G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB family, member 2
G00000552 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000068852 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000166974 (Ensembl human gene)
10982 (Entrez Gene)
969 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MAPRE2 (GeneCards)
605789 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6891 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q15555 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • EB1
  • EB2
  • RP1

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Molecular insights into mammalian end-binding protein heterodimerization.

    De Groot CO, Jelesarov I, Damberger FF, Bjelić S, Schärer MA, Bhavesh NS, Grigoriev I, Buey RM, Wüthrich K, Capitani G, Akhmanova A and Steinmetz MO

    Biomolecular Research, Structural Biology, the Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

    Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are involved in many microtubule-based processes. End binding (EB) proteins constitute a highly conserved family of +TIPs. They play a pivotal role in regulating microtubule dynamics and in the recruitment of diverse +TIPs to growing microtubule plus ends. Here we used a combination of methods to investigate the dimerization properties of the three human EB proteins EB1, EB2, and EB3. Based on Förster resonance energy transfer, we demonstrate that the C-terminal dimerization domains of EBs (EBc) can readily exchange their chains in solution. We further document that EB1c and EB3c preferentially form heterodimers, whereas EB2c does not participate significantly in the formation of heterotypic complexes. Measurements of the reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, homology modeling, and mutagenesis provide details of the molecular determinants of homo- versus heterodimer formation of EBc domains. Fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies in the presence of the cytoskeleton-associated protein-glycine-rich domains of either CLIP-170 or p150(glued) or of a fragment derived from the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein show that chain exchange of EBc domains can be controlled by binding partners. Extension of these studies of the EBc domains to full-length EBs demonstrate that heterodimer formation between EB1 and EB3, but not between EB2 and the other two EBs, occurs both in vitro and in cells as revealed by live cell imaging. Together, our data provide molecular insights for rationalizing the dominant negative control by C-terminal EB domains and form a basis for understanding the functional role of heterotypic chain exchange by EBs in cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;8;5802-14

  • Interactions between EB1 and microtubules: dramatic effect of affinity tags and evidence for cooperative behavior.

    Zhu ZC, Gupta KK, Slabbekoorn AR, Paulson BA, Folker ES and Goodson HV

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA.

    Plus end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a unique group of microtubule binding proteins that dynamically track microtubule (MT) plus ends. EB1 is a highly conserved +TIP with a fundamental role in MT dynamics, but it remains poorly understood in part because reported EB1 activities have differed considerably. One reason for this inconsistency could be the variable presence of affinity tags used for EB1 purification. To address this question and establish the activity of native EB1, we have measured the MT binding and tubulin polymerization activities of untagged EB1 and EB1 fragments and compared them with those of His-tagged EB1 proteins. We found that N-terminal His tags directly influence the interaction between EB1 and MTs, significantly increasing both affinity and activity, and that small amounts of His-tagged proteins act synergistically with larger amounts of untagged proteins. Moreover, the binding ratio between EB1 and tubulin can exceed 1:1, and EB1-MT binding curves do not fit simple binding models. These observations demonstrate that EB1 binding is not limited to the MT seam, and they suggest that EB1 binds cooperatively to MTs. Finally, we found that removal of tubulin C-terminal tails significantly reduces EB1 binding, indicating that EB1-tubulin interactions are mediated in part by the same tubulin acidic tails utilized by other MAPs. These binding relationships are important for helping to elucidate the complex of proteins at the MT tip.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM065420

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;47;32651-61

  • The microtubule-associated protein MAPRE2 is involved in perineural invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.

    Abiatari I, Gillen S, DeOliveira T, Klose T, Bo K, Giese NA, Friess H and Kleeff J

    Department of General Surgery, Technische Universität München, D-81675 Munich, Germany.

    Perineural invasion of tumor cells is a characteristic feature of human pancreatic cancer. Unrevealing the molecular mechanisms that enable cancer cells to invade and grow along nerves is important for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in this disease. We have previously identified transcriptional changes in highly nerve invasive pancreatic cancer cells. Here we further analyzed one of the identified deregulated genes, MAPRE2, a microtubule-associated protein. MAPRE2 expression was significantly increased in high versus less nerve invasive pancreatic cancer cells, and changes of MAPRE2 expression resulted in altered actin distribution in these cells. MAPRE2 was predominately expressed in normal pancreatic acinar cells but absent in ductal cells. In pancreatic cancer, there was strong cytoplasmic and occasionally nuclear expression of MAPRE2 in the cancer cells themselves. Increased MAPRE2 mRNA levels in bulk pancreatic cancer tissues tended to be associated with reduced postoperative survival of pancreatic cancer patients. In conclusion, MAPRE2 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, and seems to be involved in perineural invasion. Therefore, targeting this microtubule-associated protein might be a promising approach in the therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    International journal of oncology 2009;35;5;1111-6

  • Suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by the +TIP protein EB1 and its modulation by the CAP-Gly domain of p150glued.

    Manna T, Honnappa S, Steinmetz MO and Wilson L

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    The EB1+TIP protein family and its binding partners track growing plus ends of microtubules in cells and are thought to regulate their dynamics. Here we determined the effects of EB1 and the N-terminal CAP-Gly domain (p150n) of one of its major binding partners, p150Glued, both separately and together, on the dynamic instability parameters at plus ends of purified steady-state microtubules. With EB1 alone, the shortening rate, the extent of shortening, and the catastrophe frequency were suppressed in the absence of significant effects on the growth rate or rescue frequency. The effects of EB1 on dynamics were significantly different when p150n was added together with EB1. The rate and extent of shortening and the catastrophe frequency were suppressed 3-4 times more strongly than with EB1 alone. In addition, the EB1-p150n complex increased the rescue frequency and the mean length the microtubules grew, parameters that were not significantly affected by EB1 alone. Similarly, deletion of EB1's C-terminal tail, which is a crucial binding region for p150n, significantly increased the ability of EB1 to suppress shortening dynamics. EB1 by itself bound along the length of the microtubules with 1 mol of EB1 dimer bound per approximately 12 mol of tubulin dimer. Approximately twice the amount of EB1 was recruited to the microtubules in the presence of p150n. Our results indicate that inactivation of EB1's flexible C-terminal tail significantly changes EB1's ability to modulate microtubule dynamics. They further suggest that p150Glued may activate and thereby facilitate the recruitment of EB1 to the tips of microtubules to regulate their dynamics.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS13560

    Biochemistry 2008;47;2;779-86

  • Structural basis of microtubule plus end tracking by XMAP215, CLIP-170, and EB1.

    Slep KC and Vale RD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

    Microtubule plus end binding proteins (+TIPs) localize to the dynamic plus ends of microtubules, where they stimulate microtubule growth and recruit signaling molecules. Three main +TIP classes have been identified (XMAP215, EB1, and CLIP-170), but whether they act upon microtubule plus ends through a similar mechanism has not been resolved. Here, we report crystal structures of the tubulin binding domains of XMAP215 (yeast Stu2p and Drosophila Msps), EB1 (yeast Bim1p and human EB1), and CLIP-170 (human), which reveal diverse tubulin binding interfaces. Functional studies, however, reveal a common property that native or artificial dimerization of tubulin binding domains (including chemically induced heterodimers of EB1 and CLIP-170) induces tubulin nucleation/assembly in vitro and, in most cases, plus end tracking in living cells. We propose that +TIPs, although diverse in structure, share a common property of multimerizing tubulin, thus acting as polymerization chaperones that aid in subunit addition to the microtubule plus end.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R37 GM038499, R37 GM038499-19; PHS HHS: 38499

    Molecular cell 2007;27;6;976-91

  • Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of the microtubule end-binding protein 1, EB1, is controlled by the COP9 signalosome: possible consequences for microtubule filament stability.

    Peth A, Boettcher JP and Dubiel W

    Department of Surgery, Division of Molecular Biology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Monbijoustrasse 2, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a regulatory particle of the ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) consisting of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8). We show that the CSN stabilizes the microtubule end-binding protein 1 (EB1) towards degradation by the UPS. EB1, the master regulator of microtubule plus ends, controls microtubule growth and dynamics. Therefore, regulation of EB1 stability by the CSN has consequences for microtubule function. EB1 binds the CSN via subunit CSN5. The C terminus of EB1 is sufficient for interaction with the CSN. Dimerization of EB1 is a prerequisite for complex association and subsequent CSN-mediated phosphorylation, as revealed by studies with the EB1I224A mutant, which is unable to dimerize. In cells, EB1 and CSN co-localize to the centrosome, as demonstrated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. EB1 is ubiquitinated and its proteolysis can be inhibited by MG132, demonstrating that it is a substrate of the UPS. Its degradation is accelerated by inhibition of CSN-associated kinases. HeLa cells permanently expressing siRNAs against CSN1 (siCSN1) or CSN3 (siCSN3) exhibit reduced levels of the CSN complex accompanied by lower steady-state concentrations of EB1. In siCSN1 cells, EB1 is less phosphorylated as compared with control cells, demonstrating that the protein is most likely protected towards the UPS by CSN-mediated phosphorylation. The CSN-dependent EB1 stabilization is not due to the CSN-associated deubiquitinating enzyme USP15. Treatment with nocodazole revealed a significantly increased sensitivity of siCSN1 and siCSN3 cells towards the microtubule depolymerizing drug accompanied by a collapse of microtubule filaments. A nocodazole-induced cell-cycle arrest was partially rescued by CSN1 or EB1. These data demonstrate that the CSN-dependent protection of EB1 is important for microtubule function.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;368;2;550-63

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Misorientation and reduced stretching of aligned sister kinetochores promote chromosome missegregation in EB1- or APC-depleted cells.

    Draviam VM, Shapiro I, Aldridge B and Sorger PK

    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    The correct formation of stable but dynamic links between chromosomes and spindle microtubules (MTs) is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which kinetochores bind MTs and checkpoints monitor this binding remain poorly understood. In this paper, we analyze the functions of six kinetochore-bound MT-associated proteins (kMAPs) using RNAi, live-cell microscopy and quantitative image analysis. We find that RNAi-mediated depletion of two kMAPs, the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) and its binding partner, EB1, are unusual in affecting the movement and orientation of paired sister chromatids at the metaphase plate without perturbing kinetochore-MT attachment per se. Quantitative analysis shows that misorientation phenotypes in metaphase are uniform across chromatid pairs even though chromosomal loss (CIN) during anaphase is sporadic. However, errors in kinetochore function generated by APC or EB1 depletion are detected poorly if at all by the spindle checkpoint, even though they cause chromosome missegregation. We propose that impaired EB1 or APC function generates lesions invisible to the spindle checkpoint and thereby promotes low levels of CIN expected to fuel aneuploidy and possibly tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA08417, R01 CA084179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51464, R01 GM051464

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;12;2814-27

  • The effects of siRNA-mediated inhibition of E2A-PBX1 on EB-1 and Wnt16b expression in the 697 pre-B leukemia cell line.

    Casagrande G, te Kronnie G and Basso G

    Laboratory of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, Italy.

    A common non-random translocation in childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is t(1;19)(q23;p13), usually resulting in the expression of the chimeric gene E2A-PBX1. The role of this fusion gene during leukemogenesis is not yet fully understood; one approach to investigate its function is to selectively deplete the E2A-PBX1 protein and examine the consequences.

    We tested the efficacy of anti-E2A-PBX1 siRNA in the 697 pre-B leukemia cell line. Transfection was monitored by fluorescence microscopy and FACS, while E2A-PBX1 mRNA expression was measured using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The reduction of the level of the corresponding fusion protein was assessed by western blot analysis and the expression of putative downstream target genes was detected by SYBR Green PCR.

    Results: We demonstrated efficient downregulation induced by anti-E2A-PBX1 siRNA in 697 t(1;19)-positive leukemia cells. In particular, E2A-PBX1 silencing affected the EB-1 gene, which encodes for a protein that could contribute to the transformed phenotype of pre-B ALL. The detected EB-1 expression was reduced to 25% of the normal expression level in non-transfected 697 cells. Furthermore, the significant decrease in Wnt16b mRNA levels (but not of the Wnt16a isoform of the Wnt16 gene), observed following depletion of the fusion gene, confirms the hypothesis that Wnt16b is a target of E2A-PBX1. The siRNA inhibition was followed by an increase in apoptosis and similar results were obtained in two other ALL cell lines, one with and one without the t(1;19) translocation.

    Targeted-E2A-PBX1 inhibition leads to reduced expression of the EB-1 and Wnt16b genes; aberrant expression of these genes may be a key step in leukemogenesis in t(1;19)-positive pre-B leukemia.

    Haematologica 2006;91;6;765-71

  • Microtubule binding proteins CLIP-170, EB1, and p150Glued form distinct plus-end complexes.

    Ligon LA, Shelly SS, Tokito MK and Holzbaur EL

    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Microtubule plus-end proteins CLIP-170 and EB1 dynamically track the tips of growing microtubules in vivo. Here we examine the association of these proteins with microtubules in vitro. CLIP-170 binds tubulin dimers and co-assembles into growing microtubules. EB1 binds tubulin dimers more weakly, so no co-assembly is observed. However, EB1 binds to CLIP-170, and forms a co-complex with CLIP-170 and tubulin that is recruited to growing microtubule plus ends. The interaction between CLIP-170 and EB1 is competitively inhibited by the related CAP-Gly protein p150Glued, which also localizes to microtubule plus ends in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which the formation of distinct plus-end complexes may differentially affect microtubule dynamics in vivo.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM048661

    FEBS letters 2006;580;5;1327-32

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Overexpression of EB1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) may promote cellular growth by activating beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

    Wang Y, Zhou X, Zhu H, Liu S, Zhou C, Zhang G, Xue L, Lu N, Quan L, Bai J, Zhan Q and Xu N

    Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, Cancer Institute & Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a multifactorial etiology involving environmental and/or genetic factors. End-binding protein 1 (EB1), which was cloned as an interacting partner of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, was previously found overexpressed in ESCC. However, the precise role of EB1 in the development of this malignancy has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we analysed freshly resected ESCC specimens and demonstrated that EB1 was overexpressed in approximately 63% of tumor samples compared to matched normal tissue. We report that overexpression of EB1 in the ESCC line EC9706 significantly promotes cell growth, whereas suppression of EB1 protein level by RNA interference significantly inhibited growth of esophageal tumor cells. In addition, EB1 overexpression induced nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and promoted the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF). These effects were partially or completely abolished by coexpression of APC or DeltaN TCF4, respectively. Also, we found that EB1 affected the interaction between beta-catenin and APC. Furthermore, EB1 overexpression was correlated with cytoplasmic/nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary human ESCC. Taken together, these results support the novel hypothesis that EB1 overexpression may play a role in the development of ESCC by affecting APC function and activating the beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

    Oncogene 2005;24;44;6637-45

  • A novel EB-1/AIDA-1 isoform, AIDA-1c, interacts with the Cajal body protein coilin.

    Xu H and Hebert MD

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA. hxu@biochem.umsmed.edu

    Background: Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear suborganelles that play a role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are crucial for pre-mRNA splicing. Upon nuclear reentry, Sm-class snRNPs localize first to the CB, where the snRNA moiety of the snRNP is modified. It is not clear how snRNPs target to the CB and are released from this structure after their modification. Coilin, the CB marker protein, may participate in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN. SMN is crucial for snRNP assembly and is the protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Coilin knockout mice display significant viability problems and altered CB formation. Thus characterization of the CB and its associated proteins will give insight into snRNP biogenesis and clarify the dynamic organization of the nucleus.

    Results: In this report, we identify a novel protein isoform of EB-1/AIDA-1, termed AIDA-1c, that interacts with the CB marker protein, coilin. Northern and nested PCR experiments reveal that the AIDA-1c isoform is expressed in brain and several cancer cell lines. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that AIDA-1c competes with SmB' for coilin binding sites, but does not bind SMN. When ectopically expressed, AIDA-1c is predominantly nuclear with no obvious accumulations in CBs. Interestingly, another EB-1/AIDA-1 nuclear isoform, AIDA-1a, does not bind coilin in vivo as efficiently as AIDA-1c. Knockdown of EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms by siRNA altered Cajal body organization and reduced cell viability.

    Conclusion: These data suggest that specific EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms, such as AIDA-1c, may participate in the regulation of nucleoplasmic coilin protein interactions in neuronal and transformed cells.

    BMC cell biology 2005;6;1;23

  • CLASP1 and CLASP2 bind to EB1 and regulate microtubule plus-end dynamics at the cell cortex.

    Mimori-Kiyosue Y, Grigoriev I, Lansbergen G, Sasaki H, Matsui C, Severin F, Galjart N, Grosveld F, Vorobjev I, Tsukita S and Akhmanova A

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan.

    CLIP-associating protein (CLASP) 1 and CLASP2 are mammalian microtubule (MT) plus-end binding proteins, which associate with CLIP-170 and CLIP-115. Using RNA interference in HeLa cells, we show that the two CLASPs play redundant roles in regulating the density, length distribution and stability of interphase MTs. In HeLa cells, both CLASPs concentrate on the distal MT ends in a narrow region at the cell margin. CLASPs stabilize MTs by promoting pauses and restricting MT growth and shortening episodes to this peripheral cell region. We demonstrate that the middle part of CLASPs binds directly to EB1 and to MTs. Furthermore, we show that the association of CLASP2 with the cell cortex is MT independent and relies on its COOH-terminal domain. Both EB1- and cortex-binding domains of CLASP are required to promote MT stability. We propose that CLASPs can mediate interactions between MT plus ends and the cell cortex and act as local rescue factors, possibly through forming a complex with EB1 at MT tips.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;168;1;141-53

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Characterization of functional domains of human EB1 family proteins.

    Bu W and Su LK

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    EB1 family proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that bind microtubule plus-ends and centrosomes and regulate the dynamics and organization of microtubules. Human EB1 family proteins, which include EB1, EBF3, and RP1, also associate with the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and p150glued, a component of the dynactin complex. The structural basis for interaction between human EB1 family proteins and their associated proteins has not been defined in detail. EB1 family proteins have a calponin homology (CH) domain at their N terminus and an EB1-like C-terminal motif at their C terminus; the functional importance of these domains has not been determined. To better understand functions of human EB1 family proteins and to reveal functional similarities and differences among these proteins, we performed detailed characterizations of interactions between human EB1 family proteins and their associated proteins. We show that amino acids 1-133 of EB1 and EBF3 and the corresponding region of RP1, which contain a CH domain, are necessary and sufficient for binding microtubules, thus demonstrating for the first time that a CH domain contributes to binding microtubules. EB1 family proteins use overlapping but different regions that contain the EB1-like C-terminal motif to associate with APC and p150glued. Neither APC nor p150glued binding domain is necessary for EB1 or EBF3 to induce microtubule bundling, which requires amino acids 1-181 and 1-185 of EB1 and EBF3, respectively. We also determined that the EB1 family protein-binding regions are amino acids 2781-2820 and 18-111 of APC and p150glued, respectively.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 6672, CA 70371

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;50;49721-31

  • EB1 targets to kinetochores with attached, polymerizing microtubules.

    Tirnauer JS, Canman JC, Salmon ED and Mitchison TJ

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. jennifer_tirnauer@hms.harvard.edu

    Microtubule polymerization dynamics at kinetochores is coupled to chromosome movements, but its regulation there is poorly understood. The plus end tracking protein EB1 is required both for regulating microtubule dynamics and for maintaining a euploid genome. To address the role of EB1 in aneuploidy, we visualized its targeting in mitotic PtK1 cells. Fluorescent EB1, which localized to polymerizing ends of astral and spindle microtubules, was used to track their polymerization. EB1 also associated with a subset of attached kinetochores in late prometaphase and metaphase, and rarely in anaphase. Localization occurred in a narrow crescent, concave toward the centromere, consistent with targeting to the microtubule plus end-kinetochore interface. EB1 did not localize to kinetochores lacking attached kinetochore microtubules in prophase or early prometaphase, or upon nocodazole treatment. By time lapse, EB1 specifically targeted to kinetochores moving antipoleward, coupled to microtubule plus end polymerization, and not during plus end depolymerization. It localized independently of spindle bipolarity, the spindle checkpoint, and dynein/dynactin function. EB1 is the first protein whose targeting reflects kinetochore directionality, unlike other plus end tracking proteins that show enhanced kinetochore binding in the absence of microtubules. Our results suggest EB1 may modulate kinetochore microtubule polymerization and/or attachment.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: K08 DK-02578, R03 DK 58766; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-24364, GM-39565, R01 GM024364, R01 GM039565, R37 GM024364, R37 GM039565

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;12;4308-16

  • Evidence that an interaction between EB1 and p150(Glued) is required for the formation and maintenance of a radial microtubule array anchored at the centrosome.

    Askham JM, Vaughan KT, Goodson HV and Morrison EE

    Molecular Medicine Unit, University of Leeds, Clinical Sciences Building, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdom. rmrjma@leeds.ac.uk

    EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumor suppressor protein and components of the dynein/dynactin complex. We have found that the C-terminal 50 and 84 amino acids (aa) of EB1 were sufficient to mediate the interactions with APC and dynactin, respectively. EB1 formed mutually exclusive complexes with APC and dynactin, and a direct interaction between EB1 and p150(Glued) was identified. EB1-GFP deletion mutants demonstrated a role for the N-terminus in mediating the EB1-microtubule interaction, whereas C-terminal regions contributed to both its microtubule tip localization and a centrosomal localization. Cells expressing the last 84 aa of EB1 fused to GFP (EB1-C84-GFP) displayed profound defects in microtubule organization and centrosomal anchoring. EB1-C84-GFP expression severely inhibited microtubule regrowth, focusing, and anchoring in transfected cells during recovery from nocodazole treatment. The recruitment of gamma-tubulin and p150(Glued) to centrosomes was also inhibited. None of these effects were seen in cells expressing the last 50 aa of EB1 fused to GFP. Furthermore, EB1-C84-GFP expression did not induce Golgi apparatus fragmentation. We propose that a functional interaction between EB1 and p150(Glued) is required for microtubule minus end anchoring at centrosomes during the assembly and maintenance of a radial microtubule array.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;10;3627-45

  • Critical role for the EB1 and APC interaction in the regulation of microtubule polymerization.

    Nakamura M, Zhou XZ and Lu KP

    Cancer Biology Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    Human EB1 was originally cloned as a protein that interacts with the COOH terminus of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Interestingly, this interaction is often disrupted in colon cancer, due to mutations in APC. EB1 also interacts with the plus-ends of microtubules and targets APC to microtubule tips. Since APC is detected on the kinetochores of chromosomes, it has been hypothesized that the EB1-APC interaction connects microtubule spindles to the kinetochores and regulates microtubule stability. In yeast, EB1 regulates microtubule dynamics, and its binding domain in APC may be conserved in Kar9, an EB1 binding protein involved in the microtubule-capturing mechanism. These results suggest that the interaction of EB1 and APC is important and may be conserved. However, it is largely unknown whether the EB1-APC interaction affects microtubule dynamics. Here, we show that EB1 potently promotes microtubule polymerization in vitro and in permeabilized cells, but, surprisingly, only in the presence of the COOH-terminal EB1 binding domain of APC (C-APC). Significantly, this C-APC activity is abolished by phosphorylation, which also disrupts its ability to bind to EB1. Furthermore, yeast EB1 protein effectively substitutes for the human protein but also requires C-APC in promoting microtubule polymerization. Finally, C-APC is able to promote microtubule polymerization when stably expressed in APC mutant cells, demonstrating the ability of C-APC to promote microtubule assembly in vivo. Thus, the interaction between EB1 and APC plays an essential role in the regulation of microtubule polymerization, and a similar mechanism may be conserved in yeast.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG17870; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56230

    Current biology : CB 2001;11;13;1062-7

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • EB1 proteins regulate microtubule dynamics, cell polarity, and chromosome stability.

    Tirnauer JS and Bierer BE

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: K08 DK 02578

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;4;761-6

  • EB/RP gene family encodes tubulin binding proteins.

    Juwana JP, Henderikx P, Mischo A, Wadle A, Fadle N, Gerlach K, Arends JW, Hoogenboom H, Pfreundschuh M and Renner C

    Medical Department I, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are linked to the dysplastic transformation of colorectal polyps and represent an early step in the development of colorectal tumors. Ninety-four percent of all mutations result in the expression of a truncated APC protein lacking the C-terminal region. The C-terminal region of the APC protein may have a tumor suppressor function as its absence appears to be linked to the development of dysplastic lesions. Recently, we discovered and characterized a protein called RP1 which binds specifically to the C-terminal region of the APC protein. We show now that RP1 and the other known members of the EB/RP family (EB1 and RP3) also bind directly to tubulin, both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal a distinct staining pattern during interphase as well as an association of RP1/EB1 with mitotic microtubule structures. The previously described puncta of the APC protein at the leading edge of membrane protrusions contact microtubule fibers that contain RP1 or EB1.

    International journal of cancer 1999;81;2;275-84

  • EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle.

    Morrison EE, Wardleworth BN, Askham JM, Markham AF and Meredith DM

    Molecular Medicine Unit, University of Leeds, St. James's University Hospital, UK.

    The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells.

    Oncogene 1998;17;26;3471-7

  • The adenomatous polyposis coli-binding protein EB1 is associated with cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules.

    Berrueta L, Kraeft SK, Tirnauer JS, Schuyler SC, Chen LB, Hill DE, Pellman D and Bierer BE

    Division of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The evolutionarily conserved protein EB1 originally was identified by its physical association with the carboxyl-terminal portion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, an APC domain commonly mutated in familial and sporadic forms of colorectal neoplasia. The subcellular localization of EB1 in epithelial cells was studied by using immunofluorescence and biochemical techniques. EB1 colocalized both to cytoplasmic microtubules in interphase cells and to spindle microtubules during mitosis, with pronounced centrosome staining. The cytoskeletal array detected by anti-EB1 antibody was abolished by incubation of the cells with nocodazole, an agent that disrupts microtubules; upon drug removal, EB1 localized to the microtubule-organizing center. Immunofluorescence analysis of SW480, a colon cancer cell line that expresses only carboxyl-terminal-deleted APC unable to interact with EB1, demonstrated that EB1 remained localized to the microtubule cytoskeleton, suggesting that this pattern of subcellular distribution is not mediated by its interaction with APC. In vitro cosedimentation with taxol-stabilized microtubules demonstrated that a significant fraction of EB1 associated with microtubules. Recent studies of the yeast EB1 homologues Mal3 and Bim1p have demonstrated that both proteins localize to microtubules and are important in vivo for microtubule function. Our results demonstrate that EB1 is a novel component of the microtubule cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. Associating with the mitotic apparatus, EB1 may play a physiologic role connecting APC to cellular division, coordinating the control of normal growth and differentiation processes in the colonic epithelium.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;18;10596-601

  • RP1, a new member of the adenomatous polyposis coli-binding EB1-like gene family, is differentially expressed in activated T cells.

    Renner C, Pfitzenmeier JP, Gerlach K, Held G, Ohnesorge S, Sahin U, Bauer S and Pfreundschuh M

    Med. Klinik I, University of Saarlandes, Homburg, Germany.

    Cross-linking of the CD3 and CD28 molecules on T lymphocytes represents one of the most effective signals for T lymphocyte activation and triggering of their cytotoxic effector function. To identify genes that are expressed in T cells after stimulation, mRNA from T lymphocytes that had been activated by the simultaneous stimulation of the CD3 and CD28 trigger molecules was transcribed for a differential mRNA display analysis into cDNA and was compared with cDNA from CD28- or CD3-activated or resting lymphocytes. Differential expression was confirmed subsequently by Northern blot analysis. One of the cDNA fragments expressed specifically in CD3- and CD28-activated T cells was designated RP1. The predictive protein-coding region of RP1 had a significant homology to members of the recently found adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein-binding EB1 gene family, which codes for yet unknown protein(s). Bacterially expressed RP1 protein revealed specific binding to wild-type but not to mutated APC protein. The rapid up-regulation of RP1 mRNA in properly activated T cells suggests that this gene might belong to the immediate/early gene family, which controls the signal transduction cascade downstream of the TCR. As the expression level of the RP1 gene in activated T cells and a spectrum of tumor-derived cell lines correlates with the proliferative status of the cells, members of the EB1-like gene family may not only be involved in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancers but may also play a role in the proliferative control of normal cells.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1997;159;3;1276-83

  • APC binds to the novel protein EB1.

    Su LK, Burrell M, Hill DE, Gyuris J, Brent R, Wiltshire R, Trent J, Vogelstein B and Kinzler KW

    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    Mutations of the APC gene play a critical role in both sporadic and familial forms of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of these mutations result in the loss of the carboxyl terminus of the protein. To further elucidate the function of APC, we searched for cellular proteins that associate with its carboxyl terminus. One million human cDNA clones were screened with the use of the interaction trap two-hybrid system, and 67 clones were found to have a phenotype suggestive of an APC-interacting protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that 48 of these clones were derived from a single novel named EBI. The association of APC and EB1 proteins was confirmed with in vitro binding assays. mAbs against EB1 were then produced and used to demonstrate the association of APC and EB1 in vivo. The EB1 gene was predicted to encode a 268-amino acid protein without significant homology to proteins with known function. However, searches of nucleotide databases did identify evidence for at least two related human genes and a yeast homologue. This conservation suggests an essential function for EB1 that might provide clues to the mechanism through which APC suppresses colonic neoplasia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-57345

    Cancer research 1995;55;14;2972-7

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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