G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase)
G00000384 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000033316 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000147162 (Ensembl human gene)
8473 (Entrez Gene)
771 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
OGT (GeneCards)
300255 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8127 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O15294 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • FLJ23071
  • HRNT1
  • MGC22921

Literature (49)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis.

    Fujiki R, Chikanishi T, Hashiba W, Ito H, Takada I, Roeder RG, Kitagawa H and Kato S

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    The post-translational modifications of histone tails generate a 'histone code' that defines local and global chromatin states. The resultant regulation of gene function is thought to govern cell fate, proliferation and differentiation. Reversible histone modifications such as methylation are under mutual controls to organize chromosomal events. Among the histone modifications, methylation of specific lysine and arginine residues seems to be critical for chromatin configuration and control of gene expression. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) changes chromatin into a transcriptionally active state. Reversible modification of proteins by beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to serum glucose levels regulates diverse cellular processes. However, the epigenetic impact of protein GlcNAcylation is unknown. Here we report that nuclear GlcNAcylation of a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT), MLL5, by O-GlcNAc transferase facilitates retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis in human HL60 promyelocytes through methylation of H3K4. MLL5 is biochemically identified in a GlcNAcylation-dependent multi-subunit complex associating with nuclear retinoic acid receptor RARalpha (also known as RARA), serving as a mono- and di-methyl transferase to H3K4. GlcNAcylation at Thr 440 in the MLL5 SET domain evokes its H3K4 HKMT activity and co-activates RARalpha in target gene promoters. Increased nuclear GlcNAcylation by means of O-GlcNAc transferase potentiates retinoic-acid-induced HL60 granulopoiesis and restores the retinoic acid response in the retinoic-acid-resistant HL60-R2 cell line. Thus, nuclear MLL5 GlcNAcylation triggers cell lineage determination of HL60 through activation of its HKMT activity.

    Nature 2009;459;7245;455-9

  • Up-regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase with glucose deprivation in HepG2 cells is mediated by decreased hexosamine pathway flux.

    Taylor RP, Geisler TS, Chambers JH and McClain DA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of proteins that functions as a nutrient sensing mechanism. We have previously shown a significant induction of O-GlcNAc modification under conditions of glucose deprivation. Increased O-GlcNAc modification was mediated by increased mRNA for nucleocytoplasmic O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (ncOGT). We have investigated the mechanism mediating ncOGT induction with glucose deprivation. The signal does not appear to be general energy depletion because no differences in AMP-dependent kinase protein levels or phosphorylation were observed between glucose-deprived and normal glucose-treated cells. However, treatment of glucose-deprived cells with a small dose (1 mm) of glucosamine blocked the induction of ncOGT mRNA and subsequent increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, suggesting that decreased hexosamine flux is the signal for ncOGT up-regulation. Consistent with this, treatment of glucose-deprived cells with an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase (O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene) amino N-phenyl carbamat) completely prevented the subsequent up-regulation of ncOGT. Glucosamine treatment also resulted in a 40% rescue of the down-regulation of glycogen synthase activity normally seen after glucose deprivation. We conclude that deglycosylation of proteins within the first few hours of glucose deprivation promotes ncOGT induction. These findings suggest a novel negative feedback regulatory loop for OGT and O-GlcNAc regulation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK43526

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;6;3425-32

  • A mitotic GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation signaling complex alters the posttranslational state of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin.

    Slawson C, Lakshmanan T, Knapp S and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic intracellular protein modification responsive to stress, hormones, nutrients, and cell cycle stage. Alterations in O-GlcNAc addition or removal (cycling) impair cell cycle progression and cytokinesis, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) are in a transient complex at M phase with the mitotic kinase Aurora B and protein phosphatase 1. OGT colocalized to the midbody during telophase with Aurora B. Furthermore, these proteins coprecipitated with each other in a late mitotic extract. The complex was stable under Aurora inhibition; however, the total cellular levels of O-GlcNAc were increased and the localization of OGT was decreased at the midbody after Aurora inhibition. Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is an M phase substrate for both Aurora B and OGT. Overexpression of OGT or OGA led to defects in mitotic phosphorylation on multiple sites, whereas OGT overexpression increased mitotic GlcNAcylation of vimentin. OGA inhibition caused a decrease in vimentin late mitotic phosphorylation but increased GlcNAcylation. Together, these data demonstrate that the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes associate with kinases and phosphatases at M phase to regulate the posttranslational status of vimentin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42496; NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563, R37 HD013563

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;10;4130-40

  • Structure of an O-GlcNAc transferase homolog provides insight into intracellular glycosylation.

    Martinez-Fleites C, Macauley MS, He Y, Shen DL, Vocadlo DJ and Davies GJ

    Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW, UK.

    N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins provides a mechanism for the control of diverse cellular processes through a dynamic interplay with phosphorylation. UDP-GlcNAc:polypeptidyl transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-GlcNAc addition. The structure of an intact OGT homolog and kinetic analysis of human OGT variants reveal a contiguous superhelical groove that directs substrates to the active site.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/F007124/1

    Nature structural & molecular biology 2008;15;7;764-5

  • Glucose deprivation stimulates O-GlcNAc modification of proteins through up-regulation of O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase.

    Taylor RP, Parker GJ, Hazel MW, Soesanto Y, Fuller W, Yazzie MJ and McClain DA

    Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N. 2030 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of proteins that functions as a nutrient sensing mechanism. Here we report on regulation of O-GlcNAcylation over a broad range of glucose concentrations. We have discovered a significant induction of O-GlcNAc modification of a limited number of proteins under conditions of glucose deprivation. Beginning 12 h after treatment, glucose-deprived human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells demonstrate a 7.8-fold increase in total O-GlcNAc modification compared with cells cultured in normal glucose (5 mm; p = 0.008). Some of the targets of glucose deprivation-induced O-GlcNAcylation are distinct from those modified in response to high glucose (20 mm) or glucosamine (10 mm) treatment, suggesting differential targeting with glucose deprivation and glucose excess. O-GlcNAcylation of glycogen synthase is significantly increased with glucose deprivation, and this O-GlcNAc increase contributes to a 60% decrease (p = 0.004) in glycogen synthase activity. Increased O-GlcNAc modification is not mediated by increased UDP-GlcNAc, the rate-limiting substrate for O-GlcNAcylation. Rather, the mRNA for nucleocytoplasmic O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT) increases 3.4-fold within 6 h of glucose deprivation (p = 0.006). Within 12 h, OGT protein increases 1.7-fold (p = 0.01) compared with normal glucose-treated cells. In addition, 12-h glucose deprivation leads to a 49% decrease in O-GlcNAcase protein levels (p = 0.03). We conclude that increased O-GlcNAc modification stimulated by glucose deprivation results from increased OGT and decreased O-GlcNAcase levels and that these changes affect cell metabolism, thus inactivating glycogen synthase.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 43526

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;10;6050-7

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • O-GlcNAc integrates the proteasome and transcriptome to regulate nuclear hormone receptors.

    Bowe DB, Sadlonova A, Toleman CA, Novak Z, Hu Y, Huang P, Mukherjee S, Whitsett T, Frost AR, Paterson AJ and Kudlow JE

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Mechanisms controlling nuclear hormone receptors are a central question to mammalian developmental and disease processes. Herein, we show that a subtle increase in O-GlcNAc levels inhibits activation of nuclear hormone receptors. In vivo, increased levels of O-GlcNAc impair estrogen receptor activation and cause a decrease in mammary ductal side-branching morphogenesis associated with loss of progesterone receptors. Increased O-GlcNAc levels suppress transcriptional expression of coactivators and of the nuclear hormone receptors themselves. Surprisingly, increased O-GlcNAc levels are also associated with increased transcription of genes encoding corepressor proteins NCoR and SMRT. The association of the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase with these corepressors contributes to specific regulation of nuclear hormone receptors by O-GlcNAc. Overall, transcriptional inhibition is related to the integrated effect of O-GlcNAc by direct modification of critical elements of the transcriptome and indirectly through O-GlcNAc modification of the proteasome.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2R01DK43652-14A1, R01 DK043652, R01 DK043652-17

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;22;8539-50

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Mutational analysis of the catalytic domain of O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase.

    Lazarus BD, Roos MD and Hanover JA

    Laboratory of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT) catalyzes the transfer of O-linked GlcNAc to serine/threonine residues of a variety of target proteins, many of which have been implicated in such diseases as diabetes and neurodegeneration. The addition of O-GlcNAc to proteins occurs in response to fluctuations in cellular concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc, which result from nutrients entering the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in sugar nucleotide recognition and transfer to protein are poorly understood. We employed site-directed mutagenesis to target potentially important amino acid residues within the two conserved catalytic domains of OGT (CD I and CD II), followed by an in vitro glycosylation assay to evaluate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity after bacterial expression. Although many of the amino acid substitutions caused inactivation of the enzyme, we identified three amino acid residues (two in CD I and one in CD II) that produced viable enzymes when mutated. Structure-based homology modeling revealed that these permissive mutants may be either in or near the sugar nucleotide-binding site. Our findings suggest a model in which the two conserved regions of the catalytic domain, CD I and CD II, contribute to the formation of a UDP-GlcNAc-binding pocket that catalyzes the transfer of O-GlcNAc to substrate proteins. Identification of viable OGT mutants may facilitate examination of its role in nutrient sensing and signal transduction cascades.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;42;35537-44

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • O-GlcNAcase uses substrate-assisted catalysis: kinetic analysis and development of highly selective mechanism-inspired inhibitors.

    Macauley MS, Whitworth GE, Debowski AW, Chin D and Vocadlo DJ

    Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada.

    The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (GlcNAc) is a reversible process implicated in multiple cellular processes. The enzyme O-GlcNAcase catalyzes the cleavage of beta-O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) from modified proteins and is a member of the family 84 glycoside hydrolases. The family 20 beta-hexosaminidases bear no apparent sequence similarity yet are functionally related to O-GlcNAcase because both enzymes cleave terminal GlcNAc residues from glycoconjugates. Lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase is known to use substrate-assisted catalysis involving the 2-acetamido group of the substrate; however, the catalytic mechanism of human O-GlcNAcase is unknown. By using a series of 4-methylumbelliferyl 2-deoxy-2-N-fluoroacetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside substrates, Taft-like linear free energy analyses of these enzymes indicates that O-GlcNAcase uses a catalytic mechanism involving anchimeric assistance. Consistent with this proposal, 1,2-dideoxy-2'-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoso-[2,1-d]-Delta2'-thiazoline, an inhibitor that mimics the oxazoline intermediate proposed in the catalytic mechanism of family 20 glycoside hydrolases, is shown to act as a potent competitive inhibitor of both O-GlcNAcase (K(I) = 0.070 microm) and beta-hexosaminidase (K = 0.070 microm). A series of 1,2-dideoxy-2'-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoso-[2,1-d]-Delta2'-thiazoline analogues were prepared, and one inhibitor demonstrated a remarkable 1500-fold selectivity for O-GlcNAcase (K(I) = 0.230 microm) over beta-hexosaminidase (K(I) = 340 microm). These inhibitors are cell permeable and modulate the activity of O-GlcNAcase in tissue culture. Because both enzymes have vital roles in organismal health, these potent and selective inhibitors of O-GlcNAcase should prove useful in studying the role of this enzyme at the organismal level without generating a complex chemical phenotype stemming from concomitant inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;27;25313-22

  • Turnover and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase in a stably transfected HeLa cell line.

    Marshall S, Okuyama R and Rumberger JM

    Hexos, Inc., Woodinville, WA 98072, USA. Hexos@comcast.net

    To estimate the turnover of UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT), we exposed stably transfected HeLa cells to tetracycline for 16h to induce OGT gene expression and increase cytosolic enzyme levels. Removal of tetracycline led to a progressive decrease in OGT activity (after a 6h lag period), yielding an estimated OGT half-life of 13h. A similar half-life (12h) was obtained by measuring the loss of biosynthetically labeled OGT ([35S]methionine pulse-chase experiments). Since OGT turnover was relatively slow, it is unlikely that changes in OGT gene expression or protein expression play a role in the short-term regulatory actions mediated by the hexosamine signaling pathway. We also found that the overexpressed 110kDa murine OGT subunit (recombinant enzyme) was enzymatically similar to the endogenous holoenzyme derived from rat brain tissue. Thus, stably transfected HeLa cells provide an abundant source of enzyme that can be used to study the structure, function, and regulation of OGT.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;332;1;263-70

  • Insulin stimulates and diabetes inhibits O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase and O-glycosylation of Sp1.

    Majumdar G, Wright J, Markowitz P, Martinez-Hernandez A, Raghow R and Solomon SS

    Research Services, VA Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

    Insulin stimulates both the biosynthesis of transcription factor Sp1 and its O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation), which promotes nuclear localization of Sp1 and its ability to transactivate calmodulin (CaM) gene transcription. To investigate this further, we incubated H-411E liver cells with insulin (10,000 microU/ml) and quantified the subcellular distribution of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc-modified Sp1. We also examined the phosphorylation of Sp1 using both Western blot and incorporation of 32P into Sp1. The results demonstrate that insulin, but not glucagon, stimulates OGT synthesis and enhances cytosolic staining of OGT (histochemical). Insulin increases O-GlcNAc-Sp1, which peaks at 30 min, followed by decline at 4 h. In contrast, insulin initiates phosphorylation of Sp1 early, followed by a continued increase in phosphorylated Sp1 (PO4-Sp1) at 4 h. A reciprocal relationship between O-GlcNAc-Sp1 and PO4-Sp1 was observed. To explore the pathophysiological relevance, we localized OGT in liver sections from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We observed that staining of OGT in STZ-induced diabetic rat liver is clearly diminished, but it was substantially restored after 6 days of insulin treatment. We conclude that insulin stimulates CaM gene transcription via a dynamic interplay between O-glycosylation and phosphorylation of Sp1 that modulates stability, mobility, subcellular compartmentalization, and activity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: T35-DK-07405-19

    Diabetes 2004;53;12;3184-92

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • OGT functions as a catalytic chaperone under heat stress response: a unique defense role of OGT in hyperthermia.

    Sohn KC, Lee KY, Park JE and Do SI

    Chungnam National University, School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon 305-764, Republic of Korea.

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is proceeded by O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in nucleocytoplasm and is involved in many biological processes although its physiological role is not clearly defined. To identify the functional significance of O-GlcNAcylation, we investigated heat stress effects on protein O-GlcNAcylation. Here, we found that protein O-GlcNAcylation was significantly increased in vivo during acute heat stress in mammalian cells and simultaneously, the enhanced protein O-GlcNAcylation was closely associated with cell survival in hyperthermia. Our results demonstrate that hyperthermal cytotoxicity may considerably be facilitated under the condition of insufficient level of protein O-GlcNAcylation inside cells. Furthermore, OGT reaction might be crucial for triggering thermotolerance to recover hyperthermal sensitivity without particular induction of heat shock proteins (hsps). Thus, we propose that OGT can respond rapidly to heat stress through the enhancement of nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation for a rescue from the early phase of hyperthermal cytotoxicity.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;322;3;1045-51

  • Identification of an HLA-A0201-restricted CTL epitope generated by a tumor-specific frameshift mutation in a coding microsatellite of the OGT gene.

    Ripberger E, Linnebacher M, Schwitalle Y, Gebert J and von Knebel Doeberitz M

    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Deficient DNA mismatch repair results in microsatellite instability and might induce shifts of translational reading frames of genes encompassing coding microsatellites. These may be translated in truncated proteins, including neo-peptide tails functioning as tumor rejection antigens, when presented in the context of MHC class I. Recently, others and we identified a frameshift mutation in the coding T(10) microsatellite of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase gene (OGT) occuring in up to 41% of microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers. Here we describe a novel HLA-A0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-epitope (28-SLYKFSPFPL; FSP06) derived from this mutant OGT-protein. FSP06-specific CTL-clones killed peptide-sensitized target cells and tumor cell lines expressing both HLA-A0201 and mutant OGT proteins. This demonstrates that FSP06 is endogenously expressed and represents a CD8(+)-T cell epitope. Our data corroborate the concept of frameshift peptides constituting a novel subset of tumor-associated antigens specifically encountered in cancer cells with deficient mismatch repair.

    Journal of clinical immunology 2003;23;5;415-23

  • UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) in brain tissue: temperature sensitivity and subcellular distribution of cytosolic and nuclear enzyme.

    Okuyama R and Marshall S

    Hexos, Inc., 18304 NE 153rd Street, Woodinville, WA 98072, USA. Hexos@comcast.net

    In brain tissue, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) is known to catalyze the addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine moiety (GlcNAc) onto two proteins linked to the etiology of neurodegenerative disease--beta-amyloid associated protein and tau. Hyperphosphorylation of tau appears to cause neurofibrillary tangles and cell death, and a functional relationship appears to exist between phosphorylation and glycosylation. Since a greater understanding of brain OGT may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the characteristics and subcellular distribution of OGT protein and OGT activity and its relationship to O-linked glycosylation. We found that cytosolic OGT activity is 10 times more abundant in brain tissue compared with muscle, adipose, heart, and liver tissue. Temperature studies demonstrated that cytosolic OGT activity was stable at 24 degrees C but was rapidly inactivated at 37 degrees C (T1/2 = 20 min). Proteases were probably not involved because OGT immunopurified from cytosol retained temperature sensitivity. Subcellular distribution studies showed abundant OGT protein in the nucleus that was enzymatically active. Nuclear OGT activity exhibited a high affinity for UDP-GlcNAc and a salt sensitivity that was similar to cytosolic OGT; however, nuclear OGT was not inactivated at 37 degrees C, as was the cytosolic enzyme. Two methods were used to measure O-linked glycoproteins in brain cytosol and nucleosol -[3H]galactose labeling and western blotting using antibodies against O-linked glycoproteins. Both methods revealed a greater abundance of O-linked glycoproteins in the nucleus compared to cytosol.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;86;5;1271-80

  • Roles of the tetratricopeptide repeat domain in O-GlcNAc transferase targeting and protein substrate specificity.

    Iyer SP and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA.

    The abundant and dynamic post-translational modification of nuclear and cytosolic proteins by beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT). Recently, we reported the identification of a novel family of OGT-interacting proteins (OIPs) that interact strongly with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of OGT (Iyer, S. P., Akimoto, Y., and Hart, G. W. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 5399-5409). Members of this family are modified by O-GlcNAc and are excellent substrates of OGT. Here, we further investigated the role of the TPR domain in the O-GlcNAcylation of OIP106, one of the members of this OIP family. Using N-terminal deletions, we first identified the region of OIP106 that binds OGT, termed the OGT-interacting domain (OID). Deletion analysis indicated that TPRs 2-6 of OGT interact with the OID of OIP106. The apparent Km of OGT for the OID of OIP106 is 3.35 microm. Unlike small peptide substrates, glycosylation of the OID was dependent upon its interaction with the first 6 TPRs of OGT. Furthermore, the isolated TPR domain of OGT competitively inhibited glycosylation of the OID protein, but did not inhibit glycosylation of a 12-amino acid casein kinase II peptide substrate, providing kinetic evidence for the role of the TPR domain as a protein substrate docking site. Additionally, both the OID of OIP106 and nucleoporin p62 competed with each other for glycosylation by OGT. These studies support the model that the catalytic subunit of OGT achieves both high specificity and a remarkable diversity of substrates by complexing with a variety of targeting proteins via its TPR protein-protein interaction domains.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;27;24608-16

  • Human Sin3 deacetylase and trithorax-related Set1/Ash2 histone H3-K4 methyltransferase are tethered together selectively by the cell-proliferation factor HCF-1.

    Wysocka J, Myers MP, Laherty CD, Eisenman RN and Herr W

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.

    The abundant and chromatin-associated protein HCF-1 is a critical player in mammalian cell proliferation as well as herpes simplex virus (HSV) transcription. We show here that separate regions of HCF-1 critical for its role in cell proliferation associate with the Sin3 histone deacetylase (HDAC) and a previously uncharacterized human trithorax-related Set1/Ash2 histone methyltransferase (HMT). The Set1/Ash2 HMT methylates histone H3 at Lys 4 (K4), but not if the neighboring K9 residue is already methylated. HCF-1 tethers the Sin3 and Set1/Ash2 transcriptional regulatory complexes together even though they are generally associated with opposite transcriptional outcomes: repression and activation of transcription, respectively. Nevertheless, this tethering is context-dependent because the transcriptional activator VP16 selectively binds HCF-1 associated with the Set1/Ash2 HMT complex in the absence of the Sin3 HDAC complex. These results suggest that HCF-1 can broadly regulate transcription, both positively and negatively, through selective modulation of chromatin structure.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA 13106, P01 CA013106, R01 CA 57138, R01 CA057138; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM 54598, R01 GM054598

    Genes & development 2003;17;7;896-911

  • Mitochondrial and nucleocytoplasmic targeting of O-linked GlcNAc transferase.

    Love DC, Kochan J, Cathey RL, Shin SH, Hanover JA and Kochran J

    Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT) mediates a novel glycan-dependent signaling pathway, but the intracellular targeting of OGT is poorly understood. We examined the localization of OGT by immunofluorescence microscopy, subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting using highly specific affinity-purified antisera. In addition to the expected nuclear localization, we found that OGT was highly concentrated in mitochondria. Since the mitochondrial OGT (103 kDa) was smaller than OGT found in other compartments (116 kDa) we reasoned that it was one of two predicted splice variants of OGT. The N-termini of these isoforms are unique; the shorter form contains a potential mitochondrial targeting sequence. We found that when epitope-tagged, the shorter form (mOGT; 103 kDa) concentrated in HeLa cell mitochondria, whereas the longer form (ncOGT; 116 kDa) localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. The N-terminus of mOGT was essential for proper targeting. Although mOGT appears to be an active transferase, O-linked GlcNAc-modified substrates do not accumulate in mitochondria. Using immunoelectron microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we found that mOGT was tightly associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. The differential localization of mitochondrial and nucleocytoplasmic isoforms of OGT suggests that they perform unique intracellular functions.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 4;647-54

  • Identification and cloning of a novel family of coiled-coil domain proteins that interact with O-GlcNAc transferase.

    Iyer SP, Akimoto Y and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA.

    The abundant and dynamic post-translational modification of nuclear and cytosolic proteins by beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Here we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify and isolate GABA(A) receptor-associated protein, GRIF-1 (Beck, M., Brickley, K., Wilkinson, H. L., Sharma, S., Smith, M., Chazot, P. L., Pollard, S., and Stephenson, F. A. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 30079-30090), and its novel homolog, OIP106 (KIAA1042), as novel OGT-interacting proteins. The proteins are highly similar to each other but are encoded by two separate genes. Both GRIF-1 and OIP106 contain coiled-coil domains and interact with the tetratricopeptide repeats of OGT. GRIF-1 and OIP106 are modified by O-GlcNAc and therefore are substrates for OGT. However, unlike another high affinity protein substrate, such as nucleoporin p62, OIP106 and GRIF-1 co-immunoprecipitate with OGT, exhibiting stable in vitro and in vivo associations. Whereas GRIF-1 has been reported to be expressed only in excitable tissue, OIP106 is expressed in all human cell lines that were examined. Confocal and electron microscopy show that OIP106 localizes to nuclear punctae in HeLa cells and co-localizes with RNA polymerase II. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm the presence of an in vivo RNA polymerase II-OIP106-OGT complex, suggesting that OIP106 may target OGT to transcriptional complexes for glycosylation of transcriptional proteins, such as RNA polymerase II, and transcription factors. Similarly, GRIF-1 may serve to target OGT to GABA(A) receptor complexes for mediating GABA signaling cascades.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;7;5399-409

  • Mitochondrial and nucleocytoplasmic isoforms of O-linked GlcNAc transferase encoded by a single mammalian gene.

    Hanover JA, Yu S, Lubas WB, Shin SH, Ragano-Caracciola M, Kochran J and Love DC

    Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Building 8, Room 402, 8 Center Drive, MSC 0850, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-0850, USA. jah@helix.nih.gov

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) mediates a novel hexosamine-dependent signal transduction pathway. Yet, little is known about the regulation of ogt gene expression in mammals. We report the sequence and characterization of the mouse ogt locus and provide a comparison with the human and rat ogt genes. The mammalian ogt genes are similar in structure and exhibit approximately 80% sequence identity. The mouse and human ogt genes contain two potential promoters producing four major transcripts. By analyzing 56 human cDNA clones and other existing expressed sequence tags, we found that at least three protein products differing at their amino terminus result from alternative splicing. We used OGT-specific antisera to demonstrate the presence of these isoforms in HeLa cells. The longest form is a nucleocytoplasmic OGT (ncOGT) with 12 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs); a shorter form of OGT encodes a mitochondrially sequestered enzyme with 9 TPRs and an N-terminal mitochondrion-targeting sequence (mOGT). An even shorter form of OGT (sOGT) contains only 2 TPRs. The genomic organization of OGT appears to be highly conserved throughout metazoan evolution. These results provide the basis for a more detailed analysis of the significance and regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoforms of OGT in mammals.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2003;409;2;287-97

  • The role of O-linked protein glycosylation in beta-cell dysfunction.

    Konrad RJ and Kudlow JE

    Department of Diagnostic and Experimental Medicine, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. konrad_robert@lilly.com

    Although only recently described, the pathway of O-linked protein glycosylation is already being implicated in diseases as diverse as cancer and Alzheimer's. Unlike the better known N-linked pathway, O-linked protein glycosylation is a dynamic and regulated event, much like tyrosine phosphorylation. During the process of O-glycosylation, the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) uses the substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to attach a single O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to nuclear and cytosolic proteins on serine or threonine residues. Conversely, the enzyme O-GlcNAc-selective N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) removes the O-GlcNAc, returning the protein to its baseline state until the cycle repeats itself. Although proving to be of interest in many different tissues, this pathway is especially important in pancreatic beta-cells. The beta-cell is unique in containing much more OGT than any other cell type. This enables beta-cells to respond to physiological increases in the glucose concentration by converting glucose to the OGT substrate UDP-GlcNAc, thereby dynamically coupling intracellular O-linked protein glycosylation to the extracellular glucose concentration. As a result, the beta-cell also appears to be especially susceptible to disruption of the O-glycosylation pathway. The diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ), a UDP-GlcNAc analogue, causes beta-cell toxicity by irreversibly inhibiting O-GlcNAcase, while the diabetogenic agent alloxan (ALX), also a UDP-GlcNAc analog irreversibly inhibits OGT. This review will summarize what is currently known about beta-cell O-glycosylation and expand upon historical observations of chemically-induced beta-cell toxicity in animals to develop a model suggesting how beta-cell O-glycosylation is also involved in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes in humans.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2002;10;5;535-9

  • Altered glycan-dependent signaling induces insulin resistance and hyperleptinemia.

    McClain DA, Lubas WA, Cooksey RC, Hazel M, Parker GJ, Love DC and Hanover JA

    Department of Medicine, University of Utah and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

    Insulin resistance and beta cell toxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes. One leading hypothesis suggests that these abnormalities result from excessive flux of nutrients through the UDP-hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leading to "glucose toxicity." How the products of the hexosamine pathway mediate these effects is not known. Here, we show that transgenic overexpression of an enzyme using UDP-GlcNAc to modify proteins with O-GlcNAc produces the type 2 diabetic phenotype. Even modest overexpression of an isoform of O-GlcNAc transferase, in muscle and fat, leads to insulin resistance and hyperleptinemia. These data support the proposal that O-linked GlcNAc transferase participates in a hexosamine-dependent signaling pathway that is linked to insulin resistance and leptin production.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK42356, Z01DK60200-01

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;16;10695-9

  • Recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase to promoters by corepressor mSin3A: coupling protein O-GlcNAcylation to transcriptional repression.

    Yang X, Zhang F and Kudlow JE

    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a histone deacetylase complex by binding to the corepressor mSin3A. Functionally, OGT and mSin3A cooperatively repress transcription in parallel with histone deacetylation. We propose that mSin3A targets OGT to promoters to inactivate transcription factors and RNA polymerase II by O-GlcNAc modification, which acts in concert with histone deacetylation to promote gene silencing in an efficient and specific manner.

    Cell 2002;110;1;69-80

  • Human O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT): genomic structure, analysis of splice variants, fine mapping in Xq13.1.

    Nolte D and Müller U

    Institut für Humangenetik, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Schlangenzahl 14, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2002;13;1;62-4

  • Homology between O-linked GlcNAc transferases and proteins of the glycogen phosphorylase superfamily.

    Wrabl JO and Grishin NV

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX 75390-9050, USA.

    The O-linked GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) are a recently characterized group of largely eukaryotic enzymes that add a single beta-N-acetylglucosamine moiety to specific serine or threonine hydroxyls. In humans, this process may be part of a sugar regulation mechanism or cellular signaling pathway that is involved in many important diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, no structural information about the human OGT exists, except for the identification of tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) at the N terminus. The locations of substrate binding sites are unknown and the structural basis for this enzyme's function is not clear. Here, remote homology is reported between the OGTs and a large group of diverse sugar processing enzymes, including proteins with known structure such as glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the glycosyl transferase MurG. This relationship, in conjunction with amino acid similarity spanning the entire length of the sequence, implies that the fold of the human OGT consists of two Rossmann-like domains C-terminal to the TPR region. A conserved motif in the second Rossmann domain points to the UDP-GlcNAc donor binding site. This conclusion is supported by a combination of statistically significant PSI-BLAST hits, consensus secondary structure predictions, and a fold recognition hit to MurG. Additionally, iterative PSI-BLAST database searches reveal that proteins homologous to the OGTs form a large and diverse superfamily that is termed GPGTF (glycogen phosphorylase/glycosyl transferase). Up to one-third of the 51 functional families in the CAZY database, a glycosyl transferase classification scheme based on catalytic residue and sequence homology considerations, can be unified through this common predicted fold. GPGTF homologs constitute a substantial fraction of known proteins: 0.4% of all non-redundant sequences and about 1% of proteins in the Escherichia coli genome are found to belong to the GPGTF superfamily.

    Journal of molecular biology 2001;314;3;365-74

  • The O-GlcNAc transferase gene resides on the X chromosome and is essential for embryonic stem cell viability and mouse ontogeny.

    Shafi R, Iyer SP, Ellies LG, O'Donnell N, Marek KW, Chui D, Hart GW and Marth JD

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive-0625, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic protein glycosylation is a widespread and reversible posttranslational modification in eukaryotic cells. Intracellular glycosylation by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to serine and threonine is catalyzed by the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This "O-GlcNAcylation" of intracellular proteins can occur on phosphorylation sites, and has been implicated in controlling gene transcription, neurofilament assembly, and the emergence of diabetes and neurologic disease. To study OGT function in vivo, we have used gene-targeting approaches in male embryonic stem cells. We find that OGT mutagenesis requires a strategy that retains an intact OGT gene as accomplished by using Cre-loxP recombination, because a deletion in the OGT gene results in loss of embryonic stem cell viability. A single copy of the OGT gene is present in the male genome and resides on the X chromosome near the centromere in region D in the mouse spanning markers DxMit41 and DxMit95, and in humans at Xq13, a region associated with neurologic disease. OGT RNA expression in mice is comparably high among most cell types, with lower levels in the pancreas. Segregation of OGT alleles in the mouse germ line with ZP3-Cre recombination in oocytes reveals that intact OGT alleles are required for completion of embryogenesis. These studies illustrate the necessity of conditional gene-targeting approaches in the mutagenesis and study of essential sex-linked genes, and indicate that OGT participation in intracellular glycosylation is essential for embryonic stem cell viability and for mouse ontogeny.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 13563, R37 HD013563; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 48247, R01 DK048247

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;11;5735-9

  • Functional expression of O-linked GlcNAc transferase. Domain structure and substrate specificity.

    Lubas WA and Hanover JA

    Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modifies nuclear pore proteins and transcription factors. In Arabidopsis, the OGT homolog participates in the gibberellin signaling pathway. We and others have proposed that mammalian OGT is the terminal step in a glucose-sensitive signal transduction pathway that becomes disregulated in insulin resistance. To facilitate mutational analysis of OGT in the absence of competing endogenous activity, we expressed the 103-kDa human OGT in Escherichia coli. Kinetic parameters for the purified recombinant enzyme (K(m) = 1.2 microM for Nup 62; K(m) = 0.5 microM for UDP-GlcNAc) are nearly identical to purified mammalian OGT. Deletions in the highly conserved C terminus result in a complete loss of activity. The N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain is required for optimal recognition of substrates. Removal of the first three tetratricopeptide repeats greatly reduces the O-GlcNAc addition to macromolecular substrates. However, this altered enzyme retains full activity against appropriate synthetic peptides. Autoglycosylation of OGT is augmented when the first six tetratricopeptide repeats are removed showing that these repeats are not required for catalysis. Given its proposed role in modulating insulin action, OGT may modify kinases involved in this signaling cascade. Among the many kinases tested, OGT glycosylates glycogen synthase kinase-3 and casein kinase II, two enzymes critical in the regulation of glycogen synthesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;15;10983-8

  • Localization of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase in rat pancreas.

    Akimoto Y, Kreppel LK, Hirano H and Hart GW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Schools of Medicine/Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham Station, USA.

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes the attachment ofN-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) monosaccharides to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues of intracellular proteins and may play an important role in the hexosamine pathway. Glucose-induced insulin resistance is mediated by increased activity of the hexosamine pathway. In the present study, we examined the localization of OGT mRNA and OGT protein in the rat pancreas. The sites of OGT mRNA expression were determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry with a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled antisense cRNA probe. Intense hybridization signals were present in the exocrine acinar cells, while weaker ones were detected in the islets of Langerhans. This distribution was confirmed using additional antisense cRNA or oligo-cDNA probes complementary to different regions of OGT mRNA. In addition, immunofluorescence staining with antibody raised against OGT stained both the exocrine acinar cells and endocrine islet cells. In the acinar cell nucleus, the zymogen granule region and contour of the cell were intensely stained. In the islets of Langerhans, especially in the alpha-cells, intense staining with anti-OGT antibody was observed. These staining patterns were almost identical to those seen when staining for the O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) modification. Immuno-electron microscopy showed that OGT is localized to the euchromatin of the nucleus and around the secretory granules of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine islet cells. These results suggest that OGT is involved in the regulation of transcription and of granular secretion. Thus, one or more O-GlcNAcylated proteins may be important components of the glucose-sensing mechanism in the pancreas.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563

    Diabetes 1999;48;12;2407-13

  • Glycosylation sites flank phosphorylation sites on synapsin I: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues are localized within domains mediating synapsin I interactions.

    Cole RN and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA.

    Synapsin I is concentrated in nerve terminals, where it appears to anchor synaptic vesicles to the cytoskeleton and thereby ensures a steady supply of fusion-competent synaptic vesicles. Although phosphorylation-dependent binding of synapsin I to cytoskeletal elements and synaptic vesicles is well characterized, little is known about synapsin I's O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications. Here, we identified seven in vivo O-GlcNAcylation sites on synapsin I by analysis of HPLC-purified digests of rat brain synapsin I. The seven O-GlcNAcylation sites (Ser55, Thr56, Thr87, Ser516, Thr524, Thr562, and Ser576) in synapsin I are clustered around its five phosphorylation sites in domains B and D. The proximity of phosphorylation sites to O-GlcNAcylation sites in the regulatory domains of synapsin I suggests that O-GlcNAcylation may modulate phosphorylation and indirectly affect synapsin I interactions. With use of synthetic peptides, however, the presence of an O-GlcNAc at sites Thr562 and Ser576 resulted in only a 66% increase in the Km of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of site Ser566 with no effect on its Vmax. We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation likely plays a more direct role in synapsin I interactions than simply modulating the protein's phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD13563; NINDS NIH HHS: NSO9415

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;1;418-28

  • SV40 large T antigen is modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine but not with other forms of glycosylation.

    Medina L, Grove K and Haltiwanger RS

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5215, USA.

    SV40 large T antigen has been reported to be modified with several different sugars including N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, and mannose. In this report we have reexamined the glycosylation of T antigen and found that while we could detect modification with N-acetylglucosamine, we could not detect any other sugars on the protein. Surprisingly, even though [3H]galactose could be metabolically incorporated into the protein, analysis showed that all of the radioactivity in T antigen had been converted to other species. The N-acetylglucosamine was demonstrated to be linked to the protein in the form of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, the best characterized form of nuclear and cytoplasmic glycosylation in mammalian systems. We have localized the major site of glycosylation to the amino terminal portion of the molecule. Analysis of mutated T antigen where serines 111/112 were substituted with alanine suggest that these residues constitute a glycosylation site on the protein. These two serines fall within a typical O-linked N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation site (PSS) and are also known to be phosphorylated. Thus, it is likely that competition between phosphorylation and glycosylation occurs at this site.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 48666

    Glycobiology 1998;8;4;383-91

  • O glycosylation of an Sp1-derived peptide blocks known Sp1 protein interactions.

    Roos MD, Su K, Baker JR and Kudlow JE

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

    The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is dynamic and abundant in the nucleus and cytosol. Several transcription factors, including Sp1, have been shown to contain this modification; however, the functional role of O-GlcNAc in these proteins has not been determined. In this paper we describe the use of the previously characterized glutamine-rich transactivation domain of Sp1 (B-c) as a model to investigate the role of O-GlcNAc in Sp1's transcriptionally relevant protein-to-protein interactions with the TATA-binding-protein-associated factor (TAF110) and holo-Sp1. When the model Sp1 peptide was overexpressed in primate cells, this 97-amino-acid domain of Sp1 was found to contain a dominant O-GlcNAc residue at high stoichiometry, which allowed the mapping and mutagenesis of this glycosylation site. In vitro interaction studies between this segment of Sp1 and Drosophila TAF110 or holo-Sp1 indicate that the O-GlcNAc modification functions to inhibit the largely hydrophobic interactions between these proteins. In HeLa cells, the mutation at the mapped glycosylation site was permissive for transcriptional activation. We propose the hypothesis that the removal of O-GlcNAc from an interaction domain can be a signal for protein association. O-GlcNAc may thereby prevent untimely and ectopic interactions.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1997;17;11;6472-80

  • Dynamic glycosylation of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Cloning and characterization of a unique O-GlcNAc transferase with multiple tetratricopeptide repeats.

    Kreppel LK, Blomberg MA and Hart GW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Schools of Medicine/Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham Station, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a dynamic modification of eukaryotic nuclear and cytosolic proteins analogous to protein phosphorylation. We have cloned and characterized a novel gene for an O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) that shares no sequence homology or structural similarities with other glycosyltransferases. The OGT gene is highly conserved (up to 80% identity) in all eukaryotes examined. Unlike previously described glycosyltransferases, OGT is localized to the cytosol and nucleus. The OGT protein contains multiple tandem repeats of the tetratricopeptide repeat motif. The presence of tetratricopeptide repeats, which can mediate protein-protein interactions, suggests that OGT may be regulated by protein interactions that are independent of the enzyme's catalytic site. The OGT is also modified by tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that tyrosine kinase signal transduction cascades may play a role in modulating OGT activity.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;14;9308-15

  • O-Linked GlcNAc transferase is a conserved nucleocytoplasmic protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats.

    Lubas WA, Frank DW, Krause M and Hanover JA

    Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    O-Linked GlcNAc addition and phosphorylation may compete for sites on nuclear pore proteins and transcription factors. We sequenced O-linked GlcNAc transferase from rabbit blood and identified the homologous Caenorhabditis elegans transferase gene on chromosome III. We then isolated C. elegans and human cDNAs encoding the transferase. The enzymes from the two species appear to be highly conserved; both contain multiple tetratricopeptide repeats and nuclear localization sequences. The C. elegans transferase accumulated in the nucleus and in perinuclear aggregates in overexpressing transgenic lines. O-Linked GlcNAc transferase activity was also elevated in HeLa cells transfected with the human cDNA. At least four human transcripts were observed in the tissues examined ranging in size from 4.4 to 9.3 kilobase pairs. The two largest transcripts (7.9 and 9.3 kilobase pairs) were enriched at least 12-fold in the pancreas. Based on its substrate specificity and molecular features, we propose that O-linked GlcNAc transferase is part of a glucose-responsive pathway previously implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;14;9316-24

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • The microtubule-associated protein tau is extensively modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

    Arnold CS, Johnson GV, Cole RN, Dong DL, Lee M and Hart GW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. GWHART@BMG.BHS.UAB.EDU

    Tau is a family of phosphoproteins that are important in modulating microtubule stability in neurons. In Alzheimer's disease tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, no longer binds microtubules, and self-assembles to form paired helical filaments that likely contribute to neuron death. Here we demonstrate that normal bovine tau is multiply modified by Ser(Thr)-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, a dynamic and abundant post-translational modification that is often reciprocal to Ser(Thr)-phosphorylation. O-GlcNAcylation of tau was demonstrated by blotting with succinylated wheat germ agglutinin and by probing with bovine milk beta(1,4)galactosyltransferase. Structural analyses confirm the linkage and the saccharide structure. Tau splicing variants are multiply O-GlcNAcylated at similar sites, with an average stoichiometry of greater than 4 mol of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine/mol of tau. However, the number of sites occupied appears to be greater than 12, suggesting substoichiometric occupancy at any given site. A similar relationship between average stoichiometry and site-occupancy has also been described for the phosphorylation of tau. Site-specific or stoichiometric changes in O-GlcNAcylation may not only modulate tau function but may also play a role in the formation of paired helical filaments.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 42486; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5-T32-GM08111-10; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS 27538; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;46;28741-4

  • Cytoplasmic O-GlcNAc modification of the head domain and the KSP repeat motif of the neurofilament protein neurofilament-H.

    Dong DL, Xu ZS, Hart GW and Cleveland DW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Neurofilaments, the major intermediate filaments in large myelinated neurons, are essential for specifying proper axonal caliber. Mammalian neurofilaments are obligate heteropolymers assembled from three polypeptides, neurofilament (NF)-H, NF-M, and NF-L, each of which undergoes phosphorylation at multiple sites. NF-M and NF-L are known to be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) (Dong, D. L.-Y., Xu, Z.-S., Chevrier, M. R., Cotter, R. J., Cleveland, D. W., and Hart, G. W. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 16679-16687). Here we further report that NF-H is extensively modified by O-GlcNAc at Thr53, Ser54, and Ser56 in the head domain and, somewhat surprisingly, at multiple sites within the Lys-Ser-Pro repeat motif in the tail domain, a region in assembled neurofilaments known to be nearly stoichiometrically phosphorylated on each of the approximately 50 KSP repeats. Beyond the earlier identified sites on NF-M and NF-L, O-GlcNAc sites on Thr19 and Ser34 of NF-M and Ser34 and Ser48 of NF-L are also determined here, all of which are localized in head domain sequences critical for filament assembly. The proximity of O-GlcNAc and phosphorylation sites in both head and tail domains of each subunit indicates that these modifications may influence one another and play a role in filament assembly and network formation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27036

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;34;20845-52

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin.

    Roquemore EP, Chevrier MR, Cotter RJ and Hart GW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294-0005, USA.

    alphaB-Crystallin, originally described as a structural lens protein, is now known to be a member of the small heat shock protein family and is expressed in a number of nonlens tissues. This highly conserved 20 kDa protein aggregates with homologous proteins, including alphaA-crystallin and the small heat shock protein HSP28, to form large heteromeric complexes. Recently, Roquemore et al. (1992) have established that both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of lens alphaB-crystallin are modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, a dynamic posttranslational modification abundant on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In this paper, we have identified the major site of O-GlcNAcylation on lens alphaB as Thr 170. We have further shown that this modification is not restricted to lens alphaB-crystallin but occurs on alphaB isolated from rat heart tissue and human astroglioma cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat heart alphaB-crystallin revealed two O-GlcNAcylated forms with mobilities corresponding to the unphosphorylated form (alphaB2) and an unidentified, slightly more acidic form. Phosphorylated alphaB-crystallin (alphaB1) was not detected in the rat heart preparation. The major O-GlcNAcylation site on alphaB-crystallins from rat heart also appears to be at Thr 170. Metabolic pulse-chase labeling studies of U373-MG astroglioma cells indicated that turnover of the carbohydrate on alphaB-crystallin is not static but proceeds many-fold more rapidly than turnover of the protein backbone itself, consistent with a regulatory role for O-GlcNAc on this small heat shock protein.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA-42486; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T3 GM07445

    Biochemistry 1996;35;11;3578-86

  • c-Myc is glycosylated at threonine 58, a known phosphorylation site and a mutational hot spot in lymphomas.

    Chou TY, Hart GW and Dang CV

    Biochemistry, Cellular, and Molecular Biology Training Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    c-Myc is a helix-loop leucine zipper phosphoprotein that heterodimerizes with Max and regulates gene transcription in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and programmed cell death. Previously, we demonstrated that c-Myc is modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) within or nearby the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (Chou, T.-Y., Dang, C.V., and Hart, G.W. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 4417-4421). In this paper, we identified the O-GlcNAc attachment site(s) on c-Myc. c-Myc purified from sf9 insect cells was trypsinized, and its GlcNAc moieties were enzymically labeled with [3H]galactose. The [3H]galactose-labeled glycopeptides were isolated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and then subjected to gas-phase sequencing, manual Edman degradation, and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses show that threonine 58, an in vivo phosphorylation site in the transactivation domain, is the major O-GlcNAc glycosylation site of c-Myc. Mutation of threonine 58, frequently found in retroviral v-Myc proteins and in human Burkitt and AIDS-related lymphomas, is associated with enhanced transforming activity and tumorigenicity. The reciprocal glycosylation and phosphorylation at this biologically significant amino acid residue may play an important role in the regulation of the functions of c-Myc.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42486, CA57341

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;32;18961-5

  • The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression.

    Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A and Matsubara K

    Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan.

    Large-scale sequencing of a 3'-cDNA library permits one to analyse gene expression profiles in various tissues. However, many such sequences lack enough information about the encoded proteins. To overcome this problem, we tested a new library, consisting of a 3'-directed cDNA sequence fused to a to a 5' sequence of about 300 bp. Such 'joint molecules' of about 600 bp were amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. About 40% of these joint molecules included the 5' and 3' terminal portions of the mRNA, and most of the remaining clones contained the middle portion and 3' end of the mRNA. The upstream sequences contained sufficient information with which to search for similarity, ORFs, motifs and hydropathy, thus allowing the mRNAs to be categorized and their functions predicted. The rapid categorization of the cDNAs will help to sort those clones that merit further analysis.

    Gene 1994;146;2;199-207

  • Clathrin assembly protein AP-3 is phosphorylated and glycosylated on the 50-kDa structural domain.

    Murphy JE, Hanover JA, Froehlich M, DuBois G and Keen JH

    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism, NIDDKD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    AP-3 (AP180) in rat sympathetic neurons maintained in culture was analyzed by pulse-chase labeling with [35S]methionine to look for post-translational modifications. At early times, two lower molecular weight precursors of the mature species were detected. By 10 min, all of the AP-3 was found in the mature form which is stable for at least 9 h. We show here that at least one of these processing events is due to the addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) which is present on the mature form of the protein. Wheat germ agglutinin, a GlcNAc-specific probe, bound to AP-3 and the binding was blocked by excess GlcNAc but not by excess mannose. Purified AP-3, and AP-3 in coated vesicles derived from bovine brain, served as substrates for beta-D-galactosyltransferase which is specific for terminal GlcNAc residues. Analysis of the disaccharide released by beta-elimination indicated that single GlcNAc residues are attached to AP-3 through an O-glycosidic linkage to threonine or serine residues. In vivo 32P-labeled AP-3, the result of serine phosphorylation (Keen, J. H., and Black, M.M. (1986) J. Cell Biol. 102, 1325-1333), bound to wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose indicating that phosphorylation and glycosylation can occur simultaneously on the same molecule. Both modifications have been mapped to the central 50-kDa structural domain that is responsible for the anomalous migration of AP-3. Consistent with localization to the nonclathrin binding domain, the O-GlcNAc modification does not play a discernible role in the interaction of AP-3 with clathrin.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-28526

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;33;21346-52

  • Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. Localization of multiple O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties on neurofilament polypeptides L and M.

    Dong DL, Xu ZS, Chevrier MR, Cotter RJ, Cleveland DW and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    Neurofilaments are neuronal intermediate filaments that play an important role in the growth and maintenance of large myelinated axons. Mammalian neurofilaments are composed of three polypeptide subunits, designed as NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H, all of which are phosphorylated. Here, we demonstrate by several criteria that neurofilament polypeptides are also modified by an abundant type of intracellular protein glycosylation in which single N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharides are O-glycosidically (O-GlcNAc) linked to serine or threonine residues. In purified neurofilament proteins, the O-GlcNAc modifications occur at a stoichiometry of approximately 0.1 and 0.15 mol of GlcNAc/mol of NF-L and NF-M, respectively. The predominant sites of O-GlcNAc attachment on NF-L and NF-M are identified using proteolysis, purification of the glycopeptides, and subsequent analysis by automated gas-phase sequencing, manual Edman degradation, and laser desorption mass spectrometry. For NF-L, both major sites of glycosylation (Thr21 and Ser27) are located at the NH2-terminal head domain. For NF-M, one major site (Thr48) lies within the NH2-terminal head domain, whereas the other (Thr431) is located at the tail domain. Deletions encompassing these sites have been shown previously to have a dominant detrimental effect upon neurofilament assembly, raising questions about the specific function(s) of the saccharide moieties at these sites. Specific identification of these O-GlcNAc attachment sites has set the stage for more detailed mutagenic analysis of O-GlcNAc functions on neurofilaments.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27036; PHS HHS: 1P30A128748

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;22;16679-87

  • Localization of O-GlcNAc modification on the serum response transcription factor.

    Reason AJ, Morris HR, Panico M, Marais R, Treisman RH, Haltiwanger RS, Hart GW, Kelly WG and Dell A

    Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

    A unique form of nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic protein glycosylation, O-linked GlcNAc, has previously been detected, using Gal transferase labeling techniques, on a myriad of proteins (for review see Hart, G. W., Haltiwanger, R. S., Holt, G. D., and Kelly, W. G. (1989a) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58, 841-874), including many RNA polymerase II transcription factors (Jackson, S. P., and Tjian, R. (1988) Cell 55, 125-133). However, virtually nothing is known about the degree of glycosylation at individual sites, or, indeed, the actual sites of attachment of O-GlcNAc on transcription factors. In this paper we provide rigorous evidence for the occurrence and locations of O-GlcNAc on the c-fos transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF), expressed in an insect cell line. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) of proteolytic digests of SRF provides evidence for the presence of a single substoichiometric O-GlcNAc residue on each of four peptides isolated after sequential cyanogen bromide, tryptic, and proline specific enzyme digestion: these peptides are 306VSASVSP312, 274GTTSTIQTAP283, 313SAVSSADGTVLK324, and 374DSSTDLTQTSSSGTVTLP391. Using an array of techniques, including manual Edman degradation, aminopeptidase, and elastase digestion, together with FAB-MS, the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment were shown to be serine residues within short tandem repeat regions. The highest level of glycosylation was found on the SSS tandem repeat of peptide (374-391) which is situated within the transcriptional activation domain of SRF. The other glycosylation sites observed in SRF are located in the region of the protein between the DNA binding domain and the transcriptional activation domain. Glycosylation of peptides (274-283) and (313-324) was found to occur on the serine in the TTST tandem repeat and on serine 316 in the SS repeat, respectively. The lowest level of glycosylation was recovered in peptide (306-312) which lacks tandem repeats. All the glycosylation sites identified in SRF are situated in a relatively short region of the primary sequence close to or within the transcriptional activation domain which is distant from the major sites of phosphorylation catalyzed by casein kinase II.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 42486; NICHD NIH HHS: HD 13563; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;24;16911-21

  • Glycosylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Purification and characterization of a uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase.

    Haltiwanger RS, Blomberg MA and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    Using a combination of conventional and affinity chromatographic techniques, we have purified a uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (O-GlcNAc transferase) over 30,000-fold from rat liver cytosol. The transferase is soluble and very large, migrating with an apparent molecular weight of 340,000 on molecular sieve chromatography. Analysis of the purified enzyme on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals two protein species migrating at 110 (alpha subunit) and 78 (beta subunit) kDa in approximately a two-to-one ratio. Thus, the enzyme likely exists as a heterotrimer complex with two subunits of 110 kDa and one of 78 kDa (alpha 2 beta). The alpha subunit appears to contain the enzyme's active site since it is selectively radiolabeled by a specific photoaffinity probe (4-[beta-32P]thiouridine diphosphate). Photoinactivation and photolabeling of the enzyme are dependent on time and long wavelength ultraviolet light. Photolabeling of the alpha subunit is specifically blocked by UDP. The enzyme has an extremely high affinity for UDP-GlcNAc (Km = 545 nM). This unusually high affinity for the sugar nucleotide donor probably provides the enzyme an advantage over the nucleotide transporters in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus which compete for available cytoplasmic UDP-GlcNAc. The multimeric state and large size of the O-GlcNAc transferase imply that its activity may be highly regulated within the cell.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1 P30 AI28748; NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;13;9005-13

  • Vertebrate lens alpha-crystallins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

    Roquemore EP, Dell A, Morris HR, Panico M, Reason AJ, Savoy LA, Wistow GJ, Zigler JS, Earles BJ and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    Crystallins are structural proteins responsible for establishing the remarkable optical properties of the lens. Yet many of these highly conserved proteins are also expressed in nonocular tissues, where they have alternative functions apparently unrelated to their structural role in the lens. Here we report that lens alpha-crystallins, some of which function as heat-shock proteins in other tissues, are modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). An in vitro enzymatic assay that transfers [3H]Gal to terminal GlcNAc moieties labels alpha A and alpha B crystallins in lens homogenates from man, rhesus monkey, rat, cow, and rhea (an ostrich-like bird). O-Linkage of the saccharide is demonstrated by sensitivity to base-catalyzed beta-elimination and resistance to peptide:N-glycosidase F treatment. Chromatographic analyses of the beta-elimination products and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of [3H]Gal-labeled tryptic peptides confirm the saccharide structure. Isoelectric focusing of [3H]Gal-labeled bovine lens proteins reveals the presence of O-GlcNAc on all four alpha-crystallin subunits, A1, A2, B1, and B2. Electrospray mass spectrometry of bovine alpha-crystallin demonstrates the presence of a single O-GlcNAc substitution on alpha A2. Gas-phase protein sequencing and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of the major radiolabeled tryptic peptide from bovine alpha-crystallin reveal that GlcNAc is attached to the alpha A subunits at serine 162. This post-translational modification may play an important role in the molecular organization of lens alpha-crystallin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42486; NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;1;555-63

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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