with other members of the Protein 4.1 family, including the NF2 meningioma tumor suppressor, merlin/schwannomin. Given the role of 14-3-3 in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we sought to determine the functional significance of 14-3-3 binding to Protein 4.1B growth suppression. Based on comparative binding studies performed with additional members of the Protein 4.1 family, we generated specific missense mutations within the minimal growth suppressor fragment of Protein 4.1B (DAL-1, differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung). Complementary in vitro GST affinity chromatography and in vivo interaction experiments demonstrated that the F359Y mutation abrogated binding to 14-3-3, but did not impair DAL-1 binding to other known Protein 4.1B interacting proteins. Similar to wild-type DAL-1, the expression of the F359Y DAL-1 14-3-3-binding mutant resulted in reduced Protein 4.1B-deficient IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN meningioma cell line colony formation. Moreover, similar to wild-type DAL-1, the stable expression of the DAL-1 F359Y mutant significantly reduced cell proliferation in independently isolated IOMM-Lee clones, as assessed by thymidine incorporation. Collectively, these results suggest that binding to 14-3-3 is not essential for the growth suppressor function of Protein 4.1B in meningiomas.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1-F32-CA-097816-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35848, NS41520

    Oncogene 2004;23;20;3589-96

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Multiple meningiomas: Investigating the molecular basis of sporadic and familial forms.

    Heinrich B, Hartmann C, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Louis DN and MacCollin M

    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, East Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

    Meningiomas are common tumors of the coverings of the central nervous system (CNS), comprising 20% of intracranial neoplasms. The only genes known to be associated with sporadic meningiomas are NF2 on chromosome 22 and the related cytoskeleton element DAL-1 on chromosome 18. Between 1 and 8% of patients with meningiomas develop multiple meningiomas, a trait transmitted occasionally in an autosomal dominant fashion. We investigated the DAL-1 and NF2 loci in 7 unrelated multiple meningioma patients without clinical evidence of NF2 by mutational and pathological analysis. Five novel intragenic microsatellite polymorphisms were developed for specific detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the DAL-1 locus. Three of 7 patients had affected relatives and all affected individuals were female. No tumors from familial patients were of a fibroblastic subtype. Truncating NF2 mutations were detected in 3 tumor specimens, but were not present in the corresponding blood samples. Two tumors showed LOH at the NF2 locus. All tumors showing mutations at the NF2 locus originated from patients without affected relatives and were of the fibroblastic subtype. Five non-truncating alterations in the DAL-1 gene were found, however, LOH of chromosome 18 markers was not seen in any tumor. In contrast to the NF2 results, all DAL-1 alterations were found in paired blood specimens. Our findings provide further evidence that the molecular basis of sporadic and familial multiple meningiomas is fundamentally different and extend this dichotomy to pathologic subtypes. DAL-1 does not function as a true tumor suppressor in these patients.

    International journal of cancer 2003;103;4;483-8

  • Protein 4.1B associates with both Caspr/paranodin and Caspr2 at paranodes and juxtaparanodes of myelinated fibres.

    Denisenko-Nehrbass N, Oguievetskaia K, Goutebroze L, Galvez T, Yamakawa H, Ohara O, Carnaud M and Girault JA

    INSERM/UPMC U536, Institut du Fer à Moulin, 17, rue du Fer à Moulin, 75005 Paris, France.

    Caspr/paranodin, a neuronal transmembrane glycoprotein, is essential for the structure and function of septate-like paranodal axoglial junctions at nodes of Ranvier. A closely related protein, Caspr2, is concentrated in juxtaparanodal regions where it associates indirectly with the shaker-type potassium channels. Although ultrastructural studies indicate that paranodal complexes are linked to the cytoskeleton, the intracellular partners of Caspr/paranodin, as well as those of Caspr2, are poorly characterized. We show that the conserved intracellular juxtamembrane regions (GNP motif) of Caspr/paranodin and Caspr2 bind proteins 4.1R and 4.1B. 4.1B is known to be enriched in paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions. 4.1B immunoreactivity accumulates progressively at paranodes and juxtaparanodes during postnatal development, following the concentration of Caspr/paranodin and Caspr2, respectively, in central and peripheral myelinated axons. These two proteins coimmunoprecipitated with 4.1B in brain homogenates. Our results provide strong evidence for the association of 4.1B with Caspr/paranodin at paranodes and with Caspr2 at juxtaparanodes. We propose that 4.1B anchors these axonal proteins to the actin-based cytoskeleton in these two regions.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2003;17;2;411-6

  • Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of long cDNAs.

    Nakayama M, Kikuno R and Ohara O

    Department of Human Gene Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan. nmanabu@kazusa.or.jp

    Large proteins have multiple domains that are potentially capable of binding many kinds of partners. It is conceivable, therefore, that such proteins could function as an intricate framework of assembly protein complexes. To comprehensively study protein-protein interactions between large KIAA proteins, we have constructed a library composed of 1087 KIAA cDNA clones based on prior functional classifications done in silico. We were guided by two principles that raise the success rate for detecting interactions per tested combination: we avoided testing low-probability combinations, and reduced the number of potential false negatives that arise from the fact that large proteins cannot reliably be expressed in yeast. The latter was addressed by constructing a cDNA library comprised of random fragments encoding large proteins. Cytoplasmic domains of KIAA transmembrane proteins (>1000 amino acids) were used as bait for yeast two-hybrid screening. Our analyses reveal that several KIAA proteins bearing a transmembrane region have the capability of binding to other KIAA proteins containing domains (e.g., PDZ, SH3, rhoGEF, and spectrin) known to be localized to highly specialized submembranous sites, indicating that they participate in cellular junction formation, receptor or channel clustering, and intracellular signaling events. Our representative library should be a very useful resource for detecting previously unidentified interactions because it complements conventional expression libraries, which seldom contain large cDNAs.

    Genome research 2002;12;11;1773-84

  • Direct association of TSLC1 and DAL-1, two distinct tumor suppressor proteins in lung cancer.

    Yageta M, Kuramochi M, Masuda M, Fukami T, Fukuhara H, Maruyama T, Shibuya M and Murakami Y

    Tumor Suppression & Functional Genomics Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukuji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

    The tumor suppressor gene TSLC1, which we recently identified in human non-small cell lung cancer, encodes a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Here, we report that TSLC1 directly associates with DAL-1, a gene product of another lung tumor suppressor belonging to the protein 4.1 family. TSLC1 additionally interacts with the actin filament through DAL-1 at the cell-cell attached site where the complex formation of TSLC1 and DAL-1 is dependent on the integrity of actin cytoskeleton. Redistribution of both TSLC1 and DAL-1 to the newly generated membrane ruffling areas suggests that these proteins are also involved in cell motility accompanying the actin rearrangement. Furthermore, restoration of TSLC1 expression strongly suppressed the metastasis of a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549, from the spleen to the liver in nude mice. These findings, together with frequent loss of their expression in lung cancers, suggest that TSLC1 and DAL-1 play a critical role in the same pathway involved in the suppression of lung tumor formation and metastasis.

    Cancer research 2002;62;18;5129-33

  • The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Yu T, Robb VA, Singh V, Gutmann DH and Newsham IF

    David and Doreen Hermelin Laboratory of Molecular Oncogenetics, Department of Neurosurgery and Hermelin Brain Tumor Center, Henry Ford Hospital, E&R Bldg. Rm. 3096, 2799 W. Grand Blvd. Detroit, MI 48202, U.S.A.

    The Protein 4.1 family contains at least two members that function as tumour suppressors, the neurofibromatosis 2 gene product merlin and the recently identified differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung (DAL-1)/Protein 4.1B molecule. DAL-1/Protein 4.1B loss is observed in a variety of tumours, including breast and lung cancers as well as meningiomas. We have previously demonstrated that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B interacts with some but not all merlin-binding proteins, raising the possibility that DAL-1/Protein 4.1B associates with additional unique proteins specific to its function as a negative growth regulator. Using yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning, we identified three 14-3-3 isoforms, beta, gamma and eta, to be DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-binding proteins. These interactions were verified by using glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation in vivo. The interaction of 14-3-3 with DAL-1/Protein 4.1B was specific, as 14-3-3 did not bind to the related Protein 4.1 family members merlin, ezrin or radixin. The DAL-1/Protein 4.1B domain that mediates 14-3-3 binding was mapped to residues Pro(244) and Leu(280) within the 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain. The identification of this novel DAL-1/Protein 4.1B-interacting protein represents the first step towards elucidating its potentially unique mechanism of action.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77730; NINDS NIH HHS: NS/CA41520

    The Biochemical journal 2002;365;Pt 3;783-9

  • Suppression of growth and increased cellular attachment after expression of DAL-1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Charboneau AL, Singh V, Yu T and Newsham IF

    Department of Anatomy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung (DAL-1) gene, which shares significant homology with members of the 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin/neurofibromatosis 2 (ERM/NF2) protein family, has previously been shown to suppress growth in lung cancer cell lines. This gene localizes to chromosome band 18p11.3, which undergoes loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in nonsmall cell lung carcinomas and a significant proportion of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) of the breast. This finding suggests that alteration of gene(s) (possibly DAL-1) within this chromosomal region may be important early in the progression of breast disease. We generated MCF-7 cell lines expressing DAL-1 constitutively or under the control of an inducible promoter and analyzed the effect of DAL-1 expression on growth. These investigations revealed that the DAL-1 protein suppresses the growth of MCF-7 cells and may do so in part through the induction of apoptosis. In addition, expression of DAL-1 increased attachment of these cells to a variety of extracellular matrices. This is the first evidence that the DAL-1 protein functions at the interface between cell adhesion and apoptosis in controlling cell growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA777330

    International journal of cancer 2002;100;2;181-8

  • Loss of DAL-1, a protein 4.1-related tumor suppressor, is an important early event in the pathogenesis of meningiomas.

    Gutmann DH, Donahoe J, Perry A, Lemke N, Gorse K, Kittiniyom K, Rempel SA, Gutierrez JA and Newsham IF

    Departments of Neurology and Neuropathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. gutmannd@neuro.wustl.edu

    Meningiomas are common nervous system tumors, whose molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. To date, the most frequent genetic alteration detected in these tumors is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 22q. This finding led to the identification of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene on 22q12, which is inactivated in 40% of sporadic meningiomas. The NF2 gene product, merlin (or schwannomin), is a member of the protein 4.1 family of membrane-associated proteins, which also includes ezrin, radixin and moesin. Recently, we identified another protein 4.1 gene, DAL-1 (differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung) located on chromosome 18p11.3, which is lost in approximately 60% of non-small cell lung carcinomas, and exhibits growth-suppressing properties in lung cancer cell lines. Given the homology between DAL-1 and NF2 and the identification of significant LOH in the region of DAL-1 in lung, breast and brain tumors, we investigated the possibility that loss of expression of DAL-1 was important for meningioma development. In this report, we demonstrate DAL-1 loss in 60% of sporadic meningiomas using LOH, RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Analogous to merlin, we show that DAL-1 loss is an early event in meningioma tumorigenesis, suggesting that these two protein 4.1 family members are critical growth regulators in the pathogenesis of meningiomas. Furthermore, our work supports the emerging notion that membrane-associated alterations are important in the early stages of neoplastic transformation and the study of such alterations may elucidate the mechanism of tumorigenesis shared by other tumor types.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA777300; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35848

    Human molecular genetics 2000;9;10;1495-500

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As a part of our cDNA project for deducing the coding sequence of unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0919 to KIAA1018. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 4.9 kb and 2.6 kb (882 amino acid residues), respectively. A computer search of the sequences against the public databases indicated that predicted coding sequences of 87 genes contained sequences similar to known genes, 53% of which (46 genes) were categorized as proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;1;63-70

  • A novel member of the NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily with growth suppressing properties in lung cancer.

    Tran YK, Bögler O, Gorse KM, Wieland I, Green MR and Newsham IF

    University of California-San Diego Cancer Center, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA.

    A novel putative tumor suppressor gene and member of the NF2/ERM/ 4.1 superfamily was isolated using Differential Display PCR (DDPCR) on primary lung tumors. When reintroduced into nonexpressing non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines, this gene, named DAL-1 (for Differentially expressed in Adenocarcinoma of the Lung), was shown to suppress growth. In addition, significantly reduced expression (>50%) of DAL-1 was measured in 39 primary non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors as compared with patient-matched normal lung tissue. Immunocytochemical staining with a polyclonal anti-DAL-1 antibody localized the protein to the plasma membrane, particularly at cell-cell contact points, a pattern reminiscent of other members of the protein 4.1 superfamily including ezrin and NF2. The data suggest DAL-1 is a novel membrane-associated protein with potential to play an important role in the origin and progression of lung cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1 CA R29-71975

    Cancer research 1999;59;1;35-43

  • Four paralogous protein 4.1 genes map to distinct chromosomes in mouse and human.

    Peters LL, Weier HU, Walensky LD, Snyder SH, Parra M, Mohandas N and Conboy JG

    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, 04609, USA.

    Four highly conserved members of the skeletal protein 4.1 gene family encode a diverse array of protein isoforms via tissue-specific transcription and developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In addition to the prototypical red blood cell 4.1R (human gene symbol EPB41,) these include two homologues that are strongly expressed in the brain (4.1N, EPB41L1; and 4.1B, EPB41L3) and another that is widely expressed in many tissues (4.1G, EPB41L2). As part of a study on the structure and evolution of the 4.1 genes in human and mouse, we have now completed the chromosomal mapping of their respective loci by reporting the localization of mouse 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B, as well as human 4.1B. For the mouse 4.1 genes, Southern blot analysis of RFLPs in The Jackson Laboratory BSS interspecific backcross yielded the following assignments: 4.1N (Epb4.1l1,) chromosome 2; 4.1G (Epb4.1l2,) chromosome 10; and 4.1B (Epb4.1l3,) mouse chromosome 17. Human 4.1B was physically mapped to chromosome 18p11 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. All of the mouse genes mapped within or adjacent to regions of conserved synteny with corresponding human chromosomes. We conclude that a set of four paralogous 4.1 genes has been evolutionarily conserved in rodents and primates.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32094

    Genomics 1998;54;2;348-50

  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence.

    Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD, Fuldner RA, Bult CJ, Lee NH, Kirkness EF, Weinstock KG, Gocayne JD, White O et al.

    Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA.

    In an effort to identify new genes and analyse their expression patterns, 174,472 partial complementary DNA sequences (expressed sequence tags (ESTs)), totalling more than 52 million nucleotides of human DNA sequence, have been generated from 300 cDNA libraries constructed from 37 distinct organs and tissues. These ESTs have been combined with an additional 118,406 ESTs from the database dbEST, for a total of 83 million nucleotides, and treated as a shotgun sequence assembly project. The assembly process yielded 29,599 distinct tentative human consensus (THC) sequences and 58,384 non-overlapping ESTs. Of these 87,983 distinct sequences, 10,214 further characterize previously known genes based on statistically significant similarity to sequences in the available databases; the remainder identify previously unknown genes. Thirty tissues were sampled by over 1,000 ESTs each; only eight genes were matched by ESTs from all 30 tissues, and 227 genes were represented in 20 or more of the tissues sampled with more than 1,000 ESTs. Approximately 40% of identified human genes appear to be associated with basic energy metabolism, cell structure, homeostasis and cell division, 22% with RNA and protein synthesis and processing, and 12% with cell signalling and communication.

    Nature 1995;377;6547 Suppl;3-174

  • Rapid cDNA sequencing (expressed sequence tags) from a directionally cloned human infant brain cDNA library.

    Adams MD, Soares MB, Kerlavage AR, Fields C and Venter JC

    Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    A human infant brain cDNA library, made specifically for production of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was evaluated by partial sequencing of over 1,600 clones. Advantages of this library, constructed for EST sequencing, include the use of directional cloning, size selection, very low numbers of mitochondrial and ribosomal transcripts, short polyA tails, few non-recombinants and a broad representation of transcripts. 37% of the clones were identified, based on matches to over 320 different genes in the public databases. Of these, two proteins similar to the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein were identified.

    Nature genetics 1993;4;4;373-80

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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