G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B
G00000440 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000059898 (Vega human gene)
1159 (Entrez Gene)
808 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CKMT1B (GeneCards)
123290 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1995 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P12532 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)


Literature (24)

Pubmed - other

  • Altered creatine kinase adenosine triphosphate kinetics in failing hypertrophied human myocardium.

    Smith CS, Bottomley PA, Schulman SP, Gerstenblith G and Weiss RG

    Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287-6568, USA. rweiss@jhmi.edu

    Background: The progression of pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to chronic heart failure (CHF) may involve a relative deficit in energy supply and/or delivery.

    We measured myocardial creatine kinase (CK) metabolite concentrations and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis through CK, the primary energy reserve of the heart, to test the hypothesis that ATP flux through CK is impaired in patients with LVH and CHF. Myocardial ATP levels were normal, but creatine phosphate levels were 35% lower in LVH patients (n = 10) than in normal subjects (n = 14, P < 0.006). Left ventricular mass and CK metabolite levels in LVH were not different from those in patients with LVH and heart failure (LVH+CHF, n = 10); however, the myocardial CK pseudo first-order rate constant was normal in LVH (0.36 +/- 0.04 s(-1) in LVH versus 0.32 +/- 0.06 s(-1) in normal subjects) but halved in LVH+CHF (0.17 +/- 0.06 s(-1), P < 0.001). The net ATP flux through CK was significantly reduced by 30% in LVH (2.2 +/- 0.7 micromol x g(-1) x s(-1), P = 0.011) and by a dramatic 65% in LVH+CHF (1.1 +/- 0.4 micromol x g(-1) x s(-1), P < 0.001) compared with normal subjects (3.1 +/- 0.8 micromol x g(-1) x s(-1)).

    Conclusions: These first observations in human LVH demonstrate that it is not the relative or absolute CK metabolite pool sizes but rather the kinetics of ATP turnover through CK that distinguish failing from nonfailing hypertrophic hearts. Moreover, the deficit in ATP kinetics is similar in systolic and nonsystolic heart failure and is not related to the severity of hypertrophy but to the presence of CHF. Because CK temporally buffers ATP, these observations support the hypothesis that a deficit in myofibrillar energy delivery contributes to CHF pathophysiology in human LVH.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56882, HL61912, HL63030, R01 HL056882, R01 HL061912, R01 HL063030

    Circulation 2006;114;11;1151-8

  • Expression and carbonylation of creatine kinase in the quadriceps femoris muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Barreiro E, Gea J, Matar G and Hussain SN

    Critical Care and respiratory Divisions, Royal Victoria Hospital and Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Room L3.05, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, PQ, H3A 1A1 Canada.

    Oxidative protein modification involving carbonylation has recently been identified as an important factor in skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the exact identity of modified proteins inside limb muscles of patients with COPD remains unknown. We used 2D electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry to identify carbonylated proteins in the vastus lateralis muscle of 12 patients with COPD and 6 control subjects. Both creatine kinase (CK) and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) were identified as being strongly carbonylated in this muscle in both groups of subjects. Total CK activity, CK protein expression, and the intensity of CK carbonylation were significantly greater in the muscles of patients with COPD as compared with control subjects, whereas CAIII protein expression and intensity of carbonylation were similar in the two groups. In patients with COPD, CK activity and protein expression correlated positively with FEV(1) and V O(2)max, whereas the intensity of CK carbonylation correlated negatively with the same parameters. These results indicate that oxygen radicals selectively target CK and CAIII inside limb muscles of humans. The observation that the intensity of CK carbonylation correlates negatively with CK activity in limb muscles of patients with COPD suggests that carbonylation may have a deleterious effect on CK activity, and may contribute to impaired CK function in the limb muscles of these patients.

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2005;33;6;636-42

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Differential effects of peroxynitrite on human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes. Inactivation, octamer destabilization, and identification of involved residues.

    Wendt S, Schlattner U and Wallimann T

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg HPM, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Creatine kinase isoenzymes are very susceptible to free radical damage and are inactivated by superoxide radicals and peroxynitrite. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of peroxynitrite on enzymatic activity and octamer stability of the two human mitochondrial isoenzymes (ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (sMtCK)), as well as of chicken sMtCK, and identified the involved residues. Inactivation by peroxynitrite was concentration-dependent and similar for both types of MtCK isoenzymes. Because peroxynitrite did not lower the residual activity of a sMtCK mutant missing the active site cysteine (C278G), oxidation of this residue is sufficient to explain MtCK inactivation. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed oxidation of Cys-278 and further revealed oxidation of the C-terminal Cys-358, possibly involved in MtCK/membrane interaction. Peroxynitrite also led to concentration-dependent dissociation of MtCK octamers into dimers. In this study, ubiquitous uMtCK was much more stable than sarcomeric sMtCK. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed chemical modifications in peptide Gly-263-Arg-271 located at the dimer/dimer interface, including oxidation of Met-267 and nitration of Trp-268 and/or Trp-264, the latter being a very critical residue for octamer stability. These data demonstrate that peroxynitrite affects the octameric state of MtCK and confirms human sMtCK as the generally more susceptible isoenzyme. The results provide a molecular explanation of how oxidative damage can lead to inactivation and decreased octamer/dimer ratio of MtCK, as seen in neurodegenerative diseases and heart pathology, respectively.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;2;1125-30

  • Creatine kinase and creatine transporter in normal, wounded, and diseased skin.

    Schlattner U, Möckli N, Speer O, Werner S and Wallimann T

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg HPM, Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Skin comprises many cell types that are characterized by high biosynthetic activity and increased energy turnover. The creatine kinase system, consisting of creatine kinase isoenzymes and creatine transporter, is known to be important to support the high energy demands in such cells. We analyzed the presence and the localization of these proteins in murine and human skin under healthy and pathologic conditions, using immunoblotting and confocal immunohistochemistry with our recently developed specific antibodies. In murine skin, we found high amounts of brain-type cytosolic creatine kinase coexpressed with lower amounts of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, both mainly localized in suprabasal layers of the epidermis, different cell types of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and the subcutaneous panniculus carnosus muscle. With exception of sebaceous glands, these cells were also expressing creatine transporter. Muscle-type cytosolic creatine kinase and sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase were restricted to panniculus carnosus. Immediately after wounding of murine skin, brain-type cytosolic creatine kinase and a creatine transporter-subspecies were transiently upregulated about 3-fold as seen in immunoblots, whereas the amount of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase increased during days 10-15 after wounding. Healthy and psoriatic human skin showed a similar coexpression pattern of brain-type cytosolic creatine kinase, ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, and creatine transporter in this pilot study, with creatine transporter species being upregulated in psoriasis.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2002;118;3;416-23

  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer membrane porin show a direct interaction that is modulated by calcium.

    Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T and Tokarska-Schlattner M

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Hönggerberg HPM, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) co-localizes with mitochondrial porin (voltage-dependent anion channel) and adenine nucleotide translocator in mitochondrial contact sites. A specific, direct protein-protein interaction between MtCK and mitochondrial porin was demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This interaction was independent of the immobilized binding partner (porin reconstituted in liposomes or MtCK) or the analyzed isoform (chicken sarcomeric MtCK or human ubiquitous MtCK, human recombinant porin, or purified bovine porin). Increased ionic strength reduced the binding of MtCK to porin, suggesting predominantly ionic interactions. By contrast, micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) increased the amount of bound MtCK, indicating a physiological regulation of complex formation. No interaction of MtCK with reconstituted adenine nucleotide translocator was detectable in our experimental setup. The relevance of these findings for structure and function of mitochondrial contact sites is discussed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48027-30

  • Octamers of mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes differ in stability and membrane binding.

    Schlattner U and Wallimann T

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Octamer stability and membrane binding of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) are important for proper functioning of the enzyme and were suggested as targets for regulatory mechanisms. A quantitative analysis of these properties, using fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration, and surface plasmon resonance, revealed substantial differences between the two types of MtCK isoenzymes, sarcomeric (sMtCK) and ubiquitous (uMtCK). As compared with human and chicken sMtCK, human uMtCK showed a 23-34 times slower octamer dissociation rate, a reduced reoctamerization rate and a superior octamer stability as deduced from the octamer/dimer ratios at thermodynamic equilibrium. Octamer stability of sMtCK increased with temperature up to 30 degrees C, indicating a substantial contribution of hydrophobic interactions, while it decreased in the case of uMtCK, indicating the presence of additional polar dimer/dimer interactions. These conclusions are consistent with the recently solved x-ray structure of the human uMtCK (Eder, M., Fritz-Wolf, K., Kabsch, W., Wallimann, T., and Schlattner, U. (2000) Proteins 39, 216-225). When binding to 16% cardiolipin membranes, sMtCK showed slightly faster on-rates and higher affinities than uMtCK. However, human uMtCK was able to recruit the highest number of binding sites on the vesicle surface. The observed divergence of ubiquitous and sarcomeric MtCK is discussed with respect to their molecular structures and the possible physiological implications.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;23;17314-20

  • Crystal structure of human ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    Eder M, Fritz-Wolf K, Kabsch W, Wallimann T and Schlattner U

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland.

    Creatine kinase (CK), catalyzing the reversible trans-phosphorylation between ATP and creatine, plays a key role in the energy metabolism of cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements. We have solved the X-ray structure of octameric human ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) at 2.7 A resolution, representing the first human CK structure. The structure is very similar to the previously determined structure of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (sMtCK). The cuboidal octamer has 422 point group symmetry with four dimers arranged along the fourfold axis and a central channel of approximately 20 A diameter, which extends through the whole octamer. Structural differences with respect to sMtCK are found in isoform-specific regions important for octamer formation and membrane binding. Octameric uMtCK is stabilized by numerous additional polar interactions between the N-termini of neighboring dimers, which extend into the central channel and form clamp-like structures, and by a pair of salt bridges in the hydrophobic interaction patch. The five C-terminal residues of uMtCK, carrying positive charges likely to be involved in phospholipid-binding, are poorly defined by electron density, indicating a more flexible region than the corresponding one in sMtCK. The structural differences between uMtCK and sMtCK are consistent with biochemical studies on octamer stability and membrane binding of the two isoforms.

    Proteins 2000;39;3;216-25

  • A quantitative approach to membrane binding of human ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase using surface plasmon resonance.

    Schlattner U and Wallimann T

    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    We have evaluated surface plasmon resonance with avidin-biotin immobilized liposomes to characterize membrane binding of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK). While the sarcomeric sMtCK isoform is well known to bind to negatively charged phospholipids, especially cardiolipin, this report provides the first experimental evidence on the membrane interaction of an uMtCK isoform. Qualitative measurements showed that liposomes containing 16% (w/w) cardiolipin bind octameric as well as dimeric human uMtCK and also cytochrome c, but not bovine serum albumin. Quantitative parameters could be derived only for the membrane interaction of octameric human uMtCK using an improved analytical approach. Association and dissociation kinetics of octameric uMtCK fit well to a model for heterogeneous interaction suggesting two independent binding sites. Rate constants of the two sites differed by one order of magnitude, while their affinity constants were both about 80-100 nM. The data obtained demonstrate that surface plasmon resonance with immobilized liposomes is a suitable approach to characterize the binding of peripheral proteins to a lipid bilayer and that this method yields consistent quantitative binding parameters.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 2000;32;1;123-31

  • Molecular characterization of the creatine kinases and some historical perspectives.

    Qin W, Khuchua Z, Cheng J, Boero J, Payne RM and Strauss AW

    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine and St. Louis Children's Hospital, MO 63110, USA.

    Over the last 15 years, molecular characterization of the creatine kinase (CK) gene family has paralleled the molecular revolution of understanding gene structure, function, and regulation. In this review, we present a summary of advances in molecular analysis of the CK gene family with a few vignettes of historical interest. We describe how the muscle CK gene provided an essential model system to examine myogenic regulatory mechanisms, leading to the discovery of the binding site for the MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors essential in skeletal myogenesis and the characterization of the MEF2 family of factors with an A/T rich consensus binding site essential in skeletal myogenesis and cardiogenesis. Cloning and characterization of the four mRNAs and nuclear genes encoding the cytosolic CKs, muscle and brain CKs, and the mitochondrial (Mt) CKs, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, has allowed intriguing study of tissue-specific and cell-specific expression of the different CKs and analysis of structural, functional, regulatory, and evolutionary relationships among both the four CK proteins and genes. Current and future studies focus on understanding both cellular energetics facilitated by the CK enzymes, especially energy channelling from the site of production, the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane, to various cytosolic foci of utilization, and regulation of MtCK gene expression at the cell and tissue-specific level as models of regulation of energy producing genes.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1998;184;1-2;153-67

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Regulation of creatine kinase isoenzymes in human placenta during early, mid-, and late gestation.

    Thomure MF, Gast MJ, Srivastava N and Payne RM

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Objective: Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes play an important role in cellular energy transduction. Two isoenzymes of creatine kinase, ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and cytosolic brain creatine kinase (BCK), are postulated to form the creatine phosphate (CP) shuttle, in which creatine serves to transport high-energy phosphate from the mitochondria to its site of utilization. Coordinate regulation of these genes is essential for efficient energy transduction. We examined human CK isoenzyme regulation in placentas during all three trimesters of gestation to define the mRNA and protein expression patterns of uMtCK and BCK and to test the CP shuttle hypothesis.

    Methods: Placental samples were collected from a total of 26 patients from the first, second, and third trimesters. Total RNA and protein were prepared from each sample and quantified. Quantitative RNA analysis was performed by gel electrophoresis and dot blot techniques using isoenzyme-specific human cDNA probes for uMtCK and BCK. Protein expression of uMtCK and BCK was examined by Western blot analysis using isoenzyme-specific antibodies to uMtCK and BCK.

    Results: Analysis of RNA demonstrated the coordinate expression of uMtCK and BCK mRNAs in human placenta, with peak expression of both in the term placentas. Western blot analysis demonstrated coordinate expression of uMtCK and BCK proteins in the first and second trimesters, but not in the term placenta. Expression levels of uMtCK and BCK proteins were not consistent with their respective mRNA levels in the term placenta.

    Conclusion: Expression of uMtCK and BCK in human placenta is highly regulated, and post-transcriptional regulation of uMtCK and BCK expression occurs in the term placenta. The coordinate regulation of uMtCK and BCK in human placenta supports the CP shuttle hypothesis. This analysis demonstrates that human placenta has high energy needs that can change rapidly; thus, a functioning CP shuttle may be important in the maintenance and termination of pregnancy.

    Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 1996;3;6;322-7

  • Structure of mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    Fritz-Wolf K, Schnyder T, Wallimann T and Kabsch W

    Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Abteilung Biophysik, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Creatine kinase (CK, EC, an enzyme important for energy metabolism in cells of high and fluctuating energy requirements, catalyses the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl goup from phosphocreatine to ADP. We have solved the structure of the octameric mitochondrial isoform, Mib-CK, which is located in the intermembrane compartment and along the cristae membranes. Mib-CK consumes ATP produced in the mitochondria for the production of phosphocreatine, which is then exported into the cytosol for fast regeneration of ATP by the cytosolic CK isoforms. The octamer has 422 point-group symmetry, and appears as a cube of side length 93 angstrom with a channel 20 angstrom wide extending along the four-fold axis. Positively charged amino acids at the four-fold faces of the octamer possibly interact with negatively charged mitochondrial membranes. Each monomer consists of a small alpha-helical domain and a large domain containing an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by seven alpha-helices. The conserved residues of the CK family form a compact cluster that covers the active site between the domains.

    Nature 1996;381;6580;341-5

  • In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin.

    Brdiczka D, Kaldis P and Wallimann T

    Faculty of Biology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

    An interaction of mitochondrial creatine kinase with purified outer mitochondrial porin (voltage-dependent anion channel) was shown by co-sedimentation assays as well as by gel permeation chromatography. Porin formed high M(r) complexes with wild-type mitochondrial creatine kinase as well as with an N-terminal deletion mutant, lacking the first five N-terminal amino acids. The complexes were identified by creatine kinase activity in parallel with immunoblotting using specific antibodies against the two proteins. In addition, porin induced octamerization of the N-terminal creatine kinase mutant, which under the same conditions without porin, did not polymerize but remained more than 90% dimeric. Furthermore, binding of mitochondrial creatine kinase to porin affected the conductance of porin when reconstituted in "black membranes." At 10 mV the pore in the complex adopted a low conductance (1.5-2 nanosiemens) state, compared to the high conductance state (3-4 nanosiemens) of the free incorporated pores. The former state of the pore is known to be cationically selective. Thus, besides a specific structural interaction, a defined physiological function is assumed of the mitochondrial creatine kinase-porin complexes that are discussed here.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;44;27640-4

  • The ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase gene maps to a conserved region on human chromosome 15q15 and mouse chromosome 2 bands F1-F3.

    Steeghs K, Merkx G and Wieringa B

    Department of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Genomics 1994;24;1;193-5

  • Expression of the mitochondrial creatine kinase genes.

    Payne RM and Strauss AW

    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.

    Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine, and exists in mammals as two isoenzymes encoded by separate genes. In rats and humans, sarcomere-specific MtCK (sMtCK) is expressed only in skeletal and heart muscle, and has 87% nucleotide identity across the 1257 bp coding region. The ubiquitous isoenzyme of MtCK (uMtCK) is expressed in many tissues with highest levels in brain, gut, and kidney, and has 92% nucleotide identity between the 1254 bp coding regions of rat and human. Both genes are highly regulated developmentally in a tissue-specific manner. There is virtually no expression of sMtCK mRNA prior to birth. Unlike cytosolic muscle CK (MCK) and brain CK (BCK), there is no developmental isoenzyme switch between the MtCKs. Cell culture models representing the tissue-specific expression of either sMtCK or uMtCK are available, but there are no adequate developmental models to examine their regulation. Several animal models are available to examine the coordinate regulation of the CK gene family and include 1) Cardiac Stress by coarctation (sMtCK, BCK, and MCK), 2) Uterus and placenta during pregnancy (uMtCK and BCK), and 3) Diabetes and mitochondrial myopathy (sMtCK, BCK, and MCK). We report the details of these findings, and discuss the coordinate regulation of the genes necessary for high-energy transduction.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1994;133-134;235-43

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Separate nuclear genes encode sarcomere-specific and ubiquitous human mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes.

    Haas RC and Strauss AW

    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    Creatine kinase (EC isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction. Nuclear genes encode creatine kinase subunits from muscle, brain, and mitochondria (MtCK). We have recently isolated a cDNA clone encoding MtCK from a human placental library which is expressed in many human tissues (Haas, R. C., Korenfeld, C., Zhang, Z., Perryman, B., Roman, D., and Strauss, A. W. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 2890-2897). With nontranslated and coding region probes, we demonstrated by RNA blot analysis that the MtCK mRNA in sarcomeric muscle is distinct from this placenta-derived, ubiquitous MtCK cDNA. To compare these different mRNAs, a MtCK cDNA clone was isolated from a human heart library and characterized by complete nucleotide sequence analysis. The chemically determined NH2-terminal 26 residues of purified human heart MtCK protein are identical to those predicted from this sarcomeric MtCK cDNA. The human sarcomeric and ubiquitous cDNAs share 73% nucleotide and 80% predicted amino acid sequence identities, but have less than 66% identity with the cytosolic creatine kinases. The sarcomeric MtCK cDNA encodes a 419-amino acid protein which contains a 39-residue transit peptide essential for mitochondrial import. Primer extension analysis predicts a 348-base pair 5'-nontranslated region. RNA blot analysis demonstrates that heart-derived MtCK is sarcomere-specific, but the ubiquitous MtCK mRNA is expressed in most tissues. Thus, separate nuclear genes encode two closely related, tissue-specific isoenzymes of MtCK. Our finding that multiple genes encode different mitochondrial protein isoenzymes is rare.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 17646

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;12;6921-7

  • Isolation and characterization of the gene and cDNA encoding human mitochondrial creatine kinase.

    Haas RC, Korenfeld C, Zhang ZF, Perryman B, Roman D and Strauss AW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    Creatine kinase (CK; EC isoenzymes play prominent roles in energy metabolism. Nuclear genes encode three known CK subunits: cytoplasmic muscle (MCK), cytoplasmic brain (BCK), and mitochondrial (MtCK). We have isolated the gene and cDNA encoding human placental MtCK. By using a dog heart MCK cDNA-derived probe, the 7.0-kb EcoRI fragment from one cross-hybridizing genomic clone was isolated and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. A region of this clone encoded predicted amino acid sequence identical to residues 15-26 of the human heart MtCK NH2-terminal protein sequence. The human placental MtCK cDNA was isolated by hybridization to a genomic fragment encoding this region. The human placental MtCK gene contains 9 exons encoding 416 amino acids, including a 38-amino acid transit peptide, presumably essential for mitochondrial import. Residues 1-14 of human placental MtCK cDNA-derived NH2-terminal sequence differ from the human heart MtCK protein sequence, suggesting that tissue-specific MtCK mRNAs are derived from multiple MtCK genes. RNA blot analysis demonstrated abundant MtCK mRNA in adult human ventricle and skeletal muscle, low amounts in placenta and small intestine, and a dramatic increase during in vitro differentiation induced by serum-deprivation in the non-fusing mouse smooth muscle cell line, BC3H1. These findings demonstrate coordinate regulation of MtCK and cytosolic CK gene expression and support the phosphocreatine shuttle hypothesis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 17646

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;5;2890-7

  • Human creatine kinase genes on chromosomes 15 and 19, and proximity of the gene for the muscle form to the genes for apolipoprotein C2 and excision repair.

    Stallings RL, Olson E, Strauss AW, Thompson LH, Bachinski LL and Siciliano MJ

    Department of Genetics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute 77030.

    The human chromosomal assignments of genes of the creatine kinase (CK) family--loci for brain (CKBB), muscle (CKMM), and mitochondrial (CKMT) forms--were studied by Southern filter hybridization analysis of DNAs isolated from a human x rodent somatic cell hybrid clone panel. Probes for the 3'-noncoding sequences of human CKBB and CKMM hybridized concordantly only to DNAs from somatic cell hybrids containing chromosomes 14 and 19, respectively. Thus the earlier assignment of the gene coding for the CKBB isozyme to chromosome 14 was confirmed by molecular means, as was the provisional assignment of CKMM to the long arm of chromosome 19. A probe containing canine sequences for CKMM cross-hybridized with human sequences on chromosomes 14 and 19, a result consistent with the assignments of CKBB and CKMM. A probe containing human sequences for CKMT enabled the provisional assignment of CKMT to human chromosome 15. Independent hybrids with portions of the long arm of chromosome 19 missing indicated the order of genes on the long arm of chromosome 19 as being cen-GPI-(TGFB, CYP1)-[CKMM, (APOC2-ERCC1)]-(CGB, FTL). The unexpectedly more distal location of APOC2 among the genes on the long arm--and APOC2's close association with CKMM--is discussed with respect to the close linkage relationship of APOC2 to myotonic muscular dystrophy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09299, CA34936; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL17646

    American journal of human genetics 1988;43;2;144-51

  • Control of heart oxidative phosphorylation by creatine kinase in mitochondrial membranes.

    Jacobus WE, Moreadith RW and Vandegaer KM

    Three important points must be emphasized in summary. First is the idea that a cellular microcompartment need not be limited by a semi-permeable membrane. We recognize microcompartments in multi-enzyme complexes where substrates are covalently transported from subunit to subunit. An example of this is the lipoic acid moiety of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. However, to act as a kinetic microcompartment, covalent transfer is not an obligatory requirement. Proximity effects may be sufficient for substantial rate enhancement. Our data clearly show that the kinetics of ADP translocation are influenced by the site of ADP formation. We contend that this represents a newly recognized and important form of cellular microcompartmentation. The second point is that we do not want our results misinterpreted as an overextension of the known data concerning tissue respiration. We believe that the primary parameter controlling heart mitochondrial oxygen consumption is the availability of ADP at the adenine nucleotide translocase. Our data show, however, that this is not a simple process. Secondary control is exerted by the localization of ADP formation, i.e. microcompartmentation. As a result of the kinetic data (Table 3), we conclude that the forward rate of mitochondrial creatine kinase is the preferential reaction controlling ADP delivery to the translocase. We are left, nonetheless, with questions concerning the secondary regulation of this enzyme in vivo by substrate (ATP and creatine) and inhibition by product (phosphocreatine). The nature of this control awaits further experimental data. Finally, the results are consistent with the creatine kinase energy transport hypothesis. Overall, the rate of tissue oxygen consumption reflects the metabolic activity of the organ, determined by the rate of ATP utilization (see right side of Figure 1). This results in the cytoplasmic production of ADP. In heart, this is coupled via the bound cytoplasmic isozymes of creatine kinase to the local rephosphorylation of ADP to ATP and the simultaneous production of creatine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-20658, P50 HL-17655

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983;414;73-89

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.