G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
enolase 3 (beta, muscle)
G00000403 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000108515 (Ensembl human gene)
2027 (Entrez Gene)
744 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ENO3 (GeneCards)
131370 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3354 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
793 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P13929 (UniProt)

Literature (12)

Pubmed - other

  • Candidate-gene testing for orphan limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.

    Aurino S, Piluso G, Saccone V, Cacciottolo M, D'Amico F, Dionisi M, Totaro A, Belsito A, Di Vicino U and Nigro V

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples, Italy.

    The term limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) identify about two dozens of distinct genetic disorders. Additional genes must play a role, since there are LGMD families excluded from any known locus. The aim of our work is to test a number of candidate genes in unclassified LGMD patient and control DNA samples. We selected the following 11 candidate genes: myozenin 1, 2 and 3, gamma-filamin, kinectin-1, enolase-3 beta, ZASP, TRIM 11 and TRIM 17, OZZ and zeta-sarcoglycan. These candidates were chosen for a combination of different reasons: chromosomal position, sequence homology, interaction properties or muscular dystrophy phenotypes in animal models. The exon and flanking intron sequences were subjected to molecular testing by comparative mutation scanning by HT-DHPLC of LGMD patients versus control. We identified a large number of variations in any of the genes in both patients and controls. Correlations with disease or possible modifying effects on the LGMD phenotype remain to be investigated.

    Acta myologica : myopathies and cardiomyopathies : official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology 2008;27;90-7

  • MuRF1-dependent regulation of systemic carbohydrate metabolism as revealed from transgenic mouse studies.

    Hirner S, Krohne C, Schuster A, Hoffmann S, Witt S, Erber R, Sticht C, Gasch A, Labeit S and Labeit D

    Institute for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Operative Care, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim 68167, Germany.

    Under various pathophysiological muscle-wasting conditions, such as diabetes and starvation, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1), are induced to target muscle proteins for degradation via ubiquitination. We have generated transgenic mouse lines over-expressing MuRF1 in a skeletal muscle-specific fashion (MuRF1-TG mice) in an attempt to identify the in vivo targets of MuRF1. MuRF1-TG lines were viable, had normal fertility and normal muscle weights at eight weeks of age. Comparison of quadriceps from MuRF1-TG and wild type mice did not reveal elevated multi-ubiquitination of myosin as observed in human patients with muscle wasting. Instead, MuRF1-TG mice expressed lower levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial key enzyme in charge of glycolysis, and of its regulator PDK2. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid interaction studies demonstrated the interaction of MuRF1 with PDH, PDK2, PDK4, PKM2 (all participating in glycolysis) and with phosphorylase beta (PYGM) and glycogenin (both regulating glycogen metabolism). Consistent with the idea that MuRF1 may regulate carbohydrate metabolism, MuRF1-TG mice had twofold elevated insulin blood levels and lower hepatic glycogen contents. To further examine MuRF1's role for systemic carbohydrate regulation, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) in wild type and MuRF1-TG mice. During GTT, MuRF1-TG mice developed striking hyperinsulinaemia and hepatic glycogen stores, that were depleted at basal levels, became rapidly replenished. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MuRF1 expression in skeletal muscle re-directs glycogen synthesis to the liver and stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion, thereby providing a regulatory feedback loop that connects skeletal muscle metabolism with the liver and the pancreas during metabolic stress.

    Journal of molecular biology 2008;379;4;666-77

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Characterization of MR-1, a novel myofibrillogenesis regulator in human muscle.

    Li TB, Liu XH, Feng S, Hu Y, Yang WX, Han Y, Wang YG and Gong LM

    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100050, China.

    The actin-myosin contractile apparatus consists of several thick filament and thin filament proteins. Specific regulatory mechanisms are involved in this highly ordered process. In this paper, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel myofibrillogenesis regulator, MR-1. The MR-1 gene was cloned from human skeletal muscle cDNA library by using a strategy that involves EST data base searching, PCR and RACE. The MR-1 gene is located on human chromosome 2q35 and encodes a 142 aa protein. Northern blot revealed that the mRNA level of MR-1 was highest in the skeletal muscle and certain level of MR-1 expression was also observed in heart, liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed that the MR-1 protein existed in human myocardial myofibrils. It was found by yeast two-hybrid screening and confirmed by in vitro binding assay that MR-1 could interact with sarcomeric proteins, such as myosin regulatory light chain, myomesin 1 and beta-enolase. These studies suggested that MR-1 might play a regulatory role in the muscle cell and it was worth investigating further.

    Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 2004;36;6;412-8

  • Beta-enolase deficiency, a new metabolic myopathy of distal glycolysis.

    Comi GP, Fortunato F, Lucchiari S, Bordoni A, Prelle A, Jann S, Keller A, Ciscato P, Galbiati S, Chiveri L, Torrente Y, Scarlato G and Bresolin N

    Istituto di Clinica Neurologica, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Italy. gpcomi@mailserver.unimi.it

    A severe muscle enolase deficiency, with 5% of residual activity, was detected in a 47-year-old man affected with exercise intolerance and myalgias. No rise of serum lactate was observed with the ischemic forearm exercise. Ultrastructural analysis showed focal sarcoplasmic accumulation of glycogen beta particles. The enzyme enolase catalyzes the interconversion of 2-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate. In adult human muscle, over 90% of enolase activity is accounted for by the beta-enolase subunit, the protein product of the ENO3 gene. The beta-enolase protein was dramatically reduced in the muscle of our patient, by both immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, while alpha-enolase was normally represented. The ENO3 gene of our patient carries two heterozygous missense mutations affecting highly conserved amino acid residues; a G467A transition changing a glycine residue at position 156 to aspartate, in close proximity to the catalytic site, and a G1121A transition changing a glycine to glutamate at position 374. These mutations were probably inherited as autosomal recessive traits since the mother was heterozygous for the G467A and a sister was heterozygous for the G1121A transition. Our data suggest that ENO3 mutations result in decreased stability of mutant beta-enolase. Muscle beta-enolase deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of metabolic myopathies due to inherited defects of distal glycolysis.

    Annals of neurology 2001;50;2;202-7

  • Structural features of the human gene for muscle-specific enolase. Differential splicing in the 5'-untranslated sequence generates two forms of mRNA.

    Giallongo A, Venturella S, Oliva D, Barbieri G, Rubino P and Feo S

    Istituto di Biologia dello Sviluppo del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.

    We report here the isolation and characterization of the human gene for the beta or muscle-specific isoform of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed structural features, such as organization as 11 coding exons, the first exon consisting of an untranslated sequence and hence resembling sequences of the other two members of the gene family, the alpha and gamma enolase genes. The beta enolase locus spans about 6 kbp genomic DNA. Sequences matching the consensus sequence for muscle-specific regulatory factors are present in the 5'-flanking region and within the first intron. A combination of primer extension, S1 nuclease protection and RNA-sequencing experiments indicates that the gene has a unique transcriptional start site, 26 bp downstream of a TATA-like box; the differential usage of two donor sites within the untranslated exon I generates two alternatively spliced transcripts. The existence of the two mRNA, differing from one another in the presence or absence of a 42-nucleotide fragment in the leader sequence, was confirmed by cloning the corresponding cDNA using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy. Secondary-structure predictions indicated that the leader sequences of the spliced forms could form hairpin structures with different free energies of formation, suggesting translational control.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;214;2;367-74

  • Molecular structure of the human muscle-specific enolase gene (ENO3).

    Peshavaria M and Day IN

    University Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    The single human gene for muscle-specific enolase was isolated and its structure was characterized, from which the mature mRNA transcript and encoded protein were also deduced. The gene contains 12 exons, spans approx. 6 kb and encodes a protein of 433 residues. The gene structure is similar to that found for the rat neuron-specific enolase gene, and the deduced protein aligns precisely with other enolase sequences, including the sequence of the only published crystallized enolase, yeast eno-1. The 5' boundary of the gene includes a 5' non-coding exon and is characterized by an upstream TATA-like box and CpG-rich region. This region contains potential recognition motifs for general transcriptional regulation involving Sp1, activator protein 1 and 2, CCAAT box transcription factor/nuclear factor I and cyclic AMP, and for muscle-specific transcriptional regulation involving a CC(A + T-rich)6GG box, M-CAT-box CAATCCT and two myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 1 boxes.

    The Biochemical journal 1991;275 ( Pt 2);427-33

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the human muscle-specific enolase (MSE).

    Calì L, Feo S, Oliva D and Giallongo A

    Istituto di Biologia dello Sviluppo del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.

    Nucleic acids research 1990;18;7;1893

  • Structure of human muscle (beta) enolase mRNA and protein deduced from a genomic clone.

    Peshavaria M, Hinks LJ and Day IN

    University Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Southampton General Hospital, UK.

    Nucleic acids research 1989;17;21;8862

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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