G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
internexin neuronal intermediate filament protein, alpha
G00000566 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018986 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000148798 (Ensembl human gene)
9118 (Entrez Gene)
92 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
INA (GeneCards)
605338 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6057 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
2059 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q16352 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • NF-66

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, SP, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease.

    Journal of psychiatric research 2009;43;11;978-86

  • alpha-Internexin expression identifies 1p19q codeleted gliomas.

    Ducray F, Crinière E, Idbaih A, Mokhtari K, Marie Y, Paris S, Navarro S, Laigle-Donadey F, Dehais C, Thillet J, Hoang-Xuan K, Delattre JY and Sanson M

    Unité INSERM U711, Service de Neurologie Mazarin, CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Université Paris VI, France.

    Background: alpha-Internexin (INA) is a proneural gene encoding a neurofilament interacting protein that is upregulated in some gliomas, particularly oligodendrogliomas.

    Methods: INA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 122 gliomas, and correlated to the 1p19q codeletion, a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendroglial tumors.

    Results: INA expression was strong (>10% positive cells) in 22 cases (22 oligodendroglial tumors and 0 astrocytic tumors), weak (<10% cells) in 14 cases (12 oligodendroglial tumors, 2 glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component, and 0 astrocytic tumors), and negative in 86 cases (49 oligodendroglial tumors, 9 glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component, and 28 astrocytic tumors). Among the 27 tumors exhibiting the 1p19q codeletion (all with an oligodendroglial phenotype), INA was detected in 96% (26/27, 18 strong, 8 weak) as compared to 11% (10/95, 4 strong, 6 weak) in the tumors without 1p19q codeletion (with an oligodendroglial or an astrocytic phenotype) (p < 0.001). In oligodendroglial tumors, INA expression specificity for 1p19q codeletion was 86%, sensitivity 96%, positive predictive value 76%, and negative predictive value was 98%. The prognostic impact of INA expression could be evaluated in grade III oligodendroglial tumors. Similar to 1p19q deletion, positive INA expression was correlated with better progression-free survival (52.6 vs 8.7 months [p = 0.001]) and overall survival (121.1 vs 31.4 months [p = 0.0001]).

    Conclusion: alpha-Internexin (INA) expression appears to be a simple, reliable prognostic marker and a surrogate marker of 1p19q codeletion.

    Neurology 2009;72;2;156-61

  • A comparative immunohistochemical analysis of small round cell tumors of childhood: utility of peripherin and alpha-internexin as markers for neuroblastomas.

    Willoughby V, Sonawala A, Werlang-Perurena A and Donner LR

    Department of Pathology, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple, TX 76508, USA.

    Immunohistochemical study of neuroblastomas, Ewing sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, and Wilms tumors demonstrate specific expression of peripherin and alpha-internexin in 20/22 and 6/22 cases of neuroblastomas, respectively. Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP 1B) was strongly and diffusely expressed in all 22 cases of neuroblastomas, but was also focally or multifocally expressed in 9/12 rhabdomyosarcomas and also in the blastema and stroma of 8/11 Wilms tumors. All rhabdomyosarcomas strongly and diffusely express nestin, but this marker was also expressed, multifocally, in 15/22 neuroblastomas and also in the blastema and stroma of all 11 Wilms tumors. NeuN, a neuron-specific nuclear protein, was expressed focally in 1 case of neuroblastoma and diffusely in 2 other cases (3/22). Surprisingly, it was also focally expressed in 2/12 rhabdomyosarcomas. In contrast, all 7 cases of Ewing sarcoma were negative for peripherin, MAP 1B, alpha-internexin, NeuN, and nestin. Thirteen neuroblastomas were also immunostained for neurofilaments, tyrosinase, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK 1), and were found to be negative for these markers. Our results confirm that peripherin and alpha-internexin are neuroblastoma markers useful for the differential diagnostic work-up of small round cell tumors of childhood. Strong diffuse immunoreactivity for MAP 1B favors a diagnosis of neuroblastoma, whereas strong diffuse immunoreactivity for nestin favors a diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM 2008;16;4;344-8

  • Topography of alpha-internexin-positive neuronal aggregates in 10 patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    Armstrong RA and Cairns NJ

    Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK. r.a.armstrong@aston.ac.uk

    Abnormal neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusions immunopositive for the type IV IF alpha-internexin have been identified as the pathological hallmark of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). We studied the topography of these inclusions in the frontal and temporal lobe in 68 areas from 10 cases of NIFID. In the cerebral cortex, CA sectors of the hippocampus, and dentate gyrus granule cell layer, the inclusions were distributed mainly in regularly distributed clusters, 50-800 microm in diameter. In seven cortical areas, there was a more complex pattern in which the clusters of inclusions were aggregated into larger super clusters. In 11 cortical areas, the size of the clusters approximated to those of the cells of origin of the cortico-cortical pathways but in the majority of the remaining areas, cluster size was smaller than 400 microm. The topography of the lesions suggests that there is degeneration of the cortico-cortical projections in NIFID with the formation of alpha-internexin-positive aggregates within vertical columns of cells. Initially, only a subset of cells within a vertical column develops inclusions but as the disease progresses, the whole of the column becomes affected. The corticostriate projection appears to have little effect on the cortical topography of the inclusions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: GR066166A1A

    European journal of neurology 2006;13;5;528-32

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    Suzuki T, Li W, Zhang JP, Tian QB, Sakagami H, Usuda N, Usada N, Kondo H, Fujii T and Endo S

    Department of Neuroplasticity, Institute on Ageing and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan. suzukit@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp

    We cloned from the rat brain a novel gene, tanc (GenBank Accession No. AB098072), which encoded a protein containing three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), ten ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region, and is possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols). The tanc gene was expressed widely in the adult rat brain. Subcellular distribution, immunohistochemical study of the brain and immunocytochemical studies of cultured neuronal cells indicated the postsynaptic localization of TANC protein of 200 kDa. Pull-down experiments showed that TANC protein bound PSD-95, SAP97, and Homer via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, -ESNV, and fodrin via both its ankyrin repeats and the TPRs together with the coiled-coil domain. TANC also bound the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. An immunoprecipitation study showed TANC association with various postsynaptic proteins, including guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP), alpha-internexin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor 2B and AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR1) subunits. These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2005;21;2;339-50

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • alpha-internexin is present in the pathological inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    Cairns NJ, Zhukareva V, Uryu K, Zhang B, Bigio E, Mackenzie IR, Gearing M, Duyckaerts C, Yokoo H, Nakazato Y, Jaros E, Perry RH, Lee VM and Trojanowski JQ

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4283, USA. cairns@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID) is a novel neurological disease of early onset with a variable clinical phenotype including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal, and extrapyramidal signs. Pathologically, in affected areas, there is neuronal loss, astrocytosis, and neuronal intracytoplasmic aggregates of abnormal neuronal IFs that contain neither tau nor alpha-synuclein. Thus, to characterize the neuronal IF protein profile of inclusions in NIFID, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 10 cases of NIFID, four normal aged controls (NL), and two cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a panel of anti-neuronal IF proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy was performed on selected cases and frozen tissue from the frontal lobe of four cases was used for biochemical studies including sequential extractions and Western blotting. Based on these studies, we report here for the first time that alpha-internexin, a neuronal IF protein, is present within the inclusions of NIFID as are all three neurofilament subunits: heavy, medium, and light. Thus, all class IV neuronal IF proteins are present within the pathological inclusions of this disease. Biochemistry revealed that IF aggregates were soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and no post-translational modification was detected when compared with Alzheimer's disease or aged control brains. Hence, we conclude that NIFID is characterized by the pathological cytoplasmic aggregation of all class IV neuronal IF proteins in brain. The discovery of alpha-internexin in the cytoplasmic inclusions implicates novel mechanisms of pathogenesis in NIFID and other neurological diseases with pathological accumulations of IFs.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG-09215, AG-10124, AG-10130, AG-17586, P01 AG009215, P01 AG017586, P30 AG010124; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES12068, U54 ES012068

    The American journal of pathology 2004;164;6;2153-61

  • The composition of Staufen-containing RNA granules from human cells indicates their role in the regulated transport and translation of messenger RNAs.

    Villacé P, Marión RM and Ortín J

    Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

    hStaufen is the human homolog of dmStaufen, a double-stranded (ds)RNA-binding protein involved in early development of the fly. hStaufen-containing complexes were purified by affinity chromatography from human cells transfected with a TAP-tagged hStaufen gene. These complexes showed a size >10 MDa. Untagged complexes with similar size were identified from differentiated human neuroblasts. The identity of proteins present in purified hStaufen complexes was determined by mass spectrometry and the presence of these proteins and other functionally related ones was verified by western blot. Ribosomes and proteins involved in the control of protein synthesis (PABP1 and FMRP) were present in purified hStaufen complexes, as well as elements of the cytoskeleton (tubulins, tau, actin and internexin), cytoskeleton control proteins (IQGAP1, cdc42 and rac1) and motor proteins (dynein, kinesin and myosin). In addition, proteins normally found in the nucleus, like nucleolin and RNA helicase A, were also found associated with cytosolic hStaufen complexes. The co-localization of these components with hStaufen granules in the dendrites of differentiated neuroblasts, determined by confocal immunofluorescence, validated their association in living cells. These results support the notion that the hStaufen-containing granules are structures essential in the localization and regulated translation of human mRNAs in vivo.

    Nucleic acids research 2004;32;8;2411-20

  • Novel products of the HUD, HUC, NNP-1 and alpha-internexin genes identified by autologous antibody screening of a pediatric neuroblastoma library.

    Behrends U, Jandl T, Golbeck A, Lechner B, Müller-Weihrich S, Schmid I, Till H, Berthold F, Voltz R and Mautner JM

    Hämatologie-Onkologie, Kinderklinik der Technische Universität München, Kölner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany. utabehrends@yahoo.de

    Autologous serological screening of a cDNA expression library (SEREX) derived from childhood neuroblastoma led to the identification of 10 different antigens, including 6 novel gene products. The novel antigen 018INX was derived from a small open reading frame in a region of alpha-internexin mRNA that was previously described as 3' untranslated region. 018INX thus represents a novel type of tumor antigen. Five novel gene products were derived from NNP-1 (NNP3) and Hu genes (HuC-L, HuD3, HuDY, HuD1pro(c)). As indicated by sequence analysis, these antigens were generated by alternative splicing and/or alternative promoter usage or allelic polymorphism. mRNA expression analyses revealed different tissue restrictions of novel compared to known HuD and NNP-1 transcripts in normal and malignant tissues. The expressions patterns of distinct transcripts indicated potential clinical meanings as diagnostic and/or prognostic tissue markers. When kinetics of serum antibody titres against SEREX-defined antigens were compared to tumor load over time in our patient with neuroblastoma, we found 100-fold increases of anti-Hu and anti-018INX antibody titres preceding the clinical diagnosis of recurrent tumor growth after 2 years. When sera of pediatric patients with cancer (30) and healthy controls (30) were tested for humoral responses to SEREX-defined neuroblastoma antigens, we detected antibodies against all known antigens and NNP3 with low frequencies and titres in control sera, while anti-018INX and anti-Hu antibodies were found in cancer patients only. Our findings indicate that SEREX-defined tumor antigens might provide novel tools for understanding and treatment of this aggressive childhood malignancy.

    International journal of cancer 2002;100;6;669-77

  • Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling complexes.

    Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP and Grant SG

    Centre for Genome Research, Centre for Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, UK.

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) mediate long-lasting changes in synapse strength via downstream signaling pathways. We report proteomic characterization with mass spectrometry and immunoblotting of NMDAR multiprotein complexes (NRC) isolated from mouse brain. The NRC comprised 77 proteins organized into receptor, adaptor, signaling, cytoskeletal and novel proteins, of which 30 are implicated from binding studies and another 19 participate in NMDAR signaling. NMDAR and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes were linked to cadherins and L1 cell-adhesion molecules in complexes lacking AMPA receptors. These neurotransmitter-adhesion receptor complexes were bound to kinases, phosphatases, GTPase-activating proteins and Ras with effectors including MAPK pathway components. Several proteins were encoded by activity-dependent genes. Genetic or pharmacological interference with 15 NRC proteins impairs learning and with 22 proteins alters synaptic plasticity in rodents. Mutations in three human genes (NF1, Rsk-2, L1) are associated with learning impairments, indicating the NRC also participates in human cognition.

    Nature neuroscience 2000;3;7;661-9

  • Specific interaction of HTLV tax protein and a human type IV neuronal intermediate filament protein.

    Reddy TR, Li X, Jones Y, Ellisman MH, Ching GY, Liem RK and Wong-Staal F

    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0665, USA.

    The human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is associated with adult T cell leukemia and neurological disorders (TSP/HAM). The HTLV transcriptional transactivator, Tax, is known to exert its effect through protein-protein interaction with several transcription factors that activate genes in T cell proliferation. The pathogenic mechanism in the CNS is less defined. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a specific Tax-binding protein as the neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, alpha-internexin. Tax binds to the domain corresponding to the rod region of alpha-internexin, which is essential for neurofilament assembly. The Tax domains involved in binding are separable from those involved in transactivation. TxBP-1/alpha-internexin and Tax are expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, when expressed alone, but in coexpressing cells, colocalization of both proteins was observed in a perinuclear, punctate distribution. This in vivo interaction also resulted in a dramatic reduction in Tax transactivation and the network formation by alpha-internexin. The specific interaction of Tax and a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein may provide a clue to the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR004050, RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI31378, U19 AI36612-02

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;2;702-7

  • Cloning and developmental expression of human 66 kd neurofilament protein.

    Chan SO and Chiu FC

    Saul Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    The complete human 66 kd neurofilament cDNA was isolated and its sequence was determined. Both the DNA and the predicted amino acid sequences showed a high degree of homology to the rat NF-66. This was substantiated by cross hybridization between the human NF-66 probe and rat NF-66 mRNA. Single gene copy was suggested from Southern blot analysis. RNase protection assay indicated that NF-66 was expressed in human fetal brain as early as the 16th gestational week. On the other hand, NF-L message was not detected until the 20th gestational week. NF-M message was not detectable up to the 24th gestational week.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH47667; NINDS NIH HHS: NS23705, NS23840

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1995;29;1;177-84

  • Expression of neuronal and glial polypeptides during histogenesis of the human cerebellar cortex including observations on the dentate nucleus.

    Yachnis AT, Rorke LB, Lee VM and Trojanowski JQ

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia.

    In order to gain a more complete understanding of the sequential pattern of gene expression during neurogenesis and gliogenesis in humans, we followed the expression of well-characterized, developmentally regulated polypeptides in the cerebellar cortex and dentate nucleus by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies of highly defined specificity. At 8-10 weeks gestational age (GA), progenitor cells and their immediate progeny in the rhombencephalic ventricular zone expressed vimentin and nestin and, to a lesser extent, microtubule-associated protein 5 (MAP5) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but not the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR). In contrast, postmitotic, migrating immature neurons in the intermediate zone gave strong reactions for MAP2, tau, and a nonphosphorylated form of middle molecular weight neurofilament (NF) protein (NF-M) and weak reactivity for NGFR. At 15 weeks GA, proliferating cells of the superficial part of the cerebellar external granular layer stained only for NGFR, while more deeply situated cells of the external granular layer stained positively for NGFR, MAP2, MAP5, tau, and chromogranin A, which correlates with the early outgrowth of parallel fibers. All phosphoisoforms of NF-M as well as the low (NF-L) and high (NF-H) molecular weight NF proteins and alpha-internexin were expressed in the somatodendritic domain of Purkinje cells and dentate nucleus neurons from about 20 weeks GA with a gradual compartmentalization of highly phosphorylated forms of NF-M and NF-H into axons by the end of gestation. Alpha-internexin was also expressed strongly in axons of the deep white matter from 20 weeks GA to adulthood. MAP2, synaptophysin, and NGFR showed early, transient expression in the somatodendritic domain of Purkinje cells followed by the appearance of a 220 kDa nestin-like peptide that continued to be expressed in adult Purkinje cells. Notably, developing dentate nucleus neurons expressed many of these proteins in a similar temporal sequence. Early in the developing cerebellar cortex, the expression of NF protein and synaptophysin occurred in discrete patches or columns similar to those described for other antigens (i.e., zebrins). Finally, radial glia were positive for vimentin, GFAP, and nestin from 8 weeks GA to 8 months postnatal. This study describes the distinct molecular programs of lineage commitment in cerebellar progenitor cells and in differentiating neurons and astrocytes of the human cerebellum. The acquisition of a mature molecular neuronal phenotype correlates with the establishment of structural polarity in cerebellar neurons.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-36245; NICHD NIH HHS: 1P 30 HD 26979-01

    The Journal of comparative neurology 1993;334;3;356-69

  • Alpha-internexin, a novel neuronal intermediate filament protein, precedes the low molecular weight neurofilament protein (NF-L) in the developing rat brain.

    Kaplan MP, Chin SS, Fliegner KH and Liem RK

    Department of Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    alpha-Internexin is a 66 kDa protein that copurifies with intermediate filaments (IF) from rat spinal cord and optic nerve. This protein is axonally transported in rat optic nerve along with the neurofilament triplet proteins in slow component a. Polymerization in vitro and distribution in vivo confirm that alpha-internexin is a neuronal IF. We raised 2 highly specific monoclonal antibodies to alpha-internexin which were applied to frozen rat brain sections and Western blots of cytoskeletal extracts. These results indicate that alpha-internexin is primarily an axonal protein found in most, if not all, neurons of the CNS. Immunoreactive proteins of similar molecular weight were found in cytoskeletal extracts of CNS tissue from several additional species, including mouse and cow. While the distribution of alpha-internexin as given by immunocytochemical methods is similar to that of low molecular weight neurofilament protein (NF-L) in the adult, its distribution in the embryo is far more extensive. At embryonic day 16, when the expression of NF-L is still limited to a relatively small number of cells and levels of expression are low, alpha-internexin is already found at much higher levels and in cells not yet expressing NF-L in detectable quantities. Similar results are found at embryonic day 12. These data suggest that neuronal IF in the developing nervous system contain a higher proportion of alpha-internexin than their adult counterparts, and that expression of alpha-internexin precedes that of NF-L in many or most neurons of the developing brain.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EYO3849; NINDS NIH HHS: NS15182

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1990;10;8;2735-48

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000038 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H7 Human orthologues of cluster 7 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 4
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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