G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12
G00000412 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000149084 (Ensembl human gene)
51144 (Entrez Gene)
757 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HSD17B12 (GeneCards)
609574 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:18646 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q53GQ0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • KAR
  • SDR12C1

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • Analysis of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 5, 7, and 12 genetic sequence variants in breast cancer cases from French Canadian Families with high risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Plourde M, Ferland A, Soucy P, Hamdi Y, Tranchant M, Durocher F, Sinilnikova O, Luu The V, INHERIT BRCAs and Simard J

    Cancer Genomics Laboratory, Endocrinology and Genomics Division/CHUQ Research Center and Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

    A family history and estrogen exposure are well-known risk factors for breast cancer. Members of the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family are responsible for important steps in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens in peripheral tissues, including the mammary gland. The crucial biological function of 17beta-HSDs renders these genes good candidates for being involved in breast cancer etiology. This study screened for mutations in HSD17B7 and HSD17B12 genes, which encode enzymes involved in estradiol biosynthesis and in AKR1C3, which codes for 17beta-HSD type 5 enzyme involved in androgen and progesterone metabolism, to assess whether high penetrance allelic variants in these genes could be involved in breast cancer susceptibility. Mutation screening of 50 breast cancer cases from non-BRCA1/2 high-risk French Canadian families failed to identify germline likely high-risk mutations in HSD17B7, HSD17B12 and AKR1C3 genes. However, 107 sequence variants were identified, including seven missense variants. Assessment of the impact of missense variants on enzymatic activity of the corresponding enzymes revealed no difference in catalytic properties between variants of 17beta-HSD types 7 and 12 and wild-type enzymes, while variants p.Glu77Gly and p.Lys183Arg in 17beta-HSD type 5 showed a slightly decreased activity. Finally, a haplotype-based approach was used to determine tagging SNPs providing valuable information for studies investigating associations of common variants in these genes with breast cancer risk.

    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2009;116;3-5;134-53

  • Transcriptional regulation of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 by SREBP-1.

    Nagasaki S, Miki Y, Akahira J, Suzuki T and Sasano H

    Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi-ken, Japan.

    17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 (17beta-HSD12) has been demonstrated to be involved in enzymatic conversion of weak estrogen, estrone to more potent one, estradiol. However, this enzyme was also reported to be involved in an elongation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA). Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the transcription factor termed sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Results of our present study demonstrated that the existence of putative SRE sequence which is recognized as responsive element for SREBPs in 5'-flanking region of 17beta-HSD12 gene. Results of luciferase assay demonstrated that the transcriptional activity of this SRE sequence depends on the activation of SREBP-1 in HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, human) and SK-BR-3 (breast carcinoma cell line, human). 17beta-HSD12 expression was also induced in the HepG2 cells treated with the absence of sterols in which SREBPs were activated. All these results obtained in this study clearly indicate that SREBP-1 represents one of the transcriptional regulators of human 17beta-HSD12.

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2009;307;1-2;163-8

  • Differential estrogenic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and type 12 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression levels in preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes.

    Bellemare V, Laberge P, Noël S, Tchernof A and Luu-The V

    Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Research Center, Laval University Medical Research Center and Laval University, Québec, Canada.

    Estradiol (E2) is produced locally in adipose tissue and could play an important role in fat distribution and accumulation, especially in women. It is well recognized that aromatase is expressed in adipose tissue; however the identity of its estrogenic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) partner is not identified. To gain a better knowledge about the enzyme responsible for the conversion of estrone into estradiol, we determined the activity and expression levels of known estrogenic 17beta-HSDs, namely types 1, 7 and 12 17beta-HSD in preadipocytes before and after differentiation into mature adipocytes using an adipogenic media. Estrogenic 17beta-HSD activity was assessed using [(14)C]-labelled estrone, while mRNA expression levels of types 1, 7 and 12 17beta-HSD were quantified using real-time PCR and protein expression levels of type 12 17beta-HSD was determined using immunoblot analysis. The data indicate that there is a low conversion of E1 into E2 in preadipocytes; however this activity is increased approximately 5-fold (p<0.0001) in differentiated adipocytes. The increased estrogenic 17beta-HSD activity is consistent with the increase in protein expression levels of 17beta-HSD12.

    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2009;114;3-5;129-34

  • The SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative.

    Persson B, Kallberg Y, Bray JE, Bruford E, Dellaporta SL, Favia AD, Duarte RG, Jörnvall H, Kavanagh KL, Kedishvili N, Kisiela M, Maser E, Mindnich R, Orchard S, Penning TM, Thornton JM, Adamski J and Oppermann U

    IFM Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. bpn@ifm.liu.se

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with presently over 46,000 members. In phylogenetic comparisons, members of this superfamily show early divergence where the majority have only low pairwise sequence identity, although sharing common structural properties. The SDR enzymes are present in virtually all genomes investigated, and in humans over 70 SDR genes have been identified. In humans, these enzymes are involved in the metabolism of a large variety of compounds, including steroid hormones, prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids and xenobiotics. It is now clear that SDRs represent one of the oldest protein families and contribute to essential functions and interactions of all forms of life. As this field continues to grow rapidly, a systematic nomenclature is essential for future annotation and reference purposes. A functional subdivision of the SDR superfamily into at least 200 SDR families based upon hidden Markov models forms a suitable foundation for such a nomenclature system, which we present in this paper using human SDRs as examples.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: P41 HG003345; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA012153; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM038148, R01 GM038148-19

    Chemico-biological interactions 2009;178;1-3;94-8

  • 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 in human breast carcinoma: a prognostic factor via potential regulation of fatty acid synthesis.

    Nagasaki S, Suzuki T, Miki Y, Akahira J, Kitada K, Ishida T, Handa H, Ohuchi N and Sasano H

    Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 (17beta-HSD12) has been shown to be involved in elongation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) as well as in biosynthesis of estradiol (E2). 17beta-HSD12 expression was also reported in breast carcinomas but its functions have remained unknown. In this study, we examined the correlation between mRNA expression profiles determined by microarray analysis and tissue E2 concentrations obtained from 16 postmenopausal breast carcinoma cases. No significant correlations were detected between 17beta-HSD12 expression and E2 concentration. We then immunolocalized this enzyme in 110 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma. 17beta-HSD12 immunoreactivity in breast carcinoma cells was significantly associated with poor prognosis of the patients. We further examined the biological significance of 17beta-HSD12 using cell-based studies. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of 17beta-HSD12 in SK-BR-3 (estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line) resulted in significant growth inhibition, which was recovered by the addition of VLCFAs such as arachidonic acid. The status of 17beta-HSD12 immunoreactivity was also correlated with adverse clinical outcome in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-positive breast cancer patients but not in COX2-negative patients. Therefore, these findings indicated that 17beta-HSD12 was not necessarily related to intratumoral E2 biosynthesis, at least in human breast carcinoma, but was rather correlated with production of VLCFAs such as arachidonic acid, which may subsequently be metabolized to prostaglandins by COX2 and result in tumor progression of the patients.

    Cancer research 2009;69;4;1392-9

  • Systemic distribution and tissue localizations of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12.

    Sakurai N, Miki Y, Suzuki T, Watanabe K, Narita T, Ando K, Yung TM, Aoki D, Sasano H and Handa H

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of 17-ketosteroids or the oxidation of 17beta-hydroxysteroids. 17beta-HSD type 12, the most recently cloned member of this gene family, was classified into the 17beta-HSD family based on sequence homology, rather than steroid catalyzing activity. Meanwhile, it has been reported that 17beta-HSD type 12 may be involved in fatty acid synthesis. To better understand the role of 17beta-HSD type 12 in lipid metabolism, we determined the detailed systemic distribution and tissue localizations of 17beta-HSD type 12, which, due partly to the lack of antibodies, had not yet been studied. We carried out these investigations by quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Northern blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against 17beta-HSD type 12 that we have generated. 17beta-HSD type 12 is highly expressed in organs related to lipid metabolism such as liver, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. 17beta-HSD type 12 is also detected in endocrine-related organs such as pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, testis and placenta, and in the gastrointestinal tract, which point to the possible involvement of 17beta-HSD type 12 in the regulation of lipid biosynthesis and steroid metabolism. These results support previous reports and solidify the possibility that 17beta-HSD type 12 may play critical roles in the physiological processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, in addition to the steroid metabolism.

    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2006;99;4-5;174-81

  • Characterization of type 12 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an isoform of type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase responsible for estradiol formation in women.

    Luu-The V, Tremblay P and Labrie F

    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University Medical Center, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2.

    A novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) chronologically named type 12 17beta-HSD (17beta-HSD12), that transforms estrone (E1) into estradiol (E2) was identified by sequence similarity with type 3 17beta-HSD (17beta-HSD3) that catalyzes the formation of testosterone from androstenedione in the testis. Both are encoded by large genes spanning 11 exons, most of them showing identical size. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing 17beta-HSD12, we have found that the enzyme catalyzes selectively and efficiently the transformation of E1 into E2, thus identifying its role in estrogen formation, in contrast with 17beta-HSD3, the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the androgen testosterone in the testis. Using real-time PCR to quantify mRNA in a series of human tissues, the expression levels of 17beta-HSD12 as well as two other enzymes that perform the same transformation of E1 into E2, namely type 1 17beta-HSD and type 7 17beta-HSD, it was found that 17beta-HSD12 mRNA is the most highly expressed in the ovary and mammary gland. To obtain a better understanding of the structural basis of the difference in substrate specificity between 17beta-HSD3 and 17beta-HSD12, we have performed tridimensional structure modelization using the coordinates of type 1 17beta-HSD and site-directed mutagenesis. The results show the potential role of bulky amino acid F234 in 17beta-HSD12 that blocks the entrance of androstenedione. Overall, our results strongly suggest that 17beta-HSD12 is the major estrogenic 17beta-HSD responsible for the conversion of E1 to E2 in women, especially in the ovary, the predominant source of estrogens before menopause.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2006;20;2;437-43

  • Platelets express steroidogenic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Distinct profiles predict the essential thrombocythemic phenotype.

    Gnatenko DV, Cupit LD, Huang EC, Dhundale A, Perrotta PL and Bahou WF

    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794-8151, USA.

    Human blood platelets have important, regulatory functions in diverse hemostatic and pathological disorders, including vascular remodeling, inflammation, and wound repair. Microarray analysis was used to study the molecular basis of essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative disorder with quantitative and qualitative platelet defects associated with cardiovascular and thrombohemorrhagic symptoms, not infrequently neurological. A platelet-expressed gene (HSD17B3) encoding type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (previously characterized as a testis-specific enzyme catalyzing the final step in gonadal synthesis of testosterone) was selectively down-regulated in ET platelets, with reciprocal induction of the type 12 enzyme (HSD17B12). Functional 17beta-HSD3 activity corresponding to approximately 10% of that found in murine testis was demonstrated in normal platelets. The induction of HSD17B12 in ET platelets was unassociated with a concomitant increase in androgen biosynthesis, suggesting distinct functions and/or substrate specificities of the types 3 and 12 enzymes. Application of a molecular assay distinguished ET from normal platelets in 20 consecutive patients (p < 0.0001). These data provide the first evidence that distinct subtypes of steroidogenic 17beta-HSDs are functionally present in human blood platelets, and that the expression patterns of HSD17B3 and HSD17B12 are associated with an uncommon platelet disorder manifest by quantitative and qualitative platelet defects.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL04239, HL49141, HL76457; PHS HHS: M01 10710-5

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2005;94;2;412-21

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Identification of two mammalian reductases involved in the two-carbon fatty acyl elongation cascade.

    Moon YA and Horton JD

    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9046, USA.

    The de novo synthesis of fatty acids occurs in two distinct cellular compartments. Palmitate (16:0) is synthesized from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the cytoplasm by the enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase. The synthesis of fatty acids longer than 16 carbons takes place in microsomes and utilizes malonyl-CoA as the carbon source. Each two-carbon addition requires four sequential reactions: condensation, reduction, dehydration, and a final reduction to form the elongated fatty acyl-CoA. The initial condensation reaction is the regulated and rate-controlling step in microsomal fatty acyl elongation. We previously reported the cDNA cloning and characterization of a murine long chain fatty acyl elongase (LCE) . Overexpression of LCE in cells resulted in the enhanced addition of two-carbon units to C12-C16 fatty acids, and evidence was provided that LCE catalyzed the initial condensation reaction of long chain fatty acid elongation. The remaining three enzymes in the elongation reaction have not been identified in mammals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two mammalian enzymes that catalyze the 3-ketoacyl-CoA and trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reduction reactions in long and very long chain fatty acid elongation, respectively.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-20948, HL-38049

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7335-43

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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