G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2
G00000504 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000070683 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000167658 (Ensembl human gene)
1938 (Entrez Gene)
896 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EEF2 (GeneCards)
130610 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3214 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P13639 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • EEF-2

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Overexpression of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2 in gastrointestinal cancers and its involvement in G2/M progression in the cell cycle.

    Nakamura J, Aoyagi S, Nanchi I, Nakatsuka S, Hirata E, Shibata S, Fukuda M, Yamamoto Y, Fukuda I, Tatsumi N, Ueda T, Fujiki F, Nomura M, Nishida S, Shirakata T, Hosen N, Tsuboi A, Oka Y, Nezu R, Mori M, Doki Y, Aozasa K, Sugiyama H and Oji Y

    Department of Functional Diagnostic Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    A high level protein synthesis is one of the characteristics of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to show the contribution of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which plays an essential role in the polypeptide chain elongation step, in the tumorigenesis of gastrointestinal cancers. In the present study, we demonstrated by using immunohistochemistry that eEF2 protein was overexpressed in 92.9% (13 of 14) of gastric and 91.7% (22 of 24) of colorectal cancers. No mutations were found in any of the exons of the eEF2 gene in six gastric and six colorectal cancers. Knockdown of eEF2 by eEF2-specific short-hairpin RNA (shEF2) inhibited cancer cell growth in two gastric cancer cell lines, AZ-521 and MKN28, and one colon cancer cell line, SW620. Flow cytometric analysis showed that knockdown of eEF2 induced G2/M arrest and resulted in inactivation of Akt and cdc2 (a G2/M regulator) and activation of eEF2 kinase (a negative regulator of eEF2) in these cancer cells. Conversely, forced expression of eEF2 in AZ-521 cells significantly enhanced the cell growth through promotion of G2/M progression in cell cycle, activated Akt and cdc2, and inactivated eEF2 kinase. Furthermore, forced expression of eEF2 in these cancer cells enhanced in vivo tumorigenicity in a mouse xenograft model. These results showed that overexpressed eEF2 in gastrointestinal cancers promoted G2/M progression and enhanced their cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These results also suggested a novel linkage between translational elongation and cell cycle mechanisms, implying that the linkage might play an important role to orchestrate the deregulated translation and cell cycle mechanisms for promotion of the development of gastrointestinal cancers.

    International journal of oncology 2009;34;5;1181-9

  • Skeletal muscle eEF2 and 4EBP1 phosphorylation during endurance exercise is dependent on intensity and muscle fiber type.

    Rose AJ, Bisiani B, Vistisen B, Kiens B and Richter EA

    Molecular Physiology Group, Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2100. arose@ifi.ku.dk

    Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is known to decrease during exercise, and it has been suggested that this may depend on the magnitude of the relative metabolic stress within the contracting muscle. To examine the mechanisms behind this, the effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) phosphorylation, key components in the mRNA translation machinery, were examined together with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in healthy young men. Skeletal muscle eEF2 phosphorylation at Thr56 increased during exercise but was not influenced by exercise intensity, and was lower than rest 30 min after exercise. On the other hand, 4EBP1 phosphorylation at Thr37/46 decreased during exercise, and this decrease was greater at higher exercise intensities and was similar to rest 30 min after exercise. AMPK activity, as indexed by AMPK alpha-subunit phosphorylation at Thr172 and phosphorylation of the AMPK substrate ACCbeta at Ser221, was higher with higher exercise intensities, and these indices were higher than rest after high-intensity exercise only. Using immunohistochemistry, it was shown that the increase in skeletal muscle eEF2 Thr56 phosphorylation was restricted to type I myofibers. Taken together, these data suggest that the depression of skeletal muscle protein synthesis with endurance-type exercise may be regulated at both initiation (i.e., 4EBP1) and elongation (i.e., eEF2) steps, with eEF2 phosphorylation contributing at all exercise intensities but 4EBP1 dephosphorylation contributing to a greater extent at high vs. low exercise intensities.

    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 2009;296;2;R326-33

  • Nucleophosmin serves as a rate-limiting nuclear export chaperone for the Mammalian ribosome.

    Maggi LB, Kuchenruether M, Dadey DY, Schwope RM, Grisendi S, Townsend RR, Pandolfi PP and Weber JD

    Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) (B23) is an essential protein in mouse development and cell growth; however, it has been assigned numerous roles in very diverse cellular processes. Here, we present a unified mechanism for NPM's role in cell growth; NPM directs the nuclear export of both 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. NPM interacts with rRNA and large and small ribosomal subunit proteins and also colocalizes with large and small ribosomal subunit proteins in the nucleolus, nucleus, and cytoplasm. The transduction of NPM shuttling-defective mutants or the loss of Npm1 inhibited the nuclear export of both the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, reduced the available pool of cytoplasmic polysomes, and diminished overall protein synthesis without affecting rRNA processing or ribosome assembly. While the inhibition of NPM shuttling can block cellular proliferation, the dramatic effects on ribosome export occur prior to cell cycle inhibition. Modest increases in NPM expression amplified the export of newly synthesized rRNAs, resulting in increased rates of protein synthesis and indicating that NPM is rate limiting in this pathway. These results support the idea that NPM-regulated ribosome export is a fundamental process in cell growth.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR000954, P41RR000954; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM007067

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;23;7050-65

  • The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.

    Sablina AA, Chen W, Arroyo JD, Corral L, Hector M, Bulmer SE, DeCaprio JA and Hahn WC

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA050661, P01 CA050661-190009, P01 CA50661

    Cell 2007;129;5;969-82

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Hypoxia inhibits protein synthesis through a 4E-BP1 and elongation factor 2 kinase pathway controlled by mTOR and uncoupled in breast cancer cells.

    Connolly E, Braunstein S, Formenti S and Schneider RJ

    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    Hypoxia is a state of low oxygen availability that limits tumor growth. The mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition by hypoxia and its circumvention by transformation are not well understood. Hypoxic breast epithelial cells are shown to downregulate protein synthesis by inhibition of the kinase mTOR, which suppresses mRNA translation through a novel mechanism mitigated in transformed cells: disruption of proteasome-targeted degradation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase and activation of the regulatory protein 4E-BP1. In transformed breast epithelial cells under hypoxia, the mTOR and S6 kinases are constitutively activated and the mTOR negative regulator tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) protein fails to function. Gene silencing of 4E-BP1 and eEF2 kinase or TSC2 confers resistance to hypoxia inhibition of protein synthesis in immortalized breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cells therefore acquire resistance to hypoxia by uncoupling oxygen-responsive signaling pathways from mTOR function, eliminating inhibition of protein synthesis mediated by 4E-BP1 and eEF2.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;10;3955-65

  • Suppressive effect of elongation factor 2 on apoptosis induced by HIV-1 viral protein R.

    Zelivianski S, Liang D, Chen M, Mirkin BL and Zhao RY

    Children's Memorial Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.

    Rapid CD4+ lymphocyte depletion due to cell death caused by HIV infection is one of the hallmarks of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces apoptosis and is believed to contribute to CD4+ lymphocyte depletion. Thus, identification of cellular factors that potentially counteract this detrimental viral effect will not only help us to understand the molecular action of Vpr but also to design future antiviral therapies. In this report, we describe identification of elongation factor 2 (EF2) as such a cellular factor. Specifically, EF2 protein level is responsive to vpr gene expression; it is able to suppress Vpr-induced apoptosis when it is overproduced beyond its physiological level. EF2 was initially identified through a genome-wide multicopy suppressor search for Vpr-induced apoptosis in a fission yeast model system. Overproduction of fission yeast Ef2 completely abolishes Vpr-induced cell killing in fission yeast. Similarly, overexpression of the human homologue of yeast Ef2 in a neuroblastoma SKN-SH cell line and two CD4+ H9 and CEM-SS T-cell lines also blocked Vpr-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic property of EF2 is demonstrated by its ability to suppress caspase 9 and caspase 3-mediated apoptosis induced by Vpr. In addition, it also reduces cytochrome c release induced by Vpr, staurosporine and TNFalpha. The fact that overproduction of EF2 blocks Vpr-induced cell death both in fission yeast and human cells, suggested that EF2 posses a highly conserved anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, the responsive elevation of EF2 to Vpr suggests a possible host innate antiviral response.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01AI40891; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM30890

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2006;11;3;377-88

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Global phosphoproteome analysis on human HepG2 hepatocytes using reversed-phase diagonal LC.

    Gevaert K, Staes A, Van Damme J, De Groot S, Hugelier K, Demol H, Martens L, Goethals M and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

    We present a phosphoproteomics approach using diagonal RP chromatography as the basic isolation principle. Phosphopeptides present in a tryptic digest of total cellular lysates were first enriched by Fe3+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Further sorting of the phosphopeptides took place in three steps. First, the resulting peptide mixture was fractionated over reversed-phase chromatography. Second, peptides present in each fraction were treated with phosphatases. Third, the dephosphorylated peptides were then more hydrophobic and shifted towards a later elution interval from the contaminating non-phosphopeptides eluting at the same position as during the primary run. Since the phosphopeptides are isolated as their dephosphorylated form, additional proof for their original phosphorylation state was obtained by split-differential 16O-18O labeling. The method was validated with alpha-casein phosphopeptides and consecutively applied on HepG2 cells. We identified 190 phosphorylated peptides from 152 different proteins. This dataset includes 38 novel protein phosphorylation sites.

    Proteomics 2005;5;14;3589-99

  • Levels of mTOR and its downstream targets 4E-BP1, eEF2, and eEF2 kinase in relationships with tau in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Li X, Alafuzoff I, Soininen H, Winblad B and Pei JJ

    Division of Experimental Geriatrics, Department of Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

    The pathogenesis of formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is unknown. One of the possibilities might be that translation of tau mRNA is aberrantly regulated in AD brains. In the current study, levels of various translation control elements including total and phosphorylated (p) forms of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), and eEF2 kinase were investigated in relationship with tau in homogenates of the medial temporal cortex from 20 AD and 10 control brains. We found that levels of p-mTOR (Ser2481), and p-4E-BP1 (Thr70 and Ser65) dramatically increase in AD, and are positively significantly correlated with total tau and p-tau. Levels of p-eEF2K were significantly increased, and total eEF2 significantly decreased in AD, when compared to controls. The changes of p-mTOR (2481), p-4E-BP1, and p-eEF2 were immunohistochemically confirmed to be in neurons of AD brains. This suggested that there are obvious abnormalities of elements related with translation control in AD brain and their aberrant changes may up-regulate the translation of tau mRNA, contributing to hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation in NFT-bearing neurons.

    The FEBS journal 2005;272;16;4211-20

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Proteomic analysis of mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase reveals multiple subcomplexes that contain Sec61, TRAP, and two potential new subunits.

    Shibatani T, David LL, McCormack AL, Frueh K and Skach WR

    Division of Molecular Medicine, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA.

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the cotranslational transfer of high-mannose sugars to nascent polypeptides during N-linked glycosylation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Nine OST subunits have been identified in yeast. However, the composition and organization of mammalian OST remain unclear. Using two-dimensional Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we now demonstrate that mammalian OST can be isolated from solubilized, actively engaged ribosomes as multiple distinct protein complexes that range in size from approximately 500 to 700 kDa. These complexes exhibit different ribosome affinities and subunit compositions. The major complex, OSTC(I), had an apparent size of approximately 500 kDa and was readily released from ribosome translocon complexes after puromycin treatment under physiological salt conditions. Two additional complexes were released only after treatment with high salt: OSTC(II) ( approximately 600 kDa) and OSTC(III) ( approximately 700 kDa). Both remained stably associated with heterotrimeric Sec61alphabetagamma, while OSTC(III) also contained the tetrameric TRAP complex. All known mammalian OST subunits (STT3-A, ribophorin I, ribophorin II, OST48, and DAD1) were present in all complexes. In addition, two previously uncharacterized proteins were also copurified with OST. Mass spectrometry identified a 17 kDa protein as DC2 which is weakly homologous to the C-terminal half of yeast Ost3p and Ost6p. The second protein (14 kDa) was tentatively identified as keratinocyte-associated protein 2 (KCP2) and has no previously known function. Our results identify two potential new subunits of mammalian OST and demonstrate a remarkable heterogeneity in OST composition that may reflect a means for controlling nascent chain glycosylation.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY10572; NHLBI NIH HHS: T32HL07781; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK51818; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53457

    Biochemistry 2005;44;16;5982-92

  • High hydrostatic pressure inhibits the biosynthesis of eukaryotic elongation factor-2.

    Elo MA, Karjalainen HM, Sironen RK, Valmu L, Redpath NT, Browne GJ, Kalkkinen N, Helminen HJ and Lammi MJ

    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

    High continuous hydrostatic pressure is known to inhibit the total cellular protein synthesis. In this study, our goal was to identify pressure-regulated proteins by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that under 30 MPa continuous hydrostatic pressure the biosynthesis of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) was inhibited both in HeLa carcinoma and T/C28a4 chondrocytic cell lines. Western blot analysis of HeLa cells revealed that the cellular protein level of eEF-2 decreased by 40%-50% within 12 h of the pressure treatment. However, the steady-state mRNA level of eEF-2 was not affected by the pressure. Cycloheximide addition after 4 h-pressure treatment suggested that the half-life of eEF-2 protein was shorter in pressurized cells. eEF-2 is responsible for the translocation of ribosome along the specific mRNA during translation, and its phosphorylation prevents the ribosomal translocation. Therefore, increased phosphorylation of eEF-2 was considered as one mechanism that could explain the reduced level of protein synthesis in pressurized HeLa cell cultures. However, Western blot analysis with an antibody recognizing the Thr56-phosphorylated form of eEF-2 showed that phosphorylation of eEF-2 was not elevated in pressurized samples. In conclusion, the inhibition of protein synthesis under high pressure occurs independent of the phosphorylation of eEF-2. However, this inhibition may result from the decrease of cellular eEF-2 protein.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2005;94;3;497-507

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Characterization of the protein kinase activity of TRPM7/ChaK1, a protein kinase fused to the transient receptor potential ion channel.

    Ryazanova LV, Dorovkov MV, Ansari A and Ryazanov AG

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    Channel-kinase TRPM7/ChaK1 is a member of a recently discovered family of protein kinases called alpha-kinases that display no sequence homology to conventional protein kinases. It is an unusual bifunctional protein that contains an alpha-kinase domain fused to an ion channel. The TRPM7/ChaK1 channel has been characterized using electrophysiological techniques, and recent evidence suggests that it may play a key role in the regulation of magnesium homeostasis. However, little is known about its protein kinase activity. To characterize the kinase activity of TRPM7/ChaK1, we expressed the kinase catalytic domain in bacteria. ChaK1-cat is able to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate myelin basic protein and histone H3 on serine and threonine residues. The kinase is specific for ATP and cannot use GTP as a substrate. ChaK1-cat is insensitive to staurosporine (up to 0.1 mM) but can be inhibited by rottlerin. Because the kinase domain is physically linked to an ion channel, we investigated the effect of ions on ChaK1-cat activity. The kinase requires Mg(2+) (optimum at 4-10 mM) or Mn(2+) (optimum at 3-5 mM), with activity in the presence of Mn(2+) being 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the presence of Mg(2+). Zn(2+) and Co(2+) inhibited ChaK1-cat kinase activity. Ca(2+) at concentrations up to 1 mM did not affect kinase activity. Considering intracellular ion concentrations, our results suggest that, among divalent metal ions, only Mg(2+) can directly modulate TRPM7/ChaK1 kinase activity in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;5;3708-16

  • The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation.

    Kapp LD and Lorsch JR

    Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA. lkapp@jhmi.edu

    Great advances have been made in the past three decades in understanding the molecular mechanics underlying protein synthesis in bacteria, but our understanding of the corresponding events in eukaryotic organisms is only beginning to catch up. In this review we describe the current state of our knowledge and ignorance of the molecular mechanics underlying eukaryotic translation. We discuss the mechanisms conserved across the three kingdoms of life as well as the important divergences that have taken place in the pathway.

    Annual review of biochemistry 2004;73;657-704

  • Cytoplasmic complex of p53 and eEF2.

    Yin X, Fontoura BM, Morimoto T and Carroll RB

    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    We have shown previously that cytoplasmic p53 is covalently linked to 5.8S rRNA. The covalent complex is associated with a small subset of polyribosomes, which includes polyribosomes translating p53 mRNA. Because 5.8S rRNA resides in or near the ribosomal P site, our findings suggested involvement of p53 in translational regulation. Ninety-seven kiloDaltons eEF2 was found to coimmunoprecipitate in a salt-stable complex with p53. The 97 kDa species was identified as eEF2, because it was (1) recognized by a polyclonal antiserum specific for eEF2, (2) ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin (DT), and (3) radiolabeled by gamma-32P-azido-GTP and UV-irradiation. p53 and eEF2 sedimented in sucrose gradients in both polyribosomal and subribosomal fractions. Subribosomal p53 can bind eEF2 without the mediation of ribosomes, because (1) it binds subribososomal eEF2, (2) it binds phosphorylated eEF2, and (3) subribosomal p53-bound eEF2 can be ADP-ribosylated by DT. No effect of p53 activation was found on eEF2 expression or phosphorylation. However, the binding of eEF2 to p53 decreased when cytoplasmic p53 migrated to the nucleus. Renaturation of temperature sensitive A135V mutant p53 (ts-p53) was found to alter the sensitivity of p53 mRNA translation, but not bulk mRNA translation, to the translocation-specific elongation inhibitor, cycloheximide (Cx). The association of p53 with two translational components involved in ribosomal translocation, eEF2 and 5.8S rRNA, and the effect of p53 on sensitivity to the translocation inhibitor, Cx, as well as the known molecular interactions of these components in the ribosome suggest involvement of p53 in elongation.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2003;196;3;474-82

  • Stress-induced regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase by SB 203580-sensitive and -insensitive pathways.

    Knebel A, Haydon CE, Morrice N and Cohen P

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U.K.

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, the enzyme that inactivates eEF2, is controlled by phosphorylation. Previous work showed that stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4, also called p38delta) inhibits eEF2 kinase in vitro by phosphorylating Ser-359, while ribosomal protein S6 kinases inhibit eEF2 kinase by phosphorylating Ser-366 [Knebel, Morrice and Cohen (2001) EMBO J. 20, 4360-4369; Wang, Li, Williams, Terada, Alessi and Proud (2001) EMBO J. 20, 4370-4379]. In the present study we have examined the effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase. We demonstrate that Ser-359, Ser-366 and two novel sites (Ser-377 and Ser-396) are all phosphorylated in human epithelial KB cells, but only the phosphorylation of Ser-359 and Ser-377 increases in response to these agonists and correlates with the dephosphorylation (activation) of eEF2. Ser-377 is probably a substrate of MAPKAP-K2/K3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2/kinase 3) in cells, because eEF2 kinase is phosphorylated efficiently by these protein kinases in vitro and phosphorylation of this site, induced by TNF-alpha and low (but not high) concentrations of anisomycin, is prevented by SB 203580, which inhibits SAPK2a/p38, their "upstream" activator. The phosphorylation of Ser-359 induced by high concentrations of anisomycin is probably catalysed by SAPK4/p38delta in cells, because no other stress-activated, proline-directed protein kinase tested phosphorylates this site in vitro and phosphorylation is insensitive to SB 203580. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of Ser-359 induced by TNF-alpha or low concentrations of anisomycin is suppressed by SB 203580, indicating that phosphorylation is also mediated by a novel pathway. Since the phosphorylation of Ser-377 does not inhibit eEF2 kinase in vitro, our results suggest that anisomycin or TNF-alpha inhibit eEF2 kinase via the phosphorylation of Ser-359.

    The Biochemical journal 2002;367;Pt 2;525-32

  • Regulation of elongation factor-2 by multisite phosphorylation.

    Redpath NT, Price NT, Severinov KV and Proud CG

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, England.

    We have studied the phosphorylation of protein synthesis elongation factor eEF-2, the effects of phosphorylation on its activity and the dephosphorylation of phosphorylated eEF-2 by protein phosphatases-2A and -2C. Extensive analysis of phosphopeptides generated from eEF-2 phosphorylated in vitro by subsequent digestion with CNBr and trypsin indicated that Thr56 and Thr58 are the only residues significantly phosphorylated, consistent with our earlier report. They are also the only two residues to be significantly phosphorylated in reticulocyte lysates: in this system monophosphorylated eEF-2 corresponded only to phosphorylation of Thr56, no factor phosphorylated at only Thr58 being detected. Phosphorylation of Thr56 and Thr58 was found to be an ordered process, modification of Thr56 preceding, and apparently being required for, phosphorylation of Thr58. This presumably explains why the only species of mono-phosphorylated eEF-2 detected are phosphorylated at Thr56. The eEF-2 kinase could phosphorylate a synthetic peptide based on residues 49-60 of eEF-2 (RAGETRFTDTRK), albeit only at a very low rate, and with a very high Km, compared to eEF-2 itself. The kinase phosphorylated the residues corresponding to Thr56 and Thr58, apparently in a random manner, but not Thr53. In the light of the existence of two phosphorylation sites in eEF-2, the relationship between phosphorylation and activity was investigated. Activity was measured in the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine, where both the bis- and mono-phosphorylated (mono at Thr56) forms of the factor were found to be completely inactive. Indeed, the phosphorylated species appeared to be able to impair the activity of non-phosphorylated eEF-2 in this system. Experiments using reticulocyte lysates also indicated that both phosphorylated forms of eEF-2 were inactive in the translation of physiological templates, but no evidence for dominant inhibition by these species was obtained. Protein phosphatases-2A and -2C (PP-2A and PP-2C) can each efficiently dephosphorylate phosphorylated eEF-2. While bis-phosphorylated eEF-2 was a better substrate for PP-2A than monophosphorylated factor (phosphorylated at Thr56), the converse was true for PP-2C. This seemed to be due, at least in part, to the inhibition of dephosphorylation of Thr56 by PP-2C by the presence of phosphate on Thr58. Nevertheless, PP-2C exhibited a preference for dephosphorylation of Thr56 in bis-phosphorylated eEF-2, while PP-2A showed no such preference. These findings are discussed in terms of current knowledge of the specificity of these two protein phosphatases.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;213;2;689-99

  • Study of localization of the protein-synthesizing machinery along actin filament bundles.

    Shestakova EA, Motuz LP, Minin AA and Gavrilova LP

    Institute of Protein Research, Academy of Sciences of Russia, Pushchino, Moscow Region.

    Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy was used to study the distribution of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) in fixed human skin diploid and mouse embryo fibroblasts. It was found earlier that some of the eEF-2, ribosomes and initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) are co-localized with a part of the actin microfilament bundles in these cells (Gavrilova et al., 1987; Shestakova et al., 1991). Here it has been shown that inhibition of protein synthesis either by inactivation of eEF-2 itself with diphtheria toxin or by inactivation of ribosomes with ricin does not abolish the distribution of eEF-2 along the actin microfilament bundles. At the same time, the disassembly of actin microfilaments by cytochalasin D results also in the disappearance of eEF-2- carrying threads. This means that the eEF-2-carrying threads do not exist per se, and that the organization of eEF-2 in visible "filaments" depends upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Cell biology international 1993;17;4;409-16

  • Construction of a plasmid containing the complete coding region of human elongation factor 2.

    Hanes J, Freudenstein J, Rapp G and Scheit KH

    Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, CSFR.

    A plasmid pUChEF-2 containing the coding sequence as well as the complete 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of human EF-2 mRNA was constructed. The plasmid construct was assembled from a cDNA insert of pHGR81 (Rapp et al., (1988) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369, 247-250) comprising the C-terminal portion of the coding region and the 3'UTR, as well as a polymer chain reaction PCR fragment (Rapp et al., (1989) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 370, 1071-1075) covering the missing part of the coding region from the amino-terminus.

    Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1992;373;4;201-4

  • Kinetic determination of the effects of ADP-ribosylation on the interaction of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 with ribosomes.

    Nygård O and Nilsson L

    Department of Cell Biology, Wenner-Gren Institute, University of Stockholm, Sweden.

    The effect of ADP-ribosylation on the function of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF-2) was investigated by kinetic analysis of the EF-2-catalyzed hydrolysis of GTP in the presence of ribosomes and by direct determination of the affinity of the modified factor for the ribosome. Under conditions where the concentration of EF-2 was rate-limiting, the ADP-ribosylation reduced the maximum rate of GTP hydrolysis and the second order rate constant Kcat/Km by approximately 50%. A similar decrease in Kcat and Kcat/Km was observed when the concentration of ribosomes were kept rate-limiting. The affinity of EF-2 for the pretranslocation type of ribosomes was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude after ADP-ribosylation. No effect was observed in the interaction with the post-translocation type of ribosomes, the ribosomal conformation responsible for activation of the EF-2-dependent GTPase. We conclude that the ADP-ribosylation affects both the association of the modified factor with pretranslocation ribosomes and the hydrolytic capacity of the factor.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;11;6030-4

  • Complete sequence of the coding region of human elongation factor 2 (EF-2) by enzymatic amplification of cDNA from human ovarian granulosa cells.

    Rapp G, Klaudiny J, Hagendorff G, Luck MR and Scheit KH

    Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Abt. Molekulare Biologie, Göttingen.

    The use of two primers allowed the specific enzymatic amplification of elongation factor 2 starting with total double-stranded cDNA from human ovarian granulosa cells. The amplified DNA fragment with a length of 1765 bp was restricted and sequenced by the shot gun approach. From the sequences obtained from the amplified fragment and the cDNA insert of pHGR81 [Rapp et al. (1988) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369, 247-250] respectively, the DNA sequence containing the complete coding as well as the 3'-untranslated region was assembled.

    Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1989;370;10;1071-5

  • Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA from human ovarian granulosa cells encoding the C-terminal part of human elongation factor 2.

    Rapp G, Mucha J, Einspanier R, Luck M and Scheit KH

    Max-Planck-Institute für Biophysikalische Chemie, Abt. Molekulare Biologie, Göttingen.

    A cDNA clone, pHGR81, encoding 358 amino-acid residues of the C-terminal region of human elongation factor 2 (EF-2), was isolated from a human ovarian granulosa cell cDNA library. The deduced amino-acid sequence of pHGR81, when compared with the known identical amino-acid sequences of hamster as well as rat EF-2 revealed a substitution of a glutamine by an alanine residue in the partially determined human sequence. The 15 amino-acid-residue sequence comprising the histidine-715, supposed to be of importance for the biological function of EF-2, is preserved in human EF-2. The coding region of the cDNA insert of pHGR81 displays a homology of 87% to hamster and of 88% to rat EF-2 cDNA. In Northern-transfer analysis, pHGR81 specifically hybridizes with an mRNA species of 3.1 kb.

    Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1988;369;4;247-50

  • Identification of the major Mr 100,000 substrate for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III in mammalian cells as elongation factor-2.

    Nairn AC and Palfrey HC

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021.

    The major substrate for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III in mammalian cells is a species of Mr 100,000 that has a primarily cytoplasmic localization. This substrate has now been identified as elongation factor-2 (EF-2), a protein that catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA on the ribosome. The amino acid sequence of 18 residues from the N-terminal of the Mr 100,000 CaM-dependent protein kinase III substrate purified from rat pancreas was found to be identical to the N-terminal sequence of authentic rat EF-2 as previously deduced from nucleic acid sequencing of a cDNA (Kohno, K., Uchida, T., Ohkubo, H., Nakanishi, S., Nakanishi, T., Fukui, T., Ohtsuka, E., Ikehara, M., and Okada, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 4978-4982). CaM-dependent protein kinase III phosphorylated EF-2 in vitro with a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol/mol on a threonine residue. Amino acid sequencing of the purified tryptic phosphopeptide revealed that this threonine residue lies within the sequence: Ala-Gly-Glu-Thr-Arg-Phe-Thr-Asp-Thr-Arg (residues 51-60 of EF-2). The Mr 100,000 protein was stoichiometrically ADP-ribosylated in vitro by the addition of diphtheria toxin and NAD. The Mr 100,000 protein was photoaffinity labeled with a GTP analog and the protein had an endogenous GTPase activity that could be stimulated by the addition of salt-washed ribosomes. These properties are all characteristic of EF-2. Dephospho-EF-2 could support poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis in a reconstituted elongation system when combined with EF-1. In the same system, phospho-EF-2 was virtually inactive in supporting polypeptide synthesis; this effect could be reversed by dephosphorylation of phospho-EF-2. These results suggest that intracellular Ca2+ inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells via CaM-dependent protein kinase III-catalyzed phosphorylation of EF-2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1987;262;36;17299-303

  • Regional assignment of five genes on human chromosome 19.

    Kaneda Y, Hayes H, Uchida T, Yoshida MC and Okada Y

    A human-mouse hybrid segregant HM76Dd40-6 with new characteristics was derived from the hybrid cell line HM76Dd containing human chromosome 19 as the only human chromosome. Three virus sensitivities located on human chromosome 19 (PVS, E11S and RDRC) were lost in HM76Dd40-6, while six other genes (C3, LDLR, EF2, GPI, PEPD and MANB) were retained. Cytogenetic analysis and in situ hybridization using human or mouse repeated sequences as probes showed that the region q13.1-qter of human chromosome 19 had been replaced by a fragment of mouse chromosome. Our results permit further regional assignment for the following five genes on human chromosome 19: GPI in the region cen-q12, MANB in p13.2-q12, E11S and RDRC in q13.1-qter, and EF2 in pter-q12.

    Chromosoma 1987;95;1;8-12

  • Chromosomal assignment of the gene for human elongation factor 2.

    Kaneda Y, Yoshida MC, Kohno K, Uchida T and Okada Y

    Elongation factor 2 (EF-2), polypeptidyl -tRNA translocase, is an essential factor for protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and Archebacteria . We isolated diphtheria toxin-resistant human primary embryo cells that contain EF-2 that cannot be ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PA toxin). Somatic cell hybrids were constructed from mouse L cells and toxin-resistant human embryo cell mutants. Forty-one hybrid clones were isolated, of which 15 clones were resistant to PA toxin. Karyotypic analysis and isozyme studies revealed that there was an absolute correlation between human chromosome 19 and resistance to PA toxin in the hybrids. On subcloning of PA toxin-resistant hybrid cells, we obtained one PA toxin-resistant hybrid subclone containing human chromosome 19 as the only human chromosome. Furthermore, the resistance to PA toxin of hybrid cell strains was lost after infection with poliovirus, for which sensitivity is conferred by human chromosome 19. It was confirmed by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that PA toxin resistance in hybrid cells was caused by the presence of EF-2 resistant to ADP-ribosylation by fragment A of diphtheria toxin. These facts suggest that the gene encoding EF-2 is located on human chromosome 19.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1984;81;10;3158-62

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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