G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
lactate dehydrogenase A
G00000415 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000133752 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000134333 (Ensembl human gene)
3939 (Entrez Gene)
114 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LDHA (GeneCards)
150000 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6535 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P00338 (UniProt)

Literature (52)

Pubmed - other

  • No authors listed

  • Detecting rare variants for complex traits using family and unrelated data.

    Zhu X, Feng T, Li Y, Lu Q and Elston RC

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. xzhu1@darwin.case.edu

    Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to detect common genetic variants involved in common diseases, but most of the variants found this way account for only a small portion of the trait variance. Furthermore, candidate gene-based resequencing suggests that many rare genetic variants contribute to the trait variance of common diseases. Here we propose two designs, sibpair and unrelated-case designs, to detect rare genetic variants in either a candidate gene-based or genome-wide association analysis. First we show that we can detect and classify together rare risk haplotypes using a relatively small sample with either of these designs, and then have increased power to test association in a larger case-control sample. This method can also be applied to resequencing data. Next we apply the method to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension (HT) data, the latter being the only trait for which no genome-wide association evidence was reported in the original WTCCC study, and identify one interesting gene associated with HT and four associated with CAD at a genome-wide significance level of 5%. These results suggest that searching for rare genetic variants is feasible and can be fruitful in current GWAS, candidate gene studies or resequencing studies.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR003655, RR03655; NHGRI NIH HHS: HG003054, R01 HG003054, R01 HG003054-04; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074166, HL086718, R01 HL074166, R01 HL086718; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28356, R01 GM028356, R37 GM028356; PHS HHS: P30CAD43703

    Genetic epidemiology 2010;34;2;171-87

  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in melanoma increases with disease progression and is associated with expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, but not Bcl-2 proteins.

    Zhuang L, Scolyer RA, Murali R, McCarthy SW, Zhang XD, Thompson JF and Hersey P

    Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

    The serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important predictor of prognosis and treatment response in melanoma patients. It is unknown whether the expression of LDH-5 in tissue sections also has prognostic significance and whether it is related to the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, and endoplasmic reticulum stress protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Identification of an association between LDH-5 expression and anti-apoptotic proteins may have important therapeutic implications for melanoma patients. Sections from 159 pigmented lesions, including nevi and melanoma at different stages of progression were studied by immunohistochemistry. Correlation of LDH-5 expression with clinicopathological factors and with the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1 and GRP78 was examined. LDH-5 was detected at low levels in 6 of 10 compound nevi (60%) and 6 of 10 dysplastic nevi (60%). The percentage of positive cases was greater in thin (<or=1.0 mm) (74%) and thick primary melanoma (>1.0 mm) (95%) and in metastatic melanoma in the skin (100%) and lymph node (81%). The immunoreactive score was highly related to progression of melanoma (P<0.0001). LDH-5 expression was positively associated with increasing tumor thickness (P=0.02) and dermal tumor mitotic rate (P=0.02). LDH-5 above the median immunoreactive score was associated with reduced disease-free survival and overall survival (P<0.02). LDH-5 expression was negatively associated with Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, LDH-5 expression was strongly associated with Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 expression and also positively associated with GRP78 expression (P<0.0001). The low Bcl-2 expression in melanomas with high LDH-5 expression provides an explanation for the poor response of patients with high serum LDH levels to treatment with the Bcl-2 antisense drug 'Genasense'. The strong correlation of LDH-5 expression with Mcl-1 expression suggests that treatment strategies inhibiting the activity of Mcl-1 in melanoma patients should be investigated.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2010;23;1;45-53

  • Upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A by ErbB2 through heat shock factor 1 promotes breast cancer cell glycolysis and growth.

    Zhao YH, Zhou M, Liu H, Ding Y, Khong HT, Yu D, Fodstad O and Tan M

    Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA.

    ErbB2 has been shown to activate signaling molecules that may regulate glucose metabolism. However, there is no evidence reported to directly link ErbB2 to glycolysis, and the mechanism underlying ErbB2-enhanced glycolysis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of ErbB2 in regulating glycolysis. We found that ErbB2-overexpressing cells possessed a significantly higher level of glycolysis when compared to the ErbB2-low-expressing cells, and the downregulation of ErbB2 markedly decreased glycolysis. Overexpression of ErbB2 increased the expression of glycolysis-regulating molecules lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). ErbB2 activated HSF1, indicated by the increased HSF1 trimer formation, and promoted HSF1 protein synthesis. HSF1 bound to LDH-A promoter and the downregulation of HSF1 reduced the expression of LDH-A and subsequently decreased cancer cell glycolysis and growth. Moreover, the glycolysis inhibitors, 2-deoxyglucose and oxamate, selectively inhibited the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cells. Taken together, this study shows that in human breast cancer cells, ErbB2 promotes glycolysis at least partially through the HSF1-mediated upregulation of LDH-A. This pathway may have a major role in regulating glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. These novel findings have important implications for the design of new approaches to target ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers.

    Oncogene 2009;28;42;3689-701

  • Endothelial cell-laminin interaction: modulation of LDH expression involves alpha6beta4 integrin-FAK-p38MAPK pathway.

    Sudhakaran PR, Viji RI, Kiran MS and Sameer Kumar VB

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. prsbn@md4.vsnl.net.in

    One of the possible mechanisms of the angiogenic effect of laminin (Ln) involves modulation of the biological activity of VEGF by regulating poly ADP ribosylation (PAR). PAR modification of VEGF was found to be related with the changes in NAD(+) associated with a shift in LDH isoenzymes. Further investigations on LDH gene expression in HUVECs suggested that the effect of Ln was mediated through alpha(6)beta(4) integrin-FAK-src-p38 MAPK pathway. This was evidenced by (a) co-immunoprecipitation of beta(4) integrin with alpha(6) subunit, (b) activation by tyrosine phosphorylation of beta(4) integrin and FAK, (c) co-immunoprecipitation of FAK with beta(4) and with adapter protein, src, (d) increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in cells maintained on Ln and (e) blocking of effect of Ln on LDH-B gene expression by inhibition of p38 MAPK. Increase in serine phosphorylation of c-fos and c-jun and higher levels of heterodimers of AP-1 in the nucleus in cells maintained on Ln suggested activation of AP-1 transcription factor. These results provide evidence for modulation of endothelial cell function relevant to angiogenesis by Ln through alpha(6)beta(4) integrin.

    Glycoconjugate journal 2009;26;6;697-704

  • LDH-A inhibition, a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer.

    Xie H, Valera VA, Merino MJ, Amato AM, Signoretti S, Linehan WM, Sukhatme VP and Seth P

    Department of Medicine, Division of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    The genetic basis for the hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome is germ-line inactivating mutation in the gene for the Krebs/tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), the enzyme that converts fumarate to malate. These individuals are predisposed to development of leiomyomas of the skin and uterus as well as highly aggressive kidney cancers. Inhibition of FH should result in significant decrease in oxidative phosphorylation necessitating that glycolysis followed by fermentation of pyruvate to lactate will be required to provide adequate ATP as well as to regenerate NAD+. Moreover, FH deficiency is known to up-regulate expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha by enhancing the stability of HIF transcript. This leads to activation of various HIF-regulated genes including vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter GLUT1 and increased expression of several glycolytic enzymes. Because lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), also a HIF-1alpha target, promotes fermentative glycolysis (conversion of pyruvate to lactate), a step essential for regenerating NAD+, we asked whether FH-deficient cells would be exquisitely sensitive to LDH-A blockade. Here, we report that hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer tumors indeed overexpress LDH-A, that LDH-A inhibition results in increased apoptosis in a cell with FH deficiency and that this effect is reactive oxygen species mediated, and that LDH-A knockdown in the background of FH knockdown results in significant reduction in tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 SC006659-25; NCI NIH HHS: K01 CA104700, K01 CA104700-03, K01 CA104700-04, N01-CO-12400

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2009;8;3;626-35

  • Differentiated expression of the lactate dehydrogenase subunit M in pleural fluids of neoplastic aetiology.

    Kotyza J, Havel D, Kulda V, Bunatová K and Pesek M

    Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Charles University, The Czech Republic. jaromir.kotyza@lfp.cuni.cz

    Objective: An anaerobic type of glycolysis exemplified by hyperproduction of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) subunit M has been detected in lung tumours, while a similar pattern has been found in concomitant pleural effusions (PE). The aim of this study was to verify the presence of the LDH subunit M in PEs of different aetiology and to compare its expression with markers of inflammation.

    LDH isoenzymes were estimated and the LDH5/LDH1 coefficient was calculated in paraneoplastic PEs (n = 99), including subgroups with a different tumour ultrastructure, origin and pleural involvement. The expression pattern was compared with parainflammatory PEs (n = 21), transudates (n = 16) and with the expression of 13 inflammatory markers in PEs.

    Results: The LDH5/LDH1 coefficient was higher in PEs associated with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and with pleura-invading tumours, and lower in PEs of small-cell lung cancer and tumours without a confirmed pleural involvement. The LDH5/LDH1 coefficient positively correlated with uPA, IL-8, IL-10, sICAM, sVCAM, MPO and MMP-9.

    Conclusions: In accordance with inflammatory markers, it appears that the expression of LDH and its isoenzymes in PEs reflects the host reaction in pleural space and, in NSCLC, may also feature the anaerobic phenotype of cancer cells.

    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 2009;69;1;73-8

  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in squamous cell head and neck cancer relates to prognosis following radical or postoperative radiotherapy.

    Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Winter S, Leek R, Sivridis E and Harris AL

    Department of Radiotherapy, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. targ@her.forthnet.gr

    Objectives: We assessed the expression and the prognostic role of lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5, the major LDH isoenzyme involved in anaerobic glycolysis) in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCHNC).

    Methods: LDH5 was assessed immunohistochemically in whole tissue sections from 141 patients with SCHNC. Of these, 102 were subjected to surgery with (90 patients) or without (12 patients) postoperative radiotherapy (group A), while 39 patients were treated with radical radiotherapy (group B).

    Results: Mixed nuclear/cytoplasmic LDH5 expression was detected in 72.5% of group A and 61.5% of group B patients. This was significantly related to T4-stage (p = 0.04) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression (p = 0.002). In group A, high LDH5 was linked with poorer distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.01) and disease-specific overall survival (OS; p = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, LDH5 (p = 0.002) and HIF-1alpha (p = 0.01) were independently linked with distant metastasis. LDH5 was also linked with death events (p = 0.005). In group B, high LDH5 expression was significantly associated with poorer local relapse-free survival (p = 0.009) and OS (p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, only T stage was a significant predictor of death events (p = 0.04).

    Conclusions: LDH5 is highly expressed in SCHNC and is linked with local relapse, survival and distant metastasis, suggesting that LDH5 is a marker of radioresistance and a target for therapeutic interventions.

    Oncology 2009;77;5;285-92

  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas is associated with hypoxia regulated proteins.

    Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Pezzella F, Sivridis E, Turley H, Harris AL and Gatter KC

    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. targ@her.forthnet.gr

    The expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5), the major LDH isoenzyme sustaining the anaerobic transformation glycolysis was examined in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Multi-tissue slides obtained from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL; 95 cases), follicular lymphomas (FL; 49 cases) and from non-neoplastic lymph nodes (48 cases) were used for immuhistochemical analysis. High LDH5 expression (cytoplasmic and nuclear) was noted in 79/95 and 29/49 cases of DLBCL and FL, respectively (p = 0.002). No expression was noted in non-neoplastic lymphocytes. In DLBCL, LDH5 expression was significantly related to hypoxia inducible factor HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) expression. In FL, however, a significant relation was confirmed with pVEGFR2/KDR and HIF2alpha. FL cases with the highest microvessel density were those, which lacked both LDH5 and VEGF expression. It is concluded that LDH5 is highly upregulated in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is in direct relation to HIFs expression. LDH5 expression is linked with activated VEGFR2/KDR expression in both lymphoid lesions.

    Leukemia & lymphoma 2008;49;11;2181-6

  • Identification and physiological activity of survival factor released from cardiomyocytes during ischaemia and reperfusion.

    Mizukami Y, Ono K, Du CK, Aki T, Hatano N, Okamoto Y, Ikeda Y, Ito H, Hamano K and Morimoto S

    Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan. mizukami@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    Aims: We carried out a screening of survival factors released from cells exposed to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion (sI/R) using the embryonic rat heart-derived cell line, H9c2 cells, and examined the physiological role of the identified factor.

    The culture medium supernatant of H9c2 cells exposed to sI/R was separated by column chromatography and the fractions examined for survival activity. The protein with survival activity was identified by mass spectrometry, and its physiological role was examined in the models of ischaemia. Cell survival activity was detected in at least three fractions of the cell supernatant collected during sI/R and subjected to a series of column chromatographic steps. Among the proteins measured by mass spectrometry and western blotting, a p36 protein identified as a glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase muscle subunit (M-LDH), showed strong survival activity. H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular calcium overload in H9c2 cells and irregular Ca(2+) transients in adult rat cardiomyocytes were both found to be inhibited by pretreatment with M-LDH. M-LDH also lowered the frequency and amplitude of early afterdepolarizations induced by H(2)O(2) in adult rat cardiomyocytes and suppressed the ischaemia-reperfusion-induced reduction of cardiac output from mouse working heart preparations. M-LDH was found to increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays a role in H9c2 cell survival.

    Conclusion: M-LDH released from cardiomyocytes after hypoxia and reoxygenation has a role in protecting the heart from oxidative stress-induced injury through an intracellular signal transduction pathway involving ERK1/2.

    Cardiovascular research 2008;79;4;589-99

  • Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) expression in human gastric cancer: association with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha) pathway, angiogenic factors production and poor prognosis.

    Kolev Y, Uetake H, Takagi Y and Sugihara K

    Surgical Oncology Department, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan. kolev.srg2@tmd.ac.jp

    Background: Lactate-dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) is an important isoenzyme converting pyruvate to lactate under hypoxic conditions and might play an important role in the development and progression of malignancies. However, the role of LDH-5 in gastric cancer is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of LDH-5 expression in gastric carcinoma.

    Methods: LDH-5 expression in 152 patients with different grade and stage gastric carcinoma was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) as a marker of tumor hypoxia, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as angiogenesis parameters were also assessed in this study. Correlations between the expression of investigated proteins and various clinicopathological factors including survival were determined.

    Results: There were 94 cases (61.8%) showing high LDH-5 expression, and 95 patients (62.5%) had high HIF-1alpha expression. Positive correlation was found between LDH-5 expression and HIF-1alpha, VEGF, and COX-2. The overexpression of LDH-5 was more prevalent in advanced tumors having positive vessel invasion. Patients with overexpression of LDH-5 showed far lower disease-free (63.5% vs 82.7%) and overall (56.3% vs 78.4%) survival rates compared with patients with low LDH-5 expression. HIF-1alpha expression was shown to have no significance on survival. In multivariate analysis, high LDH-5 expression kept its independence as a negative prognostic indicator.

    Conclusion: The results of the current study show that LDH-5 expression may be a useful prognostic factor for patients with gastric carcinoma.

    Annals of surgical oncology 2008;15;8;2336-44

  • Extragenic accumulation of RNA polymerase II enhances transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    Listerman I, Bledau AS, Grishina I and Neugebauer KM

    Max-Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

    Recent genomic data indicate that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) function extends beyond conventional transcription of primarily protein-coding genes. Among the five snRNAs required for pre-mRNA splicing, only the U6 snRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Here we address the question of how Pol II coordinates the expression of spliceosome components, including U6. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and high-resolution mapping by PCR to localize both Pol II and Pol III to snRNA gene regions. We report the surprising finding that Pol II is highly concentrated approximately 300 bp upstream of all five active human U6 genes in vivo. The U6 snRNA, an essential component of the spliceosome, is synthesized by Pol III, whereas all other spliceosomal snRNAs are Pol II transcripts. Accordingly, U6 transcripts were terminated in a Pol III-specific manner, and Pol III localized to the transcribed gene regions. However, synthesis of both U6 and U2 snRNAs was alpha-amanitin-sensitive, indicating a requirement for Pol II activity in the expression of both snRNAs. Moreover, both Pol II and histone tail acetylation marks were lost from U6 promoters upon alpha-amanitin treatment. The results indicate that Pol II is concentrated at specific genomic regions from which it can regulate Pol III activity by a general mechanism. Consequently, Pol II coordinates expression of all RNA and protein components of the spliceosome.

    PLoS genetics 2007;3;11;e212

  • Ligand binding and protein dynamics in lactate dehydrogenase.

    Pineda JR, Callender R and Schwartz SD

    Department of Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

    Recent experimental studies suggest that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) binds its substrate via the formation of a LDH/NADH.substrate encounter complex through a select-fit mechanism, whereby only a minority population of LDH/NADH is binding-competent. In this study, we perform molecular dynamics calculations to explore the variations in structure accessible to the binary complex with a focus on identifying structures that seem likely to be binding-competent and which are in accord with the known experimental characterization of forming binding-competent species. We find that LDH/NADH samples quite a range of protein conformations within our 2.148 ns calculations, some of which yield quite facile access of solvent to the active site. The results suggest that the mobile loop of LDH is perhaps just partially open in these conformations and that multiple open conformations, yielding multiple binding pathways, are likely. These open conformations do not require large-scale unfolding/melting of the binary complex. Rather, open versus closed conformations are due to subtle protein and water rearrangements. Nevertheless, the large heat capacity change observed between binding-competent and binding-incompetent can be explained by changes in solvation and an internal rearrangement of hydrogen bonds. We speculate that such a strategy for binding may be necessary to get a ligand efficiently to a binding pocket that is located fairly deep within the protein's interior.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM068036, GM41916, P01 GM068036, R01 GM041916, R37 GM041916, T32 GM007288, T32 GM07288

    Biophysical journal 2007;93;5;1474-83

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Increased serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative diseases: a metabolic adaptation?

    Mazzotta S, Guerranti R, Gozzetti A, Bucalossi A, Bocchia M, Sammassimo S, Petralia S, Ogueli GI and Lauria F

    Department of Hematology and Transplants, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. mazserena@yahoo.it

    We evaluated the significance of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMDs) by studying LDH isoenzymes in the serum of patients with secondary polycythemia (SP), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) in different disease status. LDH activity and isoenzymes were evaluated retrospectively in serum samples from four groups of patients and compared with a control group. LDH activity and isoenzyme distributions of patients with SP and PV did not reveal significant variations with respect to controls. In the ET and IMF group LDH isoenzyme revealed significant variations: IMF showed significant increase of LDH2 and significant reduction of LDH5 isoenzyme, whereas ET showed significant decrease in LDH1 and increase of LDH3. These data suggest that LDH isoenzyme patterns may be a useful marker of CMDs, but this enzymatic pattern could be expression of a metabolic adaptation.

    Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2006;11;4;239-44

  • Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance.

    Fantin VR, St-Pierre J and Leder P

    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Alterations in cellular metabolism are among the most consistent hallmarks of cancer. Herein we have investigated the relationship between increased aerobic lactate production and mitochondrial physiology in tumor cells. To diminish the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) levels were knocked down by means of LDH-A short hairpin RNAs. Reduction in LDH-A activity resulted in stimulation of mitochondrial respiration and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. It also compromised the ability of these tumor cells to proliferate under hypoxia. The tumorigenicity of the LDH-A-deficient cells was severely diminished, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with the human ortholog LDH-A protein. These results demonstrate that LDH-A plays a key role in tumor maintenance.

    Cancer cell 2006;9;6;425-34

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Proteomic analysis of oxidatively modified proteins induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid in human astrocytes expressing the HIV protein tat.

    Pocernich CB, Poon HF, Boyd-Kimball D, Lynn BC, Nath A, Klein JB and Butterfield DA

    Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA; Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Tat protein has been implicated in the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. However, its role in modulating astroglial function is poorly understood. Astrocyte infection with HIV has been associated with rapid progression of dementia. Intracellularly expressed Tat is not toxic to astrocytes. In fact, intracellularly expressed Tat offers protection against oxidative stress-related toxins such as the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NP). In the current study, human astrocytes expressing Tat (SVGA-Tat) and vector controls (SVGA-pcDNA) were each treated with the irreversible mitochondrial complex II inhibitor 3-NP. Proteomics analysis was utilized to identify changes in protein expression levels. By coupling 2D fingerprinting and identification of proteins by mass spectrometry, actin, heat shock protein 90, and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein were identified as proteins with increased expression, while lactate dehydrogenase had decreased protein expression levels in SVGA-Tat cells treated with 3-NP compared to SVGA-pcDNA cells treated with 3-NP. Oxidative damage can lead to several events including loss in specific protein function, abnormal protein clearance, depletion of the cellular redox-balance and interference with the cell cycle, ultimately leading to neuronal death. Identification of specific proteins protected from oxidation is a crucial step in understanding the interaction of Tat with astrocytes. In the current study, proteomics also was used to identify proteins that were specifically oxidized in SVGA-pcDNA cells treated with 3-NP compared to SVGA-Tat cells treated with 3-NP. We found beta-actin, calreticulin precursor protein, and synovial sarcoma X breakpoint 5 isoform A to have increased oxidation in control SVGA-pcDNA cells treated with 3-NP compared to SVGA-Tat cells treated with 3-NP. These results are discussed with reference to potential involvement of these proteins in HIV dementia and protection of astrocytes against oxidative stress by the HIV virus, a prerequisite for survival of a viral host cell.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR15592; NIA NIH HHS: AG-05119, AG-10836; NIMH NIH HHS: MH64409; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS39253

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2005;133;2;299-306

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) relates to up-regulated hypoxia inducible factor pathway and metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Simopoulos C, Polychronidis A and Sivridis E

    Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece. targ@her.forthnet.gr

    Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) is one of the five LDH isoenzymes and, apparently, the most important for promoting anaerobic glycolysis. LDH5 is transcriptionally regulated by the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) 1alpha and 2alpha. In this study, the possible aggressive advantages that colorectal tumours may gain from a high LDH5 content was investigated. To this end, 75 colorectal adenocarcinomas were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of LDH5, and the results were related to tumor differentiation, lymph node and distant metastases, the expression of HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha, vascular density (VD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A high LDH5 content was noted in 51 of 75 (68%) colorectal adenocarcinomas. The reactivity was nuclear and/or cytoplasmic. Nuclear LDH5 reactivity was correlated with lymph node involvement and distant metastases. There was a direct association between LDH5 up-regulation and HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha accumulation. HIF1alpha was linked with VEGF, VD and also with extramural invasion, nodal and distant metastases. It is concluded that a high LDH5 content in tumor cells is directly related to an up-regulated HIF pathway and is linked with an aggressive phenotype in colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    Clinical & experimental metastasis 2005;22;1;25-30

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Hormonal regulation of lactate dehydrogenase-A through activation of protein kinase C pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Li X, Qin C, Burghardt R and Safe S

    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) is hormonally regulated in rodents, and increased expression of LDH-A is observed during mammary gland tumorigenesis. The mechanisms of hormonal regulation of LDH-A were investigated using a series of deletion and mutant constructs derived from the rat LDH-A gene promoter. Results of these studies show that constructs containing the -92 to -37 region of the LDH-A promoter are important for basal and E2-induced transactivation, and mutation of the consensus CRE motif within thi 5ae s region results in significant loss of basal activity and hormone-responsiveness. Gel mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells show that both CREB and ATF-1 interact with the CRE. Studies with kinase inhibitors show that E2-induced activation of this CRE is dependent on protein kinase C, and these data indicate that LDH-A is induced through a non-genomic pathway of estrogen action.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES09106, ES09253

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;320;3;625-34

  • A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation.

    Lehner B and Sanderson CM

    MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SB, United Kingdom.

    The degradation of mRNA is an important regulatory step in the control of gene expression. However, mammalian RNA decay pathways remain poorly characterized. To provide a framework for studying mammalian RNA decay, a two-hybrid protein interaction map was generated using 54 constructs from 38 human proteins predicted to function in mRNA decay. The results provide evidence for interactions between many different proteins required for mRNA decay. Of particular interest are interactions between the poly(A) ribonuclease and the exosome and between the Lsm complex, decapping factors, and 5'-->3' exonucleases. Moreover, multiple interactions connect 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' decay proteins to each other and to nonsense-mediated decay factors, providing the opportunity for coordination between decay pathways. The interaction network also predicts the internal organization of the exosome and Lsm complexes. Additional interactions connect mRNA decay factors to many novel proteins and to proteins required for other steps in gene expression. These results provide an experimental insight into the organization of proteins required for mRNA decay and their coupling to other cellular processes, and the physiological relevance of many of these interactions are supported by their evolutionary conservation. The interactions also provide a wealth of hypotheses to guide future research on mRNA degradation and demonstrate the power of exhaustive protein interaction mapping in aiding understanding of uncharacterized protein complexes and pathways.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1315-23

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Association of an exonic LDHA polymorphism with altered respiratory response in probands at high risk for panic disorder.

    Philibert RA, Nelson JJ, Sandhu HK, Crowe RR and Coryell WH

    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1000, USA. robert-philibert@uiowa.edu

    Panic disorder (PD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by recurrent discrete episodes of fear accompanied by a variety of physiological and psychological symptoms, often with prominent respiratory components. A series of clinical observations has led some investigators to hypothesize that subtle alterations in ventilatory regulation are integral to at least a subtype of PD. In order to identify genetic factors that might predispose individuals to these alterations in ventilatory response, we conducted single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis across the exons of the lactate dehydrogenase A and B genes (LDHA and LDHB) using DNA prepared from 86 subjects previously characterized 1f40 by respiratory response to a CO(2) challenge with a variable genetic loading for PD. Remarkably, a single conserved LDHA exon 5 haplotype conferred increased risk for a paradoxical ventilatory response pattern to CO(2) inhalation which robustly separated well subjects at high risk for PD from low-risk control subjects. But, comparison of LDHA exon 5 genotypes in PD probands (n = 25) to that of random newborn controls (n = 182) did not demonstrate any significant differences. Given the pivotal role of LDH in the metabolism of lactate, a known inducer of panic attacks, and the dependence of LDH activity on cell pH, we suggest that LDHA polymorphisms may contribute to the variability to CO(2) respiratory challenge.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH 56132

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2003;11 602 7B;1;11-7

  • [The role of enzymatic features of hypoxia in ulcers].

    Borzenko BG, Bakurova EM, Kukhnina TN and Dudin AM

    In the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer, development of tissue hypoxia holds a prominent place. Its timely detection and medicamentous correction necessitates development of criteria for its diagnosis. A study was made of activity of the key enzymes of glycolysis and purine metabolism lactatdehydrogenase and adenosinedesaminase in tissues, erythrocytes, and blood plasma in patients with peptic ulcer both in its uncomplicated course and in development of complications. Correlation has been established between activity of enzymes and severity of the illness. Changes in activity of enzymes will, we believe, be helpful in diagnosing hypoxic states and disturbances in the immunological vigor underlying the ulceration.

    Likars'ka sprava 2003;1;67-71

  • Lactate dehydrogenase is an AU-rich element-binding protein that directly interacts with AUF1.

    Pioli PA, Hamilton BJ, Connolly JE, Brewer G and Rigby WF

    Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.

    Post-transcriptional pathways provide a major means of regulating eukaryotic gene expression. Reiterations of the AU-rich element (ARE) within the 3'-untranslated region of many cytokine and proto-oncogene mRNAs serve as signals for rapid degradation and translational repression. The identification of this cis-acting stability determinant has fueled the search for ARE-binding proteins (AUBP) that function as trans-acting factors that transduce this function. Previous work identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 as a major AUBP capable of binding the ARE of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) RNA in the context of a full-length mRNA. We report here that functional studies failed to indicate a role for hnRNP A1 in ARE-dependent mRNA turnover. In an effort to identify other functionally relevant AUBP, the major GM-CSF ARE-specific binding protein in cells lacking hnRNP A1 was purified from CB3 mouse erythroleukemia cells. Microsequencing identified this protein as the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) M. RNA binding by LDH was shown to occur in the NAD(+)-binding region (Rossmann fold). Polysome gradient analysis demonstrates that LDH is found in the translationally active fraction. Polysomal localization of LDH was dependent on RNA binding. Moreover, polysomal LDH exists in a complex with AUF1 and hsp-70, which has been implicated previously in the regulation of mRNA turnover. The interaction between LDH and AUF1 is direct as it can be demonstrated in vitro with purified proteins. Collectively these data implicate a role for LDH in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA52443; PHS HHS: R01 A134928

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;38;35738-45

  • M-LDH serves as a sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel subunit essential for cell protection against ischemia.

    Crawford RM, Budas GR, Jovanović S, Ranki HJ, Wilson TJ, Davies AM and Jovanović A

    Tayside Institute of Child Health, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in the heart are normally closed by high intracellular ATP, but are activated during ischemia to promote cellular survival. These channels are heteromultimers composed of Kir6.2 subunit, an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel core, and SUR2A, a regulatory subunit implicated in ligand-dependent regulation of channel gating. Here, we have shown that the muscle form (M-LDH), but not heart form (H-LDH), of lactate dehydrogenase is directly physically associated with the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel by interacting with the Kir6.2 subunit via its N-terminus and with the SUR2A subunit via its C-terminus. The species of LDH bound to the channel regulated the channel activity despite millimolar concentration of intracellular ATP. The presence of M-LDH in the channel protein complex was required for opening of K(ATP) channels during ischemia and ischemia-resistant cellular phenotype. We conclude that M-LDH is an integral part of the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel protein complex in vivo, where, by virtue of its catalytic activity, it couples the metabolic status of the cell with the K(ATP) channels activity that is essential for cell protection against ischemia.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C15048; British Heart Foundation: PG/02/091/14227; Wellcome Trust: 059528/Z/99/Z/JMW/CP/JF

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;15;3936-48

  • Identification of breast cancer-restricted antigens by antibody screening of SKBR3 cDNA library using a preselected patient's serum.

    Forti S, Scanlan MJ, Invernizzi A, Castiglioni F, Pupa S, Agresti R, Fontanelli R, Morelli D, Old LJ, Pupa SM and Ménard S

    Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.

    Screening of a breast cancer cDNA library from SKBR3 human breast cancer cells by SEREX (serological analysis of cDNA expression library) using a preselected serum from a breast cancer patient revealed 13 genes, two of which, INT-MI-1 and INT-MI-2, encode novel gene products, while the remaining 11 genes and their products are identical with or highly homologous to known GenBank entries. Immunoscreening of the 13 clones using 20 allogeneic sera from breast cancer patients and 20 samples from age- and gender-matched healthy donors showed that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), lactate dehydrogenase-B (LDH-B), fibulin-1, and thyroid hormone-binding protein (THBP) were recognized principally by the breast cancer patient sera, indicating the immunogenicity of these molecules in vivo. The other antigens were similarly recognized by normal and patients sera, and thus not tumor-restricted immunologically. RT-PCR analysis revealed strong expression of fibulin-1 in tumor cell lines and surgical specimen whereas in the same experimental conditions, normal tissues scored negative. Also THBP expression was found in various tumors whereas in normal tissues, its expression is restricted to the testis and, at lower levels, in ovary, liver, and spleen. In contrast, LDH-A and LDH-B were ubiquitously expressed in normal and tumor tissues, with LDH-B levels considerably lower 16a0 and heterogeneous in normal samples compared to those expressed in tumor cell lines. The differential expression of fibulin-1 between the normal tissues and breast carcinoma cell lines (5/6) and surgical specimens (5/6) suggests the possible involvement of the overexpression of this extracellular matrix-associated glycoprotein in the pathogenesis of this neoplasm.

    Breast cancer research and treatment 2002;73;3

  • Protective effect of glutathione in HIV-1 lytic peptide 1-induced cell death in human neuronal cells.

    Sung JH, Shin SA, Park HK, Montelaro RC and Chong YH

    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Division of Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Medical Research Center, Ewha Womans University, Yangcheonku, Seoul, Korea.

    To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration in AIDS patients with cognitive deficits, we have examined the toxic effect of the lentivirus lytic peptide 1 (LLP-1) corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 on human neuronal and glial cell lines. LLP-1 induced a significant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of cell death) release from these cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, while the noncytolytic LLP-1 analog 2 had little effect. Application of LLP-1 to SH-SY5Y, a well-characterized human neuronal cell line, caused the decline of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content that appeared to occur before a significant LDH release. Furthermore, LLP-1 elicited a significant loss of mitochondrial function as measured by mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Among the reducing agents and antioxidants tested, GSH and a GSH prodrug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provided protection against LLP-1-induced neuronal cell death, evidently by restoring the intracellular GSH levels and blocking the disruption of mitochondrial integrity. Thus, gp41-derived LLP-1 may be a potential neurotoxic agent capable of causing the intracellular GSH depletion and disturbing the mitochondrial function, possibly contributing to the neurodegenerative cascade as seen in HIV-1-associated dementia. Our data indicate that restoring both GSH concentration and mitochondrial function may hold promise as possible therapeutic strategies for slowing disease progression of dementia in AIDS patients.

    Journal of neurovirology 2001;7;5;454-65

  • Structural basis for altered activity of M- and H-isozyme forms of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    Read JA, Winter VJ, Eszes CM, Sessions RB and Brady RL

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) interconverts pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD(+). Although crystal structures of a variety of LDH have previously been described, a notable absence has been any of the three known human forms of this glycolytic enzyme. We have now determined the crystal structures of two isoforms of human LDH-the M form, predominantly found in muscle; and the H form, found mainly in cardiac muscle. Both structures have been crystallized as ternary complexes in the presence of the NADH cofactor and oxamate, a substrate-like inhibitor. Although each of these isoforms has different kinetic properties, the domain structure, subunit association, and active-site regions are indistinguishable between the two structures. The pK(a) that governs the K(M) for pyruvate for the two isozymes is found to differ by about 0.94 pH units, consistent with variation in pK(a) of the active-site histidine. The close similarity of these crystal structures suggests the distinctive activity of these enzyme isoforms is likely to result directly from variation of charged surface residues peripheral to the active site, a hypothesis supported by electrostatic calculations based on each structure. Proteins 2001;43:175-185.

    Proteins 2001;43;2;175-85

  • Direct role of plasma membrane-expressed gp120/41 in toxicity to human astrocytes induced by HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    Boutet A, Altmeyer R, Héry C and Tardieu M

    Laboratoire Virus, Neurone et Immunité, Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. agnes.boutet@kb.u-psud.fr

    Objective: To compare astrocyte toxicity induced by plasma membrane-expressed gp120/41 and soluble gp120.

    Design: Analysis of morphological alterations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from astrocytes in culture with monocytes infected with HIV-1, microglia expressing Env of a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolate or soluble Env.

    Methods: Primary human embryonic astrocytes were cultured with: monocytes infected with two M-tropic HIV-1 isolates (HIV-1(9533), HIV-1(BX08)); human microglia infected with the defective Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector coding for the env gene of HIV-1(BX08) isolate (SFVenvBX08); and soluble gp140 purified from baby hamster kidney cells transfected with the env gene of HIV-1(BX08) lacking the intracytoplasmic region of gp41 (SFVdelta envBX08). Gp120 mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the protein was detected by immunofluorescence in infected monocytes or microglia.

    Results: Contact of HIV-infected monocytes induced morphological changes in astrocytes and a 137% increase in LDH release at day 2 of co-culture compared with controls (uninfected monocytes). Gp120/41(BX08)-expressing microglia induced a 170% increase in LDH release (relative to SFVLacZ-infected microglia). Pretreatment of co-cultures with an anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody (mAb; NEA-9305) directed against the V3 loop inhibited LDH release. Soluble purified gp140 from BX08 isolate induced only a weak LDH release (104%). Finally, cytotoxicity was not blocked by treatment of the co-culture with Bordetella pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi alpha protein-dependent receptors.

    Conclusion: HIV envelope glycoprotein expressed at the plasma membrane induced astrocyte damage more efficiently than its soluble counterpart. The V3 loop was involved in toxicity induction through a pathway independent of the Gi alpha protein-coupled receptor.

    AIDS (London, England) 2000;14;17;2687-97

  • Increased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression in renal cell carcinoma identified by RNA-based, arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction.

    Vilà MR, Nicolás A, Morote J, de I and Meseguer A

    Centre d'Investigacions en Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular (CIBBIM), Hospitals Universitaris Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises 85% of renal tumors and displays a great capacity to metastasize. The lack of diagnostic and prognostic markers complicates its early detection and in the majority of cases metastases are present at the time of diagnosis.

    Methods: The current study reports on the identification of differentially expressed genes in RCC using random arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR).

    Results: Four genes were identified, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH A), human leukocyte antigen A (HLA A), and ferritin. GAPDH and HLA A were found to be overexpressed in 100% of the tumors and LDH A was increased in > 85% of the tumors analyzed compared with normal kidney counterparts. For GAPDH and LDH A higher protein levels in the tumors also were determined by Western blot analysis. Differential expression did not appear to correlate with gene amplification events as demonstrated by Southern blot analysis, indicating that regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of these genes were altered. Finally, ferritin was judged to have a variable expression because it was decreased in approximately 50% of the tumors and augmented in 20%. The implications in proliferation and differentiation of all these genes were analyzed in RCC cell lines grown at different stages of confluency and additional information was obtained regarding expression of the GAPDH gene in proliferating primary cultures of normal and tumor cells derived from the same kidney samples.

    Conclusions: The authors conclude that RAP-PCR is a useful technique with which to identify rapidly differentially expressed genes in a given system. In addition, they also conclude that GAPDH is a potent marker of cell proliferation in kidney tumor cells whose overexpression appears to be a late event in the development of RCC.

    Cancer 2000;89;1;152-64

  • [Cytochemical indices of blood lymphocytes in the assessment and prognosis of functional preparedness in a sportsman].

    Lysov PK and Petrukhin VG

    Department of Normal Anatomy, State Academy of Physical Culture, Moscow.

    Cytochemical criteria of assessment and prognosis of training were worked out. Correlations between lymphocyte dehydrogenase activity parameters and morphological content of blood, adipose and muscular mass and results were demonstrated. The study of lymphocyte dehydrogenase activity was significant for assessment of training efficiency. Enzyme profile of blood lymphocytes is an essential and prognostic sign of the state of compensatory adaptive reactions of the organism. Cytochemical methods of blood lymphocyte investigation provided stable and correct results that allowed to determine the onset of decompensatory process associated with nonrational training of any pathological condition and to reveal functional disorders at the level of the organism. Changes in lymphocyte enzymatic status in highly qualified sportsmen were a specific sign of adaptive reorganization of structures influenced by physical load. The use of parameters of blood lymphocyte dehydrogenase activity gives a possibility to fit an algorhythm providing stable prognosis of the state of the organism of sportsman throughout training during the year.

    Morfologiia (Saint Petersburg, Russia) 2000;118;4;70-4

  • Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma.

    Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH, Jongeneel V, Gure AO, Jäger D, Jäger E, Knuth A, Chen YT and Old LJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York Branch at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA. scanlanm@mskcc.org

    The screening of cDNA expression libraries derived from human tumors with autologous antibody (SEREX) is a powerful method for defining the structure of tumor antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. Sixty-five distinct antigens (NY-REN-1 to NY-REN-65) reactive with autologous IgG were identified by SEREX analysis of 4 renal cancer patients and were characterized in terms of cDNA sequence, mRNA expression pattern, and reactivity with allogeneic sera. REN-9, -10, -19, and -26 have a known association with human cancer. REN-9 (LUCA-15) and REN-10 (gene 21) map to the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene locus on chromosome 3p21.3. REN-19 is equivalent to LKB1/STK11, a gene that is defective in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and cancer. REN-26 is encoded by the bcr gene involved in the [t(9:22)] bcr/abl translocation. Genes encoding 3 of the antigens in the series showed differential mRNA expression; REN-3 displays a pattern of tissue-specific isoforms, and REN-21 and REN-43 are expressed at a high level in testis in comparison to 15 other normal tissues. The other 62 antigens were broadly expressed in normal tissues. With regard to immunogenicity, 20 of the 65 antigens reacted only with autologous sera. Thirty-three antigens reacted with sera from normal donors, indicating that their immunogenicity is not restricted to cancer. The remaining 12 antigens reacted with sera from 5-25% of the cancer patients but not with sera from normal donors. Seventy percent of the renal cancer patients had antibodies directed against one or more of these 12 antigens. Our results demonstrate the potential of the SEREX approach for the analysis of the humoral immune response against human cancer.

    International journal of cancer 1999;83;4;456-64

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Fast-type electrophoretic variant of lactate dehydrogenase M(A) and comparison with other missense mutations in lactate dehydrogenase M(A) and H(B) genes.

    Maekawa M, Sudo K, Kobayashi A, Sugiyama E, Li SS and Kanno T

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    An electrophoretic variant of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) M(A) subunit was discovered in a female patient with chest pain. Her LD activity in serum was within the normal reference interval, and analysis of her LD isoenzyme pattern showed an abnormal migration indicating a fast-type LD-M(A) subunit variant. DNA analysis of the mutant LD-M gene detected a single base substitution, an A to G transition at codon 220 (AAA-->GAA). This mutation resulted in the replacement of a lysine by a glutamic acid (mutation K220E) and produced a subunit variant (electrophoretic fast type). This missense mutation was also observed in the patient's son, and genotypes of mother and son were consistent with their biochemical phenotypes, as evaluated by LD isoenzyme analysis.

    Clinical chemistry 1994;40;4;665-8

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Molecular characterization of gene expression in human lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency.

    Miyajima H, Takahashi Y, Suzuki M, Shimizu T and Kaneko E

    First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to decreased glycolysis occurred during strenuous exercise in patients with lactate dehydrogenase-A-subunit (LDH-A; muscle) deficiency. Enzyme activities of LDH in the muscle were decreased less than 8% of the control value. The isozyme pattern revealed only one band of B4. The level of LDH-A mRNA was not decreased. The direct sequencing of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction product that corresponds to exon 6 revealed a deletion of 20 nucleotides. Immunofluorescence staining showed the presence of LDH-A protein within the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that an incomplete LDH-A protein lacking the subunit contact subdomain could not assemble into a tetrameric structure that has an enzymatic activity.

    Neurology 1993;43;7;1414-9

  • [Gene expression in lactate dehydrogenase-A subunit deficiency].

    Miyajima H, Shimizu T and Kaneko E

    First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine.

    A 33-year-old female complained of muscle pain and stiffness after severe exercise from the age of nine. Her sister also had similar symptoms. Consanguinity was found in her parents. Neither muscle wasting nor weakness was detectable. The activity of LDH in the muscle was decreased less to than 8% of normal value. The isoenzyme pattern of the muscle LDH revealed only one band of B4. The levels of blood lactate did not rise on anaerobic exercise, while a marked increase of pyruvate was found. Northern blot analysis showed that the ratio of LDH-A transcript to beta-actin transcript in the patient was similar to that in a normal subject. RNA preparations were reverse-transcribed, amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and separated by electrophoresis. The size of PCR product corresponding to exon 6 was decreased. The nucleotide sequence of this product was determined and a 20 bp deletion was found. This mutation results in a frame-shift translation and premature termination. The predicted incomplete LDH-A subunit contains only 259 instead of 331 amino acids. Immunofluorescence for LDH-A subunit could be seen within the cytoplasm and on the surface membrane of the muscle fibers in our patient as well as control subjects by the immunohistochemical studies. These findings suggest that LDH-A mRNA is transcribed in a truncated form and an enzymatically inactive protein is produced in the patient's muscles.

    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology 1992;32;10;1087-92

  • Molecular analysis of genetic mutation in electrophoretic variant of human lactate dehydrogenase-A(M) subunit.

    Sudo K, Maekawa M, Shioya M, Ikeda K, Takahashi N, Isogai Y, Li SS, Kanno T, Machida K and Toriumi J

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Daisan Hospital, Komae, Japan.

    An electrophoretic variant of lactate dehydrogenase-A (M) subunit was discovered in a patient with multiple myeloma. DNA analysis of the variant allele revealed a nucleotide substitution (transition) of C to T at codon 314 (CGT-TGT), and this mutation resulted in the replacement of an arginine by a cysteine (R314C). This amino acid replacement affects the net charge of the subunit and makes the LDH-A variant have a faster electrophoretic mobility. The responsible missense mutation created a new restriction site, AGGCCT, which can be simply detected by endonuclease AatI digestion. In addition, four synonymous substitutions with no amino-acid replacements were found at codons 51, 119, 163 and 175 in the LDH-A gene from the patient.

    Biochemistry international 1992;27;6;1051-7

  • Genotypic analysis of families with lactate dehydrogenase A (M) deficiency by selective DNA amplification.

    Maekawa M, Sudo K, Li SS and Kanno T

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Genomic DNA prepared from LDH-A-deficient whole blood was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique using two primers specific for the active human LDH-A gene. The amplified fragment was examined by direct agarose gel electrophoresis, and a deletion of 20 base pairs (bp) in exon 6 of the LDH-A gene was found. The results permitted a clear distinction between the homozygous mutant, the heterozygous mutant, and wild-type genotypes. Moreover, HinfI digestion and direct sequencing of the amplified product confirmed the results from direct agarose gel electrophoresis. Four families, including 18 individuals, were shown to contain the same mutation, that is a 20-bp deletion in exon 6. All genotypes were consistent with their biochemical phenotypes as evaluated by the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A subunits in erythrocytes. Thus, all four known affected families in Japan have been shown to carry the same mutant gene, which may have been derived from a single mutational event.

    Human genetics 1991;88;1;34-8

  • Analysis of genetic mutations in human lactate dehydrogenase-A(M) deficiency using DNA conformation polymorphism in combination with polyacrylamide gradient gel and silver staining.

    Maekawa M, Sudo K, Li SS and Kanno T

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A mutant gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - DNA conformation polymorphism (DCP). We used polyacrylamide gradient gel and silver staining procedures for DCP analysis and observed abnormal migration patterns in individuals heterozygous for LDH-A deficiency. Further sequence determination of the mutant alleles consistently resulted in detection of base substitutions, a G to T transversion at codon 328 (GAG----TAG), and synonymous substitutions at codon 115, 160 and 172. Such mutations were easily detectable using the DCP technique. The DCP technique using the polyacrylamide gradient gel and silver staining method seems likely to be useful for the rapid screening of mutations and for further genotype detection.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1991;180;2;1083-90

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma-associated locus and MYOD1 are syntenic but separate loci on the short arm of human chromosome 11.

    Scrable HJ, Johnson DK, Rinchik EM and Cavenee WK

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Montreal, PQ Canada.

    The MYOD1 locus is preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle and at higher levels in its related neoplasm, rhabdomyosarcoma. We have combined physical mapping of the human locus with meiotic and physical mapping in the mouse, together with synteny homologies between the two species, to compare the physical relationship between MYOD1 and the genetically ascertained human rhabdomyosarcoma-associated locus. We have determined that the myogenic differentiation gene is tightly linked to the structural gene for the M (muscle) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase in band p15.4 on human chromosome 11 and close to the p and Ldh-1 loci in the homologous region of mouse chromosome 7. Because the rhabdomyosarcoma locus maps to 11p15.5, MYOD1 is very unlikely to be the primary site of alteration in these tumors. Further, these analyses identify two syntenic clusters of muscle-associated genes on the short arm of human chromosome 11, one in the region of rhabdomyosarcoma locus that includes IGF2 and TH and the second the tightly linked MYOD1 and LDHA loci, which have been evolutionarily conserved in homologous regions of both the mouse and the rat genomes.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990;87;6;2182-6

  • Centrosomal proteins and lactate dehydrogenase possess a common epitope in human cell lines.

    Gosti F, Marty MC, Courvalin JC, Maunoury R and Bornens M

    A spontaneously arising rabbit anti-centrosome serum with strong human specificity, used to identify specific antigens in isolated centrosomes, was shown to react with several noncentrosomal proteins including a 36-kDa protein that appeared to be the major cellular antigen. To explore the immunological relationship between noncentrosomal and centrosomal antigens, immunoglobulins were affinity purified using the individual noncentrosomal antigens (from lymphoblastoma KE37 cells) and were tested for their capacity to bind to human centrosomes in situ and to proteins from isolated centrosomes. In this way, the 36-kDa antigen, an abundant cytosolic protein, was shown to share at least one antigenic determinant with high molecular weight centrosomal proteins. This antigen was further identified by mild proteolysis as the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. In all the analyzed human cell lines, the centrosomal staining in situ was correlated with a strong labeling of purified lactate dehydrogenase in immunoblots. Conversely, the absence of centrosomal staining in rodent cells was always correlated with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase labeling. These data suggest an evolutionary relationship between centrosomal proteins and this "housekeeping" enzyme.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;4;1000-4

  • Genomic organization of human lactate dehydrogenase-A gene.

    Chung FZ, Tsujibo H, Bhattacharyya U, Sharief FS and LI SS

    A human genomic clone containing the lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) gene of approx. 12 kilobases in length was isolated and characterized. The protein-coding sequence is interrupted by six introns, and the positions of these introns are at the random coil regions or near the ends of secondary structures located on the surface of the LDH-A molecule. An additional intron is present at 24 nucleotides 5' to the translation initiation codon ATG, while the 3' untranslated sequence of 565 nucleotides is not interrupted. The genomic blot analysis of human placenta DNA indicates the presence of multiple LDH-A gene-related sequences.

    The Biochemical journal 1985;231;3;537-41

  • Nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and an intronless pseudogene for human lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme.

    Tsujibo H, Tiano HF and Li SS

    Eight cDNA clones for lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme (LDH-A) were isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library, characterized, and no sequence heterogeneity was found. Four cDNA clones appear to contain nearly full-length cDNA inserts and the complete nucleotide sequence of 1710 base pairs consists of the protein-coding sequence (999 base pairs), the 5' (97 base pairs) and 3' (565 base pairs) untranslated regions and poly(dA) tail (49 base pairs). The predicted amino acid sequence of the human LDH-A polypeptide shows 92% homology (27 differences out of 331 amino acids compared) with that of the pig LDH-A subunit determined by direct protein sequencing [Kiltz et al. (1977) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 358, 123-127]. Human genomic clones containing an LDH-A pseudogene were isolated and the nucleotide sequence of 1635 base pairs from an intronless pseudogene was determined. The presence of two termination codons, two deletions of three nucleotides each and the replacement of three arginine residues at the active site (nos 98, 105 and 168) by other amino acids renders its coding region incapable of producing a functional LDH-A protein. A comparison between human LDH-A cDNA and the pseudogene sequences reveals 12.9% differences (114 transitions, 65 transversions and 36 deletions/insertions). Further, only four out of the 25 dCpdG dinucleotides present in the cDNA sequence remain unchanged, although the sequences possess 87.1% homology.

    European journal of biochemistry 1985;147;1;9-15

  • The glucose-lactic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis.

    Cori CF

    Current topics in cellular regulation 1981;18;377-87

  • Genetic control of lactate dehydrogenase expression in mammalian tissues.

    Glass RD and Doyle D

    The amount of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme 4 in erythrocytes of mice is controlled by alleles at the Ldr-1 locus. The A subunits of lactate dehydrogenase from erythrocytes deficient in isozyme 4 cannot assemble in vitro with B subunits to form active isozyme. The inability to form hybrid enzyme is not due to a mutation in the structural gene for the A polypeptide. Rather, a factor that is bound to the A subunits of erythrocytes restricts free exchange with B subunits.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1972;176;4031;180-1

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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