G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001821
Gene symbol
SHANK2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2
Orthologue
G00000572 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000134303 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000162105 (Ensembl human gene)
22941 (Entrez Gene)
29 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SHANK2 (GeneCards)
Literature
603290 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:14295 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UPX8 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CTTNBP1
  • ProSAP1
  • SHANK
  • SPANK-3

Diseases (5)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000220: Hearing impairment (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic) Y N (17211611) No mutation found (N) N
D00000220: Hearing impairment (autosomal recessive nonsyndromic) Y N (17166180) No mutation found (N) N
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (9800222) Repeat polymorphism (RP) Y
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (11353443) Repeat polymorphism (RP) N
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (15276701) Repeat polymorphism (RP) Y
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (11807411) Repeat polymorphism (RP) N
D00000171: Major depressive disorder Y N (15118355) Repeat polymorphism (RP) ?
D00000170: Bipolar disorder Y N (15118355) Repeat polymorphism (RP) N
D00000170: Bipolar disorder Y N (12895207) Repeat polymorphism (RP) N
D00000139: Diabetes mellitus N N (12765847) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (15999343) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y
D00000166: Schizophrenia Y N (15318030) Polymorphism (P) N

References

  • A novel locus for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment, DFNB63, maps to chromosome 11q13.2-q13.4.

    Kalay E, Caylan R, Kiroglu AF, Yasar T, Collin RW, Heister JG, Oostrik J, Cremers CW, Brunner HG, Karaguzel A and Kremer H

    Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E.Kalay@ktu.edu.tr

    Hereditary hearing impairment is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. To date, 49 autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) loci have been described, and there are more than 16 additional loci announced. In 25 of the known loci, causative genes have been identified. A genome scan and fine mapping revealed a novel locus for ARNSHI (DFNB63) on chromosome 11q13.2-q13.4 in a five-generation Turkish family (TR57). The homozygous linkage interval is flanked by the markers D11S1337 and D11S2371 and spans a 5.3-Mb interval. A maximum two-point log of odds score of 6.27 at a recombination fraction of theta = 0.0 was calculated for the marker D11S4139. DFNB63 represents the eighth ARNSHI locus mapped to chromosome 11, and about 3.33 Mb separate the DFNB63 region from MYO7A (DFNB2/DFNB11). Sequencing of coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of 13 candidate genes, namely SHANK2, CTTN, TPCN2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, FCHSD2, PHR1, TMEM16A, RAB6A, MYEOV, P2RY2 and KIAA0280, in genomic DNA from an affected individual of family TR57 revealed no disease-causing mutations.

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2007;85;4;397-404

  • Localization of a novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus DFNB63 to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4.

    Tlili A, Masmoudi S, Dhouib H, Bouaziz S, Rebeh IB, Chouchen J, Turki K, Benzina Z, Charfedine I, Drira M and Ayadi H

    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Tunisie.

    Hereditary hearing impairment is the most genetically heterogeneous trait known in humans. So far, 50 published autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) loci have been mapped, and 23 ARNSHI genes have been identified. Here, we report the mapping of a novel ARNSHI locus, DFNB63, to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4 in a large consanguineous Tunisian family. A maximum LOD score of 5.33 was obtained with microsatellite markers D11S916 and D11S4207. Haplotype analysis defined a 5.55 Mb critical region between microsatellite markers D11S4136 and D11S4081. DFNB63 represents the sixth ARNSHI locus mapped to chromosome 11. We positionally excluded MYO7A from being the DFNB63-causative gene. In addition, the screening of two candidate genes, SHANK2 and KCNE3, failed to reveal any disease-causing mutations.

    Annals of human genetics 2007;71;Pt 2;271-5

  • Cytosolic PLA2 genes possibly contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia.

    Tao R, Yu Y, Zhang X, Guo Y, Shi J, Zhang X, Xie L, Liu S, Ju G, Xu Q, Shen Y and Wei J

    Jilin University Research Center for Genomic Medicine, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

    The present study detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), BanISNP at the PLA2G4A locus, rs1648833 at the PLA2G4B locus, and rs1549637 at the PLA2G4C locus, to investigate a genetic association between the cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) genes and schizophrenia. A total of 240 Chinese parent-offspring trios of Han descent were recruited for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed allelic association for rs1549637 (chi(2) = 5.68, uncorrected P = 0.017), but not for BanISNP and rs1648833. The conditioning on genotype (COG) test revealed a disease association for the BanISNP-rs1648833 combination (chi(2) = 12.54, df = 3, P = 0.0057) and for the BanISNP-rs1549637 combination (chi(2) = 9.72, df = 2, P = 0.021), but the conditioning on allele (COA) test did not show such an association for the above two combinations. Neither the COA test nor the COG showed a disease association for the rs1648833-rs1549637 combination. In the combination of all three SNPs, the COG test, but not the COA test, showed a strong association (chi(2) = 22.93, df = 6, P = 0.0008). These findings suggest that these three cPLA2 genes may all be involved in contributing to the etiology of schizophrenia although their effect size appears to be relatively small.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;137B;1;56-8

  • Allelic association analysis of phospholipase A2 genes with schizophrenia.

    Junqueira R, Cordeiro Q, Meira-Lima I, Gattaz WF and Vallada H

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, LIM 27, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Several studies suggest increased activity of phospholipase A2 in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, variants of four genes coding for phospholipase A2 enzyme groups (sPLA2, cPLA2, iPLA2 and PAFAH) were analysed in a case-control sample using 240 schizophrenic patients and 312 healthy controls. No difference was observed on the allelic and genotypic distribution of cPLA2 and sPLA2 gene polymorphisms among the groups. The PAFAH variant was very rare in our population and therefore not informative. A significant allelic (chi2=5.86, P=0.0085, odds ratio=1.38, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.77) and genotypic (chi2=5.4, P=0.02) association with the iPLA2 gene polymorphism was found. In conclusion, our data suggested that iPLA2 may play a role as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in our sample; however, confirmatory studies in independent samples are needed.

    Psychiatric genetics 2004;14;3;157-60

  • BanI polymorphism of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia.

    Pae CU, Yu HS, Lee KU, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Jun TY, Lee C and Paik IH

    Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam St. Mary' Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, 505 Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-701, South Korea.

    Membrane phospholipid abnormalities have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a major role in the metabolism of fatty acids but is also found in abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the association between the cPLA2 gene BanI polymorphism and schizophrenia. Ninety-seven Korean schizophrenia patients and 117 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Genotype and allele distributions were significantly different between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In particular, the A2 allele was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia (p = 0.003; odds ratio (OR) = 1.799; confidence interval (CI) = 1.192-2.716). However, the polymorphism was not different when the patient group was subdivided by the presence or absence of family history and by positive and negative subgroups according to the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) score on schizophrenia. The results of this study replicated those of previous findings from Western countries and indicates the need for further studies on the potential role of the cPLA2 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2004;28;4;739-41

  • BanI polymorphism of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene and mood disorders in the Korean population.

    Pae CU, Yu HS, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Lee KU, Jun TY, Paik IH, Serretti A and Lee C

    Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    Membrane phospholipid abnormalities have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders, and in signal transduction and neurotransmitter uptake. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is not only an essential enzyme in the metabolism of fatty acids but also in signaling process. Therefore, we examined the association between the BanI polymorphism of the cPLA2 gene and mood disorders. Sixty-two patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 50 patients with bipolar I disorder (BID) and 117 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotyping was performed by using PCR-based methods. Genotype and allele distributions in MDD patients were significantly different from those of the controls. In particular, the A2 allele was associated with increased risk of MDD development (p = 0.007, odds ratio = 1.827; confidence interval = 1.141-2.927). However, the polymorphism was not different between BID patients and controls in genotype and allele distribution. This preliminary study indicates the need for further studies on the potential role of the cPLA2 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to mood disorders.

    Neuropsychobiology 2004;49;4;185-8

  • Allelic association study between phospholipase A2 genes and bipolar affective disorder.

    Meira-Lima I, Jardim D, Junqueira R, Ikenaga E and Vallada H

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Objectives: In vivo studies demonstrating that lithium is a powerful phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor suggest that PLA2 activation, and subsequent cell signaling overactivation by increased fatty acid release may be the primary abnormality in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), thus making PLA2 genes attractive candidates for the susceptibility to BPAD. The present study investigates polymorphisms in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), and secretory phospholipase (sPLA2) genes in a Brazilian sample.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 181 unrelated DSM-IIIR BPAD subjects and 312 controls. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for BanI cPLA2 and AvrII iPLA2 polymorphisms was performed, and an ATT repeat in sPLA2 was assessed using a semiautomated genetic analyzer (ALFexpress).

    Results: There was no significant difference observed in the allelic and genotypic distribution between the BPAD and control groups for cPLA2 (genotype: chi2 = 0.8, 2df, p = 0.6; allele chi2 = 0, 1df, p = 0.9), iPLA2 (genotype: chi2 = 1.7, 2df, p = 0.4; allele: chi2 = 0.3, 1df, p = 0.6), and sPLA2 (allele: chi2 = 3.6, 6df, p = 0.8).

    Conclusion: Our results failed to demonstrate that the studied PLA2 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk for BPAD in our sample.

    Bipolar disorders 2003;5;4;295-9

  • Association of a F479L variant in the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2G4A) with decreased glucose turnover and oxidation rates in Pima Indians.

    Wolford JK, Konheim YL, Colligan PB and Bogardus C

    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, Phoenix Epidemiology and Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4212 North 16th Street, AZ 85016, USA. jwolford@exchange.nih.gov

    Phospholipase A2, Group IVA (PLA2G4A) belongs to the class of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipases (cPLA2s) that preferentially cleave arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane glycerophospholipids. AA and AA metabolites play key roles in glucose disposal and insulin secretion. PLA2G4A is located on Chromosome 1q, where a number of groups have reported linkage to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have screened the PLA2G4A gene and identified a C-->G variant, which predicts a phenylalanine to leucine substitution. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and birth year, we found a trend toward association between this SNP and diabetes [OR=1.53 (0.97-2.40); p=0.06]. Individuals with the variant genotype had lower mean basal endogenous glucose output (1.8+/-0.03 vs. 1.9+/-0.01 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.04) and lower mean basal glucose oxidation (1.2+/-0.11 vs. 1.4+/-0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.005) compared to individuals with the wild-type genotype. During a low dose insulin infusion, non-diabetic individuals with the variant genotype had a lower mean glucose oxidation (1.9+/-0.11 vs. 2.0+/-0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.04) and total glucose turnover rate (2.5+/-0.22 vs. 2.6+/-0.06 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.01) compared to subjects with the wild-type genotype. In addition, under basal conditions, individuals with the variant genotype had a higher mean lipid oxidation rate compared to individuals with the wild-type genotype (0.77+/-0.25 vs. 0.67+/-0.23 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.02). These results provide evidence supporting a role for the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathophysiology.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2003;79;1;61-6

  • Association studies of cytosolic phospholipase A2 polymorphisms and schizophrenia among two independent family-based samples.

    Chowdari KV, Brandstaetter B, Semwal P, Bhatia T, Deshpande S, Reddy R, Wood J, Weinberg CR, Thelma BK and Nimgaonkar VL

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    An association between the cytosolic phospholipase A2 locus (cPLA2) and schizophrenia has been reported using two polymorphic DNA markers. In an attempt to replicate these results, two independent family-based samples were ascertained from the United States and India (86 and 159 families, respectively). No significant associations were detected in either sample.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R03 TW00730; NIMH NIH HHS: MH01489, MH53459, MH56242, R01 MH056242, R10 MH056242

    Psychiatric genetics 2001;11;4;207-12

  • Lack of association between schizophrenia and the phospholipase-A(2) genes cPLA2 and sPLA2.

    Frieboes RM, Moises HW, Gattaz WF, Yang L, Li T, Liu X, Vetter P, Macciardi F, Hwu HG and Henn F

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Kiel University Hospital, Kiel, Germany.

    The well-established role of genetic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia together with reports of allelic association with cPLA2, a phospholipase-A(2) gene, a reported increase of phospholipase-A(2) activity, and the phospholipase-A(2) hypothesis of Horrobin et al. [1995: Med Hypotheses 45:605-613] strongly support cPLA2 (PLA2G4A) and sPLA2 (PLA2G1B) as candidate genes for schizophrenia. In search for allelic association between these phospholipase-A(2) genes and schizophrenia, two samples of Chinese and European origins, in total 328 unrelated schizophrenic patients and their parents, were investigated using Falk and Rubinstein's haplotype relative risk method. Both genes showed marginally significant evidence for association in the total sample (P <or= 0.05), which, however, did not survive the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our results do not provide support for the phospholipase-A(2) hypothesis of schizophrenia. Additional studies will be necessary to rule out a possible confounding effect of niacin sensitivity as postulated by Hudson et al. [1999: Biol Psychiatr 46:401-405].

    American journal of medical genetics 2001;105;3;246-9

  • Association of the Ban I dimorphic site at the human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene with schizophrenia.

    Peet M, Ramchand CN, Lee J, Telang SD, Vankar GK, Shah S and Wei J

    University Department of Psychiatry, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK. m.peet@sheffield.ac.uk

    There is evidence of increased phospholipid breakdown in cell membranes of patients suffering from schizophrenia. This may be related to increased levels of the enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) which have been reported in schizophrenic subjects. We have identified a Ban I dimorphic site on the first intron of the cPLA2 gene. Schizophrenic subjects were found to have a significant excess of the A2/A2 homozygote relative to healthy control subjects. Genetically determined alterations in phospholipase activity may thus underlie the reported abnormalities of phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Psychiatric genetics 1998;8;3;191-2

Literature (35)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • A novel locus for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment, DFNB63, maps to chromosome 11q13.2-q13.4.

    Kalay E, Caylan R, Kiroglu AF, Yasar T, Collin RW, Heister JG, Oostrik J, Cremers CW, Brunner HG, Karaguzel A and Kremer H

    Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E.Kalay@ktu.edu.tr

    Hereditary hearing impairment is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. To date, 49 autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) loci have been described, and there are more than 16 additional loci announced. In 25 of the known loci, causative genes have been identified. A genome scan and fine mapping revealed a novel locus for ARNSHI (DFNB63) on chromosome 11q13.2-q13.4 in a five-generation Turkish family (TR57). The homozygous linkage interval is flanked by the markers D11S1337 and D11S2371 and spans a 5.3-Mb interval. A maximum two-point log of odds score of 6.27 at a recombination fraction of theta = 0.0 was calculated for the marker D11S4139. DFNB63 represents the eighth ARNSHI locus mapped to chromosome 11, and about 3.33 Mb separate the DFNB63 region from MYO7A (DFNB2/DFNB11). Sequencing of coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of 13 candidate genes, namely SHANK2, CTTN, TPCN2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, FCHSD2, PHR1, TMEM16A, RAB6A, MYEOV, P2RY2 and KIAA0280, in genomic DNA from an affected individual of family TR57 revealed no disease-causing mutations.

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2007;85;4;397-404

  • Localization of a novel autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment locus DFNB63 to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4.

    Tlili A, Masmoudi S, Dhouib H, Bouaziz S, Rebeh IB, Chouchen J, Turki K, Benzina Z, Charfedine I, Drira M and Ayadi H

    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Faculté de Médecine de Sfax, Tunisie.

    Hereditary hearing impairment is the most genetically heterogeneous trait known in humans. So far, 50 published autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) loci have been mapped, and 23 ARNSHI genes have been identified. Here, we report the mapping of a novel ARNSHI locus, DFNB63, to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4 in a large consanguineous Tunisian family. A maximum LOD score of 5.33 was obtained with microsatellite markers D11S916 and D11S4207. Haplotype analysis defined a 5.55 Mb critical region between microsatellite markers D11S4136 and D11S4081. DFNB63 represents the sixth ARNSHI locus mapped to chromosome 11. We positionally excluded MYO7A from being the DFNB63-causative gene. In addition, the screening of two candidate genes, SHANK2 and KCNE3, failed to reveal any disease-causing mutations.

    Annals of human genetics 2007;71;Pt 2;271-5

  • Cytosolic PLA2 genes possibly contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia.

    Tao R, Yu Y, Zhang X, Guo Y, Shi J, Zhang X, Xie L, Liu S, Ju G, Xu Q, Shen Y and Wei J

    Jilin University Research Center for Genomic Medicine, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

    The present study detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), BanISNP at the PLA2G4A locus, rs1648833 at the PLA2G4B locus, and rs1549637 at the PLA2G4C locus, to investigate a genetic association between the cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) genes and schizophrenia. A total of 240 Chinese parent-offspring trios of Han descent were recruited for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed allelic association for rs1549637 (chi(2) = 5.68, uncorrected P = 0.017), but not for BanISNP and rs1648833. The conditioning on genotype (COG) test revealed a disease association for the BanISNP-rs1648833 combination (chi(2) = 12.54, df = 3, P = 0.0057) and for the BanISNP-rs1549637 combination (chi(2) = 9.72, df = 2, P = 0.021), but the conditioning on allele (COA) test did not show such an association for the above two combinations. Neither the COA test nor the COG showed a disease association for the rs1648833-rs1549637 combination. In the combination of all three SNPs, the COG test, but not the COA test, showed a strong association (chi(2) = 22.93, df = 6, P = 0.0008). These findings suggest that these three cPLA2 genes may all be involved in contributing to the etiology of schizophrenia although their effect size appears to be relatively small.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;137B;1;56-8

  • Allelic association analysis of phospholipase A2 genes with schizophrenia.

    Junqueira R, Cordeiro Q, Meira-Lima I, Gattaz WF and Vallada H

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, LIM 27, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Several studies suggest increased activity of phospholipase A2 in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, variants of four genes coding for phospholipase A2 enzyme groups (sPLA2, cPLA2, iPLA2 and PAFAH) were analysed in a case-control sample using 240 schizophrenic patients and 312 healthy controls. No difference was observed on the allelic and genotypic distribution of cPLA2 and sPLA2 gene polymorphisms among the groups. The PAFAH variant was very rare in our population and therefore not informative. A significant allelic (chi2=5.86, P=0.0085, odds ratio=1.38, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.77) and genotypic (chi2=5.4, P=0.02) association with the iPLA2 gene polymorphism was found. In conclusion, our data suggested that iPLA2 may play a role as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in our sample; however, confirmatory studies in independent samples are needed.

    Psychiatric genetics 2004;14;3;157-60

  • BanI polymorphism of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia.

    Pae CU, Yu HS, Lee KU, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Jun TY, Lee C and Paik IH

    Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam St. Mary' Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, 505 Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-701, South Korea.

    Membrane phospholipid abnormalities have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a major role in the metabolism of fatty acids but is also found in abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the association between the cPLA2 gene BanI polymorphism and schizophrenia. Ninety-seven Korean schizophrenia patients and 117 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Genotype and allele distributions were significantly different between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In particular, the A2 allele was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia (p = 0.003; odds ratio (OR) = 1.799; confidence interval (CI) = 1.192-2.716). However, the polymorphism was not different when the patient group was subdivided by the presence or absence of family history and by positive and negative subgroups according to the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) score on schizophrenia. The results of this study replicated those of previous findings from Western countries and indicates the need for further studies on the potential role of the cPLA2 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2004;28;4;739-41

  • BanI polymorphism of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene and mood disorders in the Korean population.

    Pae CU, Yu HS, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Lee KU, Jun TY, Paik IH, Serretti A and Lee C

    Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    Membrane phospholipid abnormalities have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders, and in signal transduction and neurotransmitter uptake. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is not only an essential enzyme in the metabolism of fatty acids but also in signaling process. Therefore, we examined the association between the BanI polymorphism of the cPLA2 gene and mood disorders. Sixty-two patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 50 patients with bipolar I disorder (BID) and 117 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotyping was performed by using PCR-based methods. Genotype and allele distributions in MDD patients were significantly different from those of the controls. In particular, the A2 allele was associated with increased risk of MDD development (p = 0.007, odds ratio = 1.827; confidence interval = 1.141-2.927). However, the polymorphism was not different between BID patients and controls in genotype and allele distribution. This preliminary study indicates the need for further studies on the potential role of the cPLA2 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to mood disorders.

    Neuropsychobiology 2004;49;4;185-8

  • Allelic association study between phospholipase A2 genes and bipolar affective disorder.

    Meira-Lima I, Jardim D, Junqueira R, Ikenaga E and Vallada H

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Objectives: In vivo studies demonstrating that lithium is a powerful phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor suggest that PLA2 activation, and subsequent cell signaling overactivation by increased fatty acid release may be the primary abnormality in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), thus making PLA2 genes attractive candidates for the susceptibility to BPAD. The present study investigates polymorphisms in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), and secretory phospholipase (sPLA2) genes in a Brazilian sample.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 181 unrelated DSM-IIIR BPAD subjects and 312 controls. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for BanI cPLA2 and AvrII iPLA2 polymorphisms was performed, and an ATT repeat in sPLA2 was assessed using a semiautomated genetic analyzer (ALFexpress).

    Results: There was no significant difference observed in the allelic and genotypic distribution between the BPAD and control groups for cPLA2 (genotype: chi2 = 0.8, 2df, p = 0.6; allele chi2 = 0, 1df, p = 0.9), iPLA2 (genotype: chi2 = 1.7, 2df, p = 0.4; allele: chi2 = 0.3, 1df, p = 0.6), and sPLA2 (allele: chi2 = 3.6, 6df, p = 0.8).

    Conclusion: Our results failed to demonstrate that the studied PLA2 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk for BPAD in our sample.

    Bipolar disorders 2003;5;4;295-9

  • Association studies of cytosolic phospholipase A2 polymorphisms and schizophrenia among two independent family-based samples.

    Chowdari KV, Brandstaetter B, Semwal P, Bhatia T, Deshpande S, Reddy R, Wood J, Weinberg CR, Thelma BK and Nimgaonkar VL

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    An association between the cytosolic phospholipase A2 locus (cPLA2) and schizophrenia has been reported using two polymorphic DNA markers. In an attempt to replicate these results, two independent family-based samples were ascertained from the United States and India (86 and 159 families, respectively). No significant associations were detected in either sample.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R03 TW00730; NIMH NIH HHS: MH01489, MH53459, MH56242, R01 MH056242, R10 MH056242

    Psychiatric genetics 2001;11;4;207-12

  • Lack of association between schizophrenia and the phospholipase-A(2) genes cPLA2 and sPLA2.

    Frieboes RM, Moises HW, Gattaz WF, Yang L, Li T, Liu X, Vetter P, Macciardi F, Hwu HG and Henn F

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Kiel University Hospital, Kiel, Germany.

    The well-established role of genetic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia together with reports of allelic association with cPLA2, a phospholipase-A(2) gene, a reported increase of phospholipase-A(2) activity, and the phospholipase-A(2) hypothesis of Horrobin et al. [1995: Med Hypotheses 45:605-613] strongly support cPLA2 (PLA2G4A) and sPLA2 (PLA2G1B) as candidate genes for schizophrenia. In search for allelic association between these phospholipase-A(2) genes and schizophrenia, two samples of Chinese and European origins, in total 328 unrelated schizophrenic patients and their parents, were investigated using Falk and Rubinstein's haplotype relative risk method. Both genes showed marginally significant evidence for association in the total sample (P <or= 0.05), which, however, did not survive the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our results do not provide support for the phospholipase-A(2) hypothesis of schizophrenia. Additional studies will be necessary to rule out a possible confounding effect of niacin sensitivity as postulated by Hudson et al. [1999: Biol Psychiatr 46:401-405].

    American journal of medical genetics 2001;105;3;246-9

  • Association of the Ban I dimorphic site at the human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene with schizophrenia.

    Peet M, Ramchand CN, Lee J, Telang SD, Vankar GK, Shah S and Wei J

    University Department of Psychiatry, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK. m.peet@sheffield.ac.uk

    There is evidence of increased phospholipid breakdown in cell membranes of patients suffering from schizophrenia. This may be related to increased levels of the enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) which have been reported in schizophrenic subjects. We have identified a Ban I dimorphic site on the first intron of the cPLA2 gene. Schizophrenic subjects were found to have a significant excess of the A2/A2 homozygote relative to healthy control subjects. Genetically determined alterations in phospholipase activity may thus underlie the reported abnormalities of phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Psychiatric genetics 1998;8;3;191-2

Pubmed - other

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification.

    Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES and Sakaki Y

    RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. taylor@gsc.riken.jp

    Chromosome 11, although average in size, is one of the most gene- and disease-rich chromosomes in the human genome. Initial gene annotation indicates an average gene density of 11.6 genes per megabase, including 1,524 protein-coding genes, some of which were identified using novel methods, and 765 pseudogenes. One-quarter of the protein-coding genes shows overlap with other genes. Of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome, more than 40% are located in 28 single- and multi-gene clusters along this chromosome. Out of the 171 disorders currently attributed to the chromosome, 86 remain for which the underlying molecular basis is not yet known, including several mendelian traits, cancer and susceptibility loci. The high-quality data presented here--nearly 134.5 million base pairs representing 99.8% coverage of the euchromatic sequence--provide scientists with a solid foundation for understanding the genetic basis of these disorders and other biological phenomena.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;440;7083;497-500

  • Shank2 associates with and regulates Na+/H+ exchanger 3.

    Han W, Kim KH, Jo MJ, Lee JH, Yang J, Doctor RB, Moe OW, Lee J, Kim E and Lee MG

    Department of Pharmacology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea.

    Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) plays a pivotal role in transepithelial Na+ and HCO3(-) absorption across a wide range of epithelia in the digestive and renal-genitourinary systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that PDZ-based adaptor proteins play an important role in regulating the trafficking and activity of NHE3. A search for NHE3-binding modular proteins using yeast two-hybrid assays led us to the PDZ-based adaptor Shank2. The interaction between Shank2 and NHE3 was further confirmed by immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance studies. When expressed in PS120/NHE3 cells, Shank2 increased the membrane expression and basal activity of NHE3 and attenuated the cAMP-dependent inhibition of NHE3 activity. Furthermore, knock-down of native Shank2 expression in Caco-2 epithelial cells by RNA interference decreased NHE3 protein expression as well as activity but amplified the inhibitory effect of cAMP on NHE3. These results indicate that Shank2 is a novel NHE3 interacting protein that is involved in the fine regulation of transepithelial salt and water transport through affecting NHE3 expression and activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;3;1461-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins interacts with and promotes synaptic accumulation of the beta PIX guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42.

    Park E, Na M, Choi J, Kim S, Lee JR, Yoon J, Park D, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The Shank/ProSAP family of multidomain proteins is known to play an important role in organizing synaptic multiprotein complexes. Here we report a novel interaction between Shank and beta PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rac1 and Cdc42 small GTPases. This interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of Shank and the C-terminal leucine zipper domain and the PDZ domain-binding motif at the extreme C terminus of beta PIX. Shank colocalizes with beta PIX at excitatory synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Shank forms a complex with beta PIX and beta PIX-associated signaling molecules including p21-associated kinase (PAK), an effector kinase of Rac1/Cdc42. Importantly, overexpression of Shank in cultured neurons promotes synaptic accumulation of beta PIX and PAK. Considering the involvement of Rac1 and PAK in spine dynamics, these results suggest that Shank recruits beta PIX and PAK to spines for the regulation of postsynaptic structure.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;21;19220-9

  • Association of a F479L variant in the cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2G4A) with decreased glucose turnover and oxidation rates in Pima Indians.

    Wolford JK, Konheim YL, Colligan PB and Bogardus C

    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, Phoenix Epidemiology and Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4212 North 16th Street, AZ 85016, USA. jwolford@exchange.nih.gov

    Phospholipase A2, Group IVA (PLA2G4A) belongs to the class of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipases (cPLA2s) that preferentially cleave arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane glycerophospholipids. AA and AA metabolites play key roles in glucose disposal and insulin secretion. PLA2G4A is located on Chromosome 1q, where a number of groups have reported linkage to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have screened the PLA2G4A gene and identified a C-->G variant, which predicts a phenylalanine to leucine substitution. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and birth year, we found a trend toward association between this SNP and diabetes [OR=1.53 (0.97-2.40); p=0.06]. Individuals with the variant genotype had lower mean basal endogenous glucose output (1.8+/-0.03 vs. 1.9+/-0.01 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.04) and lower mean basal glucose oxidation (1.2+/-0.11 vs. 1.4+/-0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.005) compared to individuals with the wild-type genotype. During a low dose insulin infusion, non-diabetic individuals with the variant genotype had a lower mean glucose oxidation (1.9+/-0.11 vs. 2.0+/-0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.04) and total glucose turnover rate (2.5+/-0.22 vs. 2.6+/-0.06 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.01) compared to subjects with the wild-type genotype. In addition, under basal conditions, individuals with the variant genotype had a higher mean lipid oxidation rate compared to individuals with the wild-type genotype (0.77+/-0.25 vs. 0.67+/-0.23 mg/kgEMBS/min; p=0.02). These results provide evidence supporting a role for the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathophysiology.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2003;79;1;61-6

  • The insulin receptor substrate IRSp53 links postsynaptic shank1 to the small G-protein cdc42.

    Soltau M, Richter D and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und klinische Neurobiologie, Universitätskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

    The multidomain shank/ProSAP/SSTRIP proteins are major scaffold proteins in glutamatergic synapses in the mammalian brain; expression of shank1/SSTRIP in hippocampal neurons induces morphological changes in dendritic spines, suggesting that shank1 is involved in synapse formation and activity-dependent changes of synaptic structure. Using part of the proline-rich region of shank1 in a yeast two hybrid screen, we identified the insulin receptor substrate IRSp53 as an interaction partner. Overlay assays verified a strong interaction between a proline-rich sequence (residues 911-940) in shank1 and the SH3 domain of IRSp53. When coexpressed in HEK cells, shank1 colocalizes with IRSp53 in intracellular structures, preventing targeting of IRSp53 to filopodia which are induced by IRSp53 expression in the absence of shank1. IRSp53 also binds to the activated form of the small G-protein cdc42. Interestingly, IRSp53 coprecipitates with shank1 from transfected HEK cells in a small G-protein-regulated manner. Thus, IRSp53 constitutes a cdc42-regulated ligand for shank1 which may provide a molecular basis for small G-protein mediated effects on the structure of the postsynaptic complex.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2002;21;4;575-83

  • Dynamin isoform-specific interaction with the shank/ProSAP scaffolding proteins of the postsynaptic density and actin cytoskeleton.

    Okamoto PM, Gamby C, Wells D, Fallon J and Vallee RB

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.

    Dynamin is a GTPase involved in endocytosis and other aspects of membrane trafficking. A critical function in the presynaptic compartment attributed to the brain-specific dynamin isoform, dynamin-1, is in synaptic vesicle recycling. We report that dynamin-2 specifically interacts with members of the Shank/ProSAP family of postsynaptic density scaffolding proteins and present evidence that dynamin-2 is specifically associated with the postsynaptic density. These data are consistent with a role for this otherwise broadly distributed form of dynamin in glutamate receptor down-regulation and other aspects of postsynaptic membrane turnover.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR015578, P20 RR015578-020002; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26701; NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS039321, P01 NS039321-020002

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48458-65

  • The G protein-coupled receptor CL1 interacts directly with proteins of the Shank family.

    Tobaben S, Südhof TC and Stahl B

    Max Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    PDZ domains play a pivotal role in the synaptic localization of ion channels, receptors, signaling enzymes, and cell adhesion molecules. These domains mediate protein-protein interactions via the recognition of a conserved sequence motif at the extreme C terminus of their target proteins. By means of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the C terminus of the G protein-coupled alpha-latrotoxin receptor CL1 as bait, three PDZ domain proteins of the Shank family were identified. These proteins belong to a single protein family characterized by a common domain organization. The PDZ domain is highly conserved among the family members, significantly different from other known PDZ domains, and specifically binds to the C terminus of CL1. Shank1 and CL1 are expressed primarily in brain, and both proteins co-enrich in the postsynaptic density. Furthermore, Shank1 induces a clustering of CL1 in transfected cells, strongly supporting an interaction of both proteins in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36204-10

  • The calcium-independent receptor for alpha-latrotoxin from human and rodent brains interacts with members of the ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank family of multidomain proteins.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H, Gundelfinger ED, Richter D and Bockers TM

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und Klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Subtypes of the calcium-independent receptors for alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL1-3) define a distinct subgroup within the large family of the seven-transmembrane region cell surface receptors. The physiological function of CIRLs is unknown because neither extracellular ligands nor intracellular coupling proteins (G-proteins) have been identified. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel interaction between the C termini of CIRL1 and -2 and the PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of a recently discovered multidomain protein family (ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank) present in human and rat brain. In vitro, CIRL1 and CIRL2 interacted strongly with the PDZ domain of ProSAP1. The specificity of this interaction has been verified by in vivo experiments using solubilized rat brain membrane fractions and ProSAP1 antibodies; only CIRL1, but not CIRL2, was co-immunoprecipitated with ProSAP1. In situ hybridization revealed that ProSAP1 and CIRL1 are co-expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Colocalization was also observed at the subcellular level, as both CIRL1 and ProSAP1 are enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction from rat brain. Expression of all three CIRL isoforms is highly regulated during postnatal brain development, with CIRL3 exhibiting its highest expression levels immediately after birth, followed by CIRL2 and finally CIRL1 in aged rats.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32387-90

  • Interaction of the postsynaptic density-95/guanylate kinase domain-associated protein complex with a light chain of myosin-V and dynein.

    Naisbitt S, Valtschanoff J, Allison DW, Sala C, Kim E, Craig AM, Weinberg RJ and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    NMDA receptors interact directly with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), a scaffold protein that organizes a cytoskeletal- signaling complex at the postsynaptic membrane. The molecular mechanism by which the PSD-95-based protein complex is trafficked to the postsynaptic site is unknown but presumably involves specific motor proteins. Here we demonstrate a direct interaction between the PSD-95-associated protein guanylate kinase domain-associated protein (GKAP) and dynein light chain (DLC), a light chain subunit shared by myosin-V (an actin-based motor) and cytoplasmic dynein (a microtubule-based motor). A yeast two-hybrid screen with GKAP isolated DLC2, a novel protein 93% identical to the previously cloned 8 kDa dynein light chain (DLC1). A complex containing PSD-95, GKAP, DLC, and myosin-V can be immunoprecipitated from rat brain extracts. DLC colocalizes with PSD-95 and F-actin in dendritic spines of cultured neurons and is enriched in biochemical purifications of PSD. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals a concentration of DLC in the postsynaptic compartment of asymmetric synapses of brain in which it is associated with the PSD and the spine apparatus. We discuss the possibility that the GKAP/DLC interaction may be involved in trafficking of the PSD-95 complex by motor proteins.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS33184, NS35050

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;12;4524-34

  • The Shank family of scaffold proteins.

    Sheng M and Kim E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston ,MA 02114, USA. sheng@helix.mgh.harvard.edu.

    Shank proteins make up a new family of scaffold proteins recently identified through their interaction with a variety of membrane and cytoplasmic proteins. Shank polypeptides contain multiple sites for protein-protein interaction, including ankyrin repeats, an SH3 domain, a PDZ domain, a long proline-rich region, and a SAM domain. Binding partners for most of these domains have been identified: for instance, the PDZ domain of Shank proteins interacts with GKAP (a postsynaptic-density protein) as well as several G-protein-coupled receptors. The specific localization of Shank proteins at postsynaptic sites of brain excitatory synapses suggests a role for this family of proteins in the organization of cytoskeletal/ signaling complexes at specialized cell junctions.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 11);1851-6

  • Identification of proteins interacting with the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H and Richter D

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Germany.

    Using the yeast two hybrid system we have identified a novel protein termed somatostatin receptor interacting protein (SSTRIP) from human brain which interacts with the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2. Interaction with the receptor C-terminus is mediated by a PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain which exhibits high similarity to the PDZ domain of cortactin binding protein 1 (CortBP1). SSTRIP and CortBP1 define a novel family of multidomain proteins containing ankyrin repeats, SH3- and SH3 binding regions and a sterile alpha motif (SAM domain) in addition to the PDZ domain. Both SSTRIP and CortBP1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with the somatostatin receptor when co-expressed in HEK cells. Interestingly, co-localization of SSTR2 and CortBP1 at the plasma membrane is increased when SSTR2 is stimulated by agonists.

    Journal of physiology, Paris 2000;94;3-4;193-8

  • Proline-rich synapse-associated proteins ProSAP1 and ProSAP2 interact with synaptic proteins of the SAPAP/GKAP family.

    Boeckers TM, Winter C, Smalla KH, Kreutz MR, Bockmann J, Seidenbecher C, Garner CC and Gundelfinger ED

    Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Biology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, 39118, Germany. bockers@uni-muenster.de

    We have recently isolated a novel proline-rich synapse-associated protein-1 (ProSAP1) that is highly enriched in postsynaptic density (PSD). A closely related multidomain protein, ProSAP2, shares a highly conserved PDZ (PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1) domain (80% identity), a ppI domain that mediates the interaction with cortactin, and a C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha-motif) domain. In addition, ProSAP2 codes for five ankyrin repeats and a SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. Transcripts for both proteins are coexpressed in many regions of rat brain, but show a distinct expression pattern in the cerebellum. Using the PDZ domains of ProSAP1 and 2 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated several clones of the SAPAP/GKAP (SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein/guanylate kinase-associated protein) family. The association of the proteins was verified by coimmunoprecipitation and cotransfection in HEK cells. Therefore, proteins of the ProSAP family represent a novel link between SAP90/PSD-95 bound membrane receptors and the cytoskeleton at glutamatergic synapses of the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;264;1;247-52

  • Characterization of the Shank family of synaptic proteins. Multiple genes, alternative splicing, and differential expression in brain and development.

    Lim S, Naisbitt S, Yoon J, Hwang JI, Suh PG, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, Kumjeong-ku, Pusan 609-735, Korea.

    Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3 constitute a family of proteins that may function as molecular scaffolds in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Shank directly interacts with GKAP and Homer, thus potentially bridging the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-PSD-95-GKAP complex and the mGluR-Homer complex in synapses (Naisbitt, S., Kim, E., Tu, J. C. , Xiao, B., Sala, S., Valtschanoff, J., Weinberg, R. J., Worley, P. F., and Sheng, M. (1999) Neuron 23, 569-582; Tu, J. C., Xiao, B., Naisbitt, S., Yuan, J. P., Petralia, R. S., Brakeman, P., Doan, A., Aakalu, V. K., Lanahan, A. A., Sheng, M., and Worley, P. F. (1999) Neuron 23, 583-592). Shank contains multiple domains for protein-protein interaction including ankyrin repeats, an SH3 domain, a PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 domain, a sterile alpha motif domain, and a proline-rich region. By characterizing Shank cDNA clones and RT-PCR products, we found that there are four sites for alternative splicing in Shank1 and another four sites in Shank2, some of which result in deletion of specific domains of the Shank protein. In addition, the expression of the splice variants is differentially regulated in different regions of rat brain during development. Immunoblot analysis of Shank proteins in rat brain using five different Shank antibodies reveals marked heterogeneity in size (120-240 kDa) and differential spatiotemporal expression. Shank1 immunoreactivity is concentrated at excitatory synaptic sites in adult brain, and the punctate staining of Shank1 is seen in developing rat brains as early as postnatal day 7. These results suggest that alternative splicing in the Shank family may be a mechanism that regulates the molecular structure of Shank and the spectrum of Shank-interacting proteins in the PSDs of adult and developing brain.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS35050

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;41;29510-8

  • Coupling of mGluR/Homer and PSD-95 complexes by the Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins.

    Tu JC, Xiao B, Naisbitt S, Yuan JP, Petralia RS, Brakeman P, Doan A, Aakalu VK, Lanahan AA, Sheng M and Worley PF

    Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Shank is a recently described family of postsynaptic proteins that function as part of the NMDA receptor-associated PSD-95 complex (Naisbitt et al., 1999 [this issue of Neuron]). Here, we report that Shank proteins also bind to Homer. Homer proteins form multivalent complexes that bind proline-rich motifs in group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and inositol trisphosphate receptors, thereby coupling these receptors in a signaling complex. A single Homer-binding site is identified in Shank, and Shank and Homer coimmunoprecipitate from brain and colocalize at postsynaptic densities. Moreover, Shank clusters mGluR5 in heterologous cells in the presence of Homer and mediates the coclustering of Homer with PSD-95/GKAP. Thus, Shank may cross-link Homer and PSD-95 complexes in the PSD and play a role in the signaling mechanisms of both mGluRs and NMDA receptors.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10309, DA11742; NIMH NIH HHS: KO2 MH01152; ...

    Neuron 1999;23;3;583-92

  • Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin.

    Naisbitt S, Kim E, Tu JC, Xiao B, Sala C, Valtschanoff J, Weinberg RJ, Worley PF and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    NMDA receptors are linked to intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules via the PSD-95 protein complex. We report a novel family of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, termed Shank, that binds via its PDZ domain to the C terminus of PSD-95-associated protein GKAP. A ternary complex of Shank/GKAP/PSD-95 assembles in heterologous cells and can be coimmunoprecipitated from rat brain. Synaptic localization of Shank in neurons is inhibited by a GKAP splice variant that lacks the Shank-binding C terminus. In addition to its PDZ domain, Shank contains a proline-rich region that binds to cortactin and a SAM domain that mediates multimerization. Shank may function as a scaffold protein in the PSD, potentially cross-linking NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complexes and coupling them to regulators of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA103009; NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS35050; ...

    Neuron 1999;23;3;569-82

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Kikuno R, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 5.0 kb and 2.6 kb (880 amino acid residues), respectively. Database search of the predicted amino acid sequences classified 58 predicted gene products into the five functional categories, such as cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and cell division. It was also found that, for 34 gene products, homologues were detected in the databases, which were similar in sequence through almost the entire regions. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;3;197-205

  • Agonist-dependent interaction of the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2 with cortactin-binding protein 1.

    Zitzer H, Richter D and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    We report here an interaction between the C terminus of the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) and a protein that has recently been identified as cortactin-binding protein 1 (CortBP1). Interaction is mediated by the PDZ (PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1) domain of CortBP1. As shown by in situ hybridization, SSTR2 and cortactin-binding protein are coexpressed in the rat brain. The association between SSTR2 and the PDZ-domain of CortBP1 was verified by overlay assays and by coprecipitation after transfection in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Analysis by confocal microscopy indicates that CortBP1 is distributed diffusely throughout the cytosol in transfected cells and that it becomes concentrated at the plasma membrane when SSTR2 is present. This process is largely increased when the receptor is stimulated by somatostatin; as CortBP1 interacts with the C terminus of SSTR2, our data suggest that the binding of agonist to the receptor increase the accessibility of the receptor C terminus to the PDZ domain of CortBP1. Our data for the first time establish a link between a G-protein coupled receptor and constituents of the cytoskeleton.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;26;18153-6

  • Identification of a novel cortactin SH3 domain-binding protein and its localization to growth cones of cultured neurons.

    Du Y, Weed SA, Xiong WC, Marshall TD and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology and Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that contains several potential signaling motifs including a Src homology 3 (SH3) domain at the distal C terminus. Translocation of cortactin to specific cortical actin structures and hyperphosphorylation of cortactin on tyrosine have been associated with the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization induced by a variety of cellular stimuli. The function of cortactin in these processes is largely unknown in part due to the lack of information about cellular binding partners for cortactin. Here we report the identification of a novel cortactin-binding protein of approximately 180 kDa by yeast two-hybrid interaction screening. The interaction of cortactin with this 180-kDa protein was confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo methods, and the SH3 domain of cortactin was found to direct this interaction. Since this protein represents the first reported natural ligand for the cortactin SH3 domain, we designated it CortBP1 for cortactin-binding protein 1. CortBP1 contains two recognizable sequence motifs within its C-terminal region, including a consensus sequence for cortactin SH3 domain-binding peptides and a sterile alpha motif. Northern and Western blot analysis indicated that CortBP1 is expressed predominately in brain tissue. Immunofluorescence studies revealed colocalization of CortBP1 with cortactin and cortical actin filaments in lamellipodia and membrane ruffles in fibroblasts expressing CortBP1. Colocalization of endogenous CortBP1 and cortactin was also observed in growth cones of developing hippocampal neurons, implicating CortBP1 and cortactin in cytoskeleton reorganization during neurite outgrowth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29243, CA40042, F32 CA075695, F32 CA75695-01, P01 CA040042, R01 CA029243, R37 CA029243; NINDS NIH HHS: F32 NS009918

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;10;5838-51

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000038 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H7 Human orthologues of cluster 7 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 4
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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