G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1
G00000430 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000183010 (Ensembl human gene)
5831 (Entrez Gene)
788 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PYCR1 (GeneCards)
179035 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9721 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P32322 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • P5C

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features.

    Reversade B, Escande-Beillard N, Dimopoulou A, Fischer B, Chng SC, Li Y, Shboul M, Tham PY, Kayserili H, Al-Gazali L, Shahwan M, Brancati F, Lee H, O'Connor BD, Schmidt-von Kegler M, Merriman B, Nelson SF, Masri A, Alkazaleh F, Guerra D, Ferrari P, Nanda A, Rajab A, Markie D, Gray M, Nelson J, Grix A, Sommer A, Savarirayan R, Janecke AR, Steichen E, Sillence D, Hausser I, Budde B, Nürnberg G, Nürnberg P, Seemann P, Kunkel D, Zambruno G, Dallapiccola B, Schuelke M, Robertson S, Hamamy H, Wollnik B, Van Maldergem L, Mundlos S and Kornak U

    Institute of Medical Biology, A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore. bruno@reversade.com

    Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity mapping in several kindreds with ARCL identified a candidate region on chromosome 17q25. By high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, we detected disease-causing mutations in the gene PYCR1. We found that the gene product, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, localizes to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential and increased apoptosis rate upon oxidative stress were evident in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Knockdown of the orthologous genes in Xenopus and zebrafish led to epidermal hypoplasia and blistering that was accompanied by a massive increase of apoptosis. Our findings link mutations in PYCR1 to altered mitochondrial function and progeroid changes in connective tissues.

    Nature genetics 2009;41;9;1016-21

  • Mutation in pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 gene in families with cutis laxa type 2.

    Guernsey DL, Jiang H, Evans SC, Ferguson M, Matsuoka M, Nightingale M, Rideout AL, Provost S, Bedard K, Orr A, Dubé MP, Ludman M and Samuels ME

    Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada.

    Autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging, wrinkled and lax skin, joint laxity, and a general developmental delay. Cutis laxa includes a family of clinically overlapping conditions with confusing nomenclature, generally requiring molecular analyses for definitive diagnosis. Six genes are currently known to mutate to yield one of these related conditions. We ascertained a cohort of typical ARCL2 patients from a subpopulation isolate within eastern Canada. Homozygosity mapping with high-density SNP genotyping excluded all six known genes, and instead identified a single homozygous region near the telomere of chromosome 17, shared identically by state by all genotyped affected individuals from the families. A putative pathogenic variant was identified by direct DNA sequencing of genes within the region. The single nucleotide change leads to a missense mutation adjacent to a splice junction in the gene encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1). Bioinformatic analysis predicted a pathogenic effect of the variant on splice donor site function. Skipping of the associated exon was confirmed in RNA from blood lymphocytes of affected homozygotes and heterozygous mutation carriers. Exon skipping leads to deletion of the reductase functional domain-coding region and an obligatory downstream frameshift. PYCR1 plays a critical role in proline biosynthesis. Pathogenicity of the genetic variant in PYCR1 is likely, given that a similar clinical phenotype has been documented for mutation carriers of another proline biosynthetic enzyme, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Our results support a significant role for proline in normal development.

    American journal of human genetics 2009;85;1;120-9

  • Crystal structure of human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.

    Meng Z, Lou Z, Liu Z, Li M, Zhao X, Bartlam M and Rao Z

    Tsinghua-IBP Joint Research Group for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) to proline using NAD(P)H as the cofactor. The enzymatic cycle between P5C and proline is very important for the regulation of amino acid metabolism, intracellular redox potential, and apoptosis. Here, we present the 2.8 Angstroms resolution structure of the P5CR apo enzyme, its 3.1 Angstroms resolution ternary complex with NAD(P)H and substrate-analog. The refined structures demonstrate a decameric architecture with five homodimer subunits and ten catalytic sites arranged around a peripheral circular groove. Mutagenesis and kinetic studies reveal the pivotal roles of the dinucleotide-binding Rossmann motif and residue Glu221 in the human enzyme. Human P5CR is thermostable and the crystals were grown at 37 degrees C. The enzyme is implicated in oxidation of the anti-tumor drug thioproline.

    Journal of molecular biology 2006;359;5;1364-77

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in lactating bovine mammary glands.

    Basch JJ, Wickham ED and Farrell HM

    ARS, USDA, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA.

    The occurrence and subcellular distribution of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase have been studied in lactating bovine mammary glands. The enzyme appears to have only a cursory association with the mitochondrial fraction, because significant amounts of the enzyme are found in other membrane-containing fractions and in the cytosol. Polyamines stimulate the enzyme in vitro, supporting the mediation of cursory attachment to membrane fractions by these compounds. The enzyme is selective for NADPH but can utilize NADH as well. Long-chain coenzyme A derivatives, which are generated during lipid metabolism, almost completely inhibit this enzyme, which is responsible for the synthesis of a portion of the proline needed for casein production. Overall, the enzyme concentration in the gland correlates well with a role in the conversion of an intermediate, L-delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, into proline, an important amino acid for the mammary secretory process, especially casein synthesis.

    Journal of dairy science 1996;79;8;1361-8

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Cloning human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase cDNA by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Dougherty KM, Brandriss MC and Valle D

    Laboratory of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (EC catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. We cloned a human pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase cDNA by complementation of proline auxotrophy in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, DT1100. Using a HepG2 cDNA library in a yeast expression vector, we screened 10(5) transformants, two of which gained proline prototrophy. The plasmids in both contained similar 1.8-kilobase inserts, which when reintroduced into strain DT1100, conferred proline prototrophy. The pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity in these prototrophs was 1-3% that of wild type yeast, in contrast to the activity in strain DT1100 which was undetectable. The 1810-base pair pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase cDNA hybridizes to a 1.85-kilobase mRNA in samples from human cell lines and predicts a 319-amino acid, 33.4-kDa protein. The derived amino acid sequence is 32% identical with that of S. cerevisiae. By genomic DNA hybridization analysis, the human reductase appears to be encoded by a single copy gene which maps to chromosome 17.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: 5RO1EY02948; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5RO1GM40751

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;2;871-5

  • Purified human erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. Preferential oxidation of NADPH.

    Merrill MJ, Yeh GC and Phang JM

    Endocrinology Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase catalyzes the final step in proline synthesis by NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of pyrroline-5-carboxylate. We have purified and characterized this enzyme from human erythrocytes. Purification to homogeneity (approximately 600,000-fold) was accomplished by sonication, ultracentrifugation, 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose affinity chromatography, and DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme runs as a single band of 30,000 Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sizing chromatography under nondenaturating conditions demonstrates activity in the 300,000-350,000 Mr range, suggesting that the native enzyme exists as a 10- to 12-mer. The purified enzyme exhibits kinetic characteristics similar to those previously described for whole red cell homogenates. The Vmax is 10-fold higher and the Km for pyrroline-5-carboxylate is 7-fold higher with NADH versus NADPH as cofactor. The affinity for NADPH is 15-fold higher than that for NADH. Erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase is competitively inhibited by NADP+. Unlike the enzyme from some other sources, erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase is not inhibited by proline or ATP. Double label studies using [14C]pyrroline-5-carboxylate and [3H]exNADPH in the presence of both NADH and NADPH were performed to determine the preferred source of reducing equivalents. In the presence of physiologic concentrations of pyrroline-5-carboxylate and both pyridine nucleotides, all of the reducing equivalents came from NADPH. We suggest that, in some cell types including human erythrocytes, a physiologic function of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase is the generation of NADP+.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;16;9352-8

  • The effect of pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid on nucleotide metabolism in erythrocytes from normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient subjects.

    Yeh GC, Roth EF, Phang JM, Harris SC, Nagel RL and Rinaldi A

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate, the intermediate in the interconversion of proline, ornithine, and glutamate, increases 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PP-ribose-P) and purine nucleotide formation in intact human erythrocytes. We proposed that: 1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate is converted to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase with concomitant oxidation of NADPH, 2) NADP+ augments glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and 3) production of ribose-5-phosphate via the pentose shunt is increased. Since glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a central role in this proposed mechanism, we examined the responsiveness of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes to pyrroline-5-carboxylate. We compared erythrocytes from four Sardinian glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient subjects and four Sardinian normal controls. Without pyrroline-5-carboxylate treatment, the levels of pentose shunt activity, PP-ribose-P, and inosine monophosphate were comparable in the two populations. However, the response to pyrroline-5-carboxylate in erythrocytes from normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient subjects was markedly different. In normal erythrocytes, pyrroline-5-carboxylate treatment increased pentose shunt activity 600%, PP-ribose-P formation 250%, and the incorporation of hypoxanthine into inosine monophosphate 260%. In contrast, pyrroline-5-carboxylate had no effect on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes. These findings strongly support our proposed mechanism for the pyrroline-5-carboxylate effect on nucleotides. Furthermore, the markedly different capacities for nucleotide synthesis in the two populations with pyrroline-5-carboxylate treatment suggest a role for pyrroline-5-carboxylate-mediated modulation of nucleotide metabolism in normal cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 2106

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1984;259;9;5454-8

  • Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in human erythrocytes.

    Yeh GC, Harris SC and Phang JM

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, which converts pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, has been identified in human erythrocytes. The level of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity in these cells is comparable to the activity levels of major erythrocyte enzymes. The physiologic function of the enzyme in erythrocytes cannot be related to its function in other tissues, i.e., producing proline for protein synthesis. We examined the kinetic properties of erythrocyte pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and compared them to the properties of the enzyme from proliferating cultured human fibroblasts. We found that the kinetic properties and regulation of the erythrocyte enzyme are distinctly different from those for human fibroblast pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. These characteristics are consistent with the interpretation that the function of the enzyme in human erythrocytes may be to generate oxidizing potential in the form of NADP+.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1 F32 CA06216-01A1

    The Journal of clinical investigation 1981;67;4;1042-6

  • Enzyme activities in human fetal and neoplastic tissues.

    Herzfeld A and Greengard O

    The concentrations of ten or 12 enzymes involved in the metabolism of DNA, collagen, amino acids, or glucose have been determined in variants of human intestinal and pulmonary tissues. In comparison to nonneoplastic adult colon, normal fetal colon had elevated concentrations of thymidine kinase, peptidyl proline hydroxylase, phosphoserine phosphatase, ornithine transcarbamylase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and ornithine aminotransferase. Raised activities of the first five of these enzymes, and of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase distinguishes neoplastic from nonneoplastic sections of adult colon. Study of a wide range of pulmonary specimens permitted comparisons of different types of tumors, and revealed some subtle differences between lungs of noncancer patients and nonneoplastic portions of host lungs. The concentrations of eight previously identified enzymic indicators were less in moderately or well differentiated than in poorly differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinomas. The latter differed from epidermoid carcinomas (also poorly differentiated) by containing lower concentrations of thymidine kinase (both soluble and particulate) and hexokinase.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 22065, CA 25005, CA 25016; ...

    Cancer 1980;46;9;2047-54

  • Human colon tumors: enzymic and histological characteristics.

    Herzfeld A, Legg MA and Greengard O

    In samples of colonic adenocarcinomas, the mean activities of thymidine kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoserine phosphatase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase were several fold higher than those of nonneoplastic colon. The presence of considerable, cold labile pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity provided an additional criterion for distinguishing tumors from the control tissue. Deviations from the pattern of enzymes in normal colon were much more pronounced in the five moderately well-differentiated than in the single well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.

    Cancer 1978;42;3;1280-3

Gene lists (2)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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