G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
fatty acid synthase
G00000382 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000169710 (Ensembl human gene)
2194 (Entrez Gene)
748 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
FASN (GeneCards)
600212 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3594 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P49327 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • FAS
  • SDR27X1

Literature (91)

Pubmed - other

  • Effect of genetic variation in the human fatty acid synthase gene (FASN) on obesity and fat depot-specific mRNA expression.

    Schleinitz D, Klöting N, Körner A, Berndt J, Reichenbächer M, Tönjes A, Ruschke K, Böttcher Y, Dietrich K, Enigk B, Filz M, Schön MR, Jenkner J, Kiess W, Stumvoll M, Blüher M and Kovacs P

    Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research, Leipzig, Germany.

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) induces a rapid decline in fat stores in mice, suggesting a role for this enzyme in energy homeostasis. To investigate the potential role of FASN in the pathophysiology of human obesity, the FASN gene was sequenced in 48 German whites. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Eight SNPs representative for their linkage disequilibrium groups and the Val1483Ile (rs2228305) substitution were genotyped for subsequent association analyses in 1,311 adults from Germany. Further, the tagging SNPs were genotyped also in German childhood cohorts (738 schoolchildren, 205 obese children). Effects of genetic variation on FASN mRNA expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from a subgroup of 172 subjects were analyzed. Several polymorphisms in the FASN (rs62078748, rs2229422, rs2229425, and rs17848939) were nominally associated with obesity in case-control studies including 446 obese subjects (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) and 389 lean controls (BMI <or=25 kg/m(2)) (adjusted P < 0.05). The strongest significant effect was found for rs2229422 (P = 1.3 x 10(-5) adjusted for age, sex, type 2 diabetes status), which was supported by associations with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma insulin and glucose infusion rate (adjusted P < 0.05). Subjects with the Val1483Ile substitution appeared to be protected against obesity. In addition, rs17848939 was nominally significantly associated with the ratio of visceral/subcutaneous FASN mRNA expression (adjusted P = 0.04). No effect of genetic variation in FASN on obesity was found in children. In conclusion, our data indicate a role of FASN genetic variation in susceptibility to obesity in adults.

    Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2010;18;6;1218-25

  • Sp1 coordinately regulates de novo lipogenesis and proliferation in cancer cells.

    Lu S and Archer MC

    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.

    Cancers express high levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) from which they derive fatty acids for membrane biosynthesis to sustain cell proliferation. How cancer cells coordinate de novo lipogenesis and proliferation has not been investigated. Transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are overexpressed in a variety of cancers and regulate gene expression by interacting with GC-rich Sp1 binding sites. Genes encoding FAS and cell cycle proteins such as CDC25A contain Sp1 binding sites in their promoters. We demonstrate by RNA interference that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 all play a role in regulating CDC25A expression and proliferation in human breast cancer cells. Only Sp1, however, also regulates FAS. Furthermore, mithramycin, which blocks Sp1 binding sites, decreased proliferation, inhibited CDC25A and FAS expression and reduced binding of Sp1 to the promoters of these genes as assessed by ChIP assays. Conversely, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) increased proliferation and CDC25A and FAS expression along with increased binding of Sp1 to the promoters of the 2 genes. In addition, we showed that the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), the only transcription factor that has been shown to regulate genes of lipogenic enzymes in cancer cells, is also regulated by Sp1. Finally, we demonstrated that Sp1 plays a role in sustaining proliferation and FAS expression in colon as well as prostate cancer cells. Overall, these observations suggest that Sp1 coordinately regulates de novo lipogenesis and proliferation in cancer cells.

    International journal of cancer 2010;126;2;416-25

  • Decrease in FASN expression in adipose tissue of hypertensive individuals.

    Mayas MD, Ortega FJ, Gómez-Huelgas R, Roca N, Fernández-Real JM and Tinahones FJ

    Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de Victoria de Málaga y CIBEROBN (CB06/03/010), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. mdmayas@hotmail.com

    Background: Fatty acid (FA) synthesis enzymes (FA synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)) are related to metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, or dyslipidemia. Due to the fact that there is no literature that relates FASN and ACC expression with hypertension, we investigate how FASN and ACC expression in adipose tissue is related to hypertension.

    Methods: This study included 87 patients, undergoing laparoscopic surgery procedures after an overnight fast. These patients were classified according to hypertension levels into two groups, normotensive and hypertensive, with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) in order to measure gene expression levels of FASN and ACC and anthropometric and biochemical variables.

    Results: The main result of this work is a significant decrease of FASN expression in adipose tissue of hypertensive vs. normotensive patients, and that FASN may predict systolic blood pressure (SBP) values by multiple regression analysis and there was also an inverse correlation between FASN expression and SBP.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, to our knowledge it has been proven, for the first time, that there is a decrease of FASN expression in hypertensive individuals. The clinical significance of this work represents an exciting challenge because it would need to be clarified whether the reduced values of FASN expression may be associated with hypertension or whether this is an adaptive mechanism to the presence of hypertension. Once this aspect is clarified, it could be a new target for the treatment of hypertension.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;12;1258-62

  • Fatty acid synthase activity regulates HER2 extracellular domain shedding into the circulation of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Vazquez-Martin A, Fernandez-Real JM, Oliveras-Ferraros C, Navarrete JM, Martin-Castillo B, Del Barco S, Brunet J and Menendez JA

    Catalan Institute of Oncology, Health Services Division of Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain.

    Clinicopathological assessment of the functional relationship between the HER2 oncogene and tumor-associated fatty acid synthase (FASN) is largely precluded because immunohistochemical and/or mRNA studies should be performed in biopsies from breast cancer patients. We here sought to determine whether serum FASN (sFASN) could associate with circulating HER2 extracellular domain (HER2 ECD) in the blood of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Concentrations of serum FASN and HER2 ECD were measured with ELISA in sera retrospectively obtained from 201 patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and 31 healthy subjects. Mechanistical in vitro studies were performed using pharmacological inhibitors of HER2 and FASN as well as cultured cancer cells engineered to overexpress HER2 and FASN human genes. When the upper limit of normal sFASN was defined as the mean + 2SD of the control group, sFASN was elevated above this cut-off (12 ng/ml) in 70 MBC patients (35%). Eighty-nine MBC patients (44%) had elevated levels of HER2 ECD (HER2 ECD cut-off = 15 ng/ml). HER2 ECD-positive MBC patients slightly increased their sFASN levels compared with HER2 ECD-negative MBC patients. sFASN-positive MBC patients had significantly increased levels of HER2 ECD when compared with sFASN-negative MBC patients (mean HER2 ECD=34 ng/ml, 95% CI 26-41 ng/ml and 18 ng/ml -95% CI 15-21 ng/ml, respectively; p=0.002). Sixty percent of sFASN-positive patients concurrently exhibited high levels of HER2 ECD whereas 64% of sFASN-negative patients were negative for circulating HER2 ECD. In vitro studies revealed that BC cells bearing HER2 gene-amplification released higher levels of extracellular FASN than HER2-negative BC cells. Trastuzumab-induced blockade of HER2 ECD shedding failed to prevent FASN release and retrovirally-induced HER2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells did not increase extracellular FASN. Of note, pharmacological inhibition of FASN activity significantly decreased HER2 ECD levels in the supernatant of HER2-overexpressing BC cells while transient overexpression of FASN gene in HBL100 cells promoted FASN protein release and concomitantly increased HER2 ECD shedding into the extracellular milieu. Subsequent studies should explore if quantitative determination of FASN molecules in blood could become a rapid and accurate non-invasive test to monitor disease progression and survival in HER2-overexpressing MBC undergoing HER2-targeted therapies.

    International journal of oncology 2009;35;6;1369-76

  • Genetic variation in genes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway and breast cancer risk.

    Campa D, McKay J, Sinilnikova O, Hüsing A, Vogel U, Hansen RD, Overvad K, Witt PM, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Chajes V, Rohrmann S, Chang-Claude J, Boeing H, Fisher E, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Villarini A, Sacerdote C, Mattiello A, Tumino R, Peeters PH, van Gils CH, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H, Lund E, Chirlaque MD, Sala N, Suarez LR, Barricarte A, Dorronsoro M, Sánchez MJ, Lenner P, Hallmans G, Tsilidis K, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Gallo V, Norat T, Riboli E, Rinaldi S, Lenoir G, Tavtigian SV, Canzian F and Kaaks R

    Department of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major enzyme of lipogenesis. It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to produce palmitic acid. Transcription of the FAS gene is controlled synergistically by the transcription factors ChREBP (carbohydrate response element-binding protein), which is induced by glucose, and SREBP-1 (sterol response element-binding protein-1), which is stimulated by insulin through the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway. We investigated whether the genetic variability of the genes encoding for ChREBP, SREBP and FAS (respectively, MLXIPL, SREBF1 and FASN) is related to breast cancer risk and body-mass index (BMI) by studying 1,294 breast cancer cases and 2,452 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). We resequenced the FAS gene and combined information of SNPs found by resequencing and SNPs from public databases. Using a tagging approach and selecting 20 SNPs, we covered all the common genetic variation of these genes. In this study we were not able to find any statistically significant association between the SNPs in the FAS, ChREBP and SREPB-1 genes and an increased risk of breast cancer overall and by subgroups of age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use or BMI. On the other hand, we found that two SNPs in FASN were associated with BMI.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0401527

    Breast cancer research and treatment 2009;118;3;565-74

  • Trophoblastic neoplasms express fatty acid synthase, which may be a therapeutic target via its inhibitor C93.

    Ueda SM, Mao TL, Kuhajda FP, Vasoontara C, Giuntoli RL, Bristow RE, Kurman RJ and Shih IeM

    Kelly Gynecologic Oncology Service, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an emerging tumor-associated marker and a promising antitumor therapeutic target. In this study, we analyzed the expression of FASN in normal and molar placentas, as well as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and assessed the effects of a new FASN inhibitor, C93, on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in choriocarcinoma cells. Using a FASN-specific monoclonal antibody, we found that FASN immunoreactivity was detected in the cytotrophoblast and intermediate (extravillous) trophoblast of normal and molar placentas, as well as in placental site nodules. All choriocarcinomas (n = 33), 90% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (n = 20), and 60% of placental site trophoblastic tumors (n = 10) exhibited FASN positivity. FASN expression was further confirmed in vitro by Western blot and real-time PCR. Treatment of JEG3 and JAR cells with C93 induced significant apoptosis through the caspase-3/caspase-9/poly(ADP)ribose polymerase pathway. Cell cycle progression was not affected by the inhibitor. In summary, the data indicate that FASN is expressed in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias, and is essential for choriocarcinoma cells to survive and escape from apoptosis. FASN inhibitors such as C93 warrant further investigation as targeted therapeutic agents for metastatic and chemoresistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA129080, R01 CA129080

    The American journal of pathology 2009;175;6;2618-24

  • Evaluation of fatty acid synthase expression in oesophageal mucosa of patients with oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma.

    Crispino P, Alò PL, Rivera M, Barillà D, Nardi F, Mariotti M, Giancarlo Z, Botti C, Pica R, Cassieri C, Unim H and Paoluzi P

    Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University La Sapienza of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

    To evaluate the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the oesophagitis-Barrett's oesophagus-oesophageal adenocarcinoma sequence compared with p53 and Ki67 expressions, retained for a long time reliable markers of oesophageal cells biological behaviour.

    Methods: In Barrett's oesophagus, oesophagitis and oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients, biopsies were taken from pathologic sites of the mucosa for histological and immuno-histochemical detection of FAS, p53 and Ki67. FAS expression was positive, when a strong granular cytoplasmic staining was observed in oesophageal cells. Ki67 and p53 was defined positive, when nuclear staining was clearly detected at 10x magnification.

    Results: A mild expression of FAS was found in 39% of patients with oesophagitis. The amount of FAS expression increased up to 70% in Barrett's oesophagus while this was present in all patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (p = 0.0001). In Barrett's oesophagus, p53 was mildly or intensely expressed in 77% and in 15% of cases, respectively, and mildly or intensely expressed in 33% and 67% of patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, respectively, (p = 0.0001). Ki67 was mildly expressed in 17% of oesophagitis cases and was absent in the majority of cases. In Barrett's oesophagus, a mild Ki67 expression was present in 46% of cases, and in oesophageal adenocarcinoma it was present prevalently in intense form (67%; p = 0.0001).

    Conclusions: The over-expression of p53, Ki67 and FAS in otherwise similar morphological groups may be useful to stratify patients into selected prognostic subgroups in order to achieve better clinical approaches.

    Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2009;135;11;1533-41

  • Aromatase, CYP1B1 and fatty acid synthase expression in breast tumors of BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Berstein LM, Pozharisski KM, Imyanitov EN, Maximova NA and Kovalevskij AY

    N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny, St.Petersburg 197758, Russia. levmb@endocrin.spb.ru

    Numerous experimental evidence suggest that BRCA1-associated breast carcinomas may have distinct endocrine and metabolic features, however these peculiarities are poorly evaluated in clinical settings. Here we comparatively analyzed for the first time aromatase, estrogen 4-hydroxylase (CYP1B1) and fatty acid synthase immunohistochemical expression in breast tumors obtained from 12 BRCA1 mutations carriers and 22 non-carriers. Aromatase expression was higher in mutation carriers than in sporadic cases (p = 0.04), which confirms the earlier results obtained in cell lines with down-regulated wild-type BRCA1 and corroborates the usage of aromatase inhibitors in such patients. No differences between study groups were found in the expression of CYP1B1 and fatty acid synthase, which does not, however, mitigate the need of further search for manifestations of the excessive genotoxic effects of estrogens and for increased lipogenesis in BRCA1 mutations carriers.

    Pathology oncology research : POR 2009;15;3;407-9

  • Val1483Ile in FASN gene is linked to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in adult white men.

    Moreno-Navarrete JM, Botas P, Valdés S, Ortega FJ, Delgado E, Vázquez-Martín A, Bassols J, Pardo G, Ricart W, Menéndez JA and Fernández-Real JM

    Department of Diabetes, CIBEROBN Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición CB06/03/010, Girona, Spain.

    The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.

    Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2009;17;9;1755-61

  • Interaction between fatty acid synthase- and ErbB-systems in ovarian cancer cells.

    Grunt TW, Wagner R, Grusch M, Berger W, Singer CF, Marian B, Zielinski CC and Lupu R

    Signaling Networks Program, Department of Medicine I, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria. thomas.grunt@meduniwien.ac.at

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) represents a metabolic oncogene. It produces phospholipids for membrane microdomains that accommodate receptor tyrosine kinases including Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor (EGFR, ErbB1) and ErbB2 (HER2/neu). FASN and ErbBs are overexpressed in ovarian cancer. We examined the effect of FASN and ErbB inhibition on A2780 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Growth assays reveal that FASN inhibitor C75 sensitizes tumor cells against anti-ErbB drugs (pelitinib [EKB-569], canertinib [CI-1033], erlotinib, cetuximab, matuzumab, trastuzumab) suggesting FASN/ErbB cooperation. qRT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that C75 represses FASN, EGFR, ErbB2, and AKT suggesting that FASN-induced membrane microdomains accommodate/stabilize ErbBs and facilitate AKT recruitment/activation. Our data indicate that AKT is crucial for ErbB/FASN interaction, AKT cross-inhibits ERK and feeds loops that boost FASN and EGFR transcription, and EGFR and ErbB2 must be co-silenced for maximal FASN downregulation. Taken together, interference with FASN and ErbB abrogates their oncogenicity and should be exploited for ovarian cancer treatment.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;385;3;454-9

  • Increased expression of fatty acid synthase in human aberrant crypt foci: possible target for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Kearney KE, Pretlow TG and Pretlow TP

    Department of Pathology and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106-7288, USA.

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest identified monoclonal lesions in the colon, provide insights into changes that promote and/or accompany the transformation of normal colonic epithelial cells to colorectal cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the primary enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrates, is expressed at low levels in most normal human tissues but is elevated in several human neoplasms including colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. To determine if this pathway is altered even earlier in colorectal tumorigenesis, 35 human ACF from 21 patients were evaluated for the immunohistochemical expression of FAS. Sections of colon cancer served as positive controls, and normal colonic mucosa distant from cancer or ACF served as negative controls. FAS expression was increased in 30 (86%) ACF compared with that in adjacent normal colonic mucosa. The expression of FAS in ACF was not related to the degree of dysplasia or to the number of crypts in the ACF. The over expression of FAS in a high proportion of ACF suggests that this enzyme plays an important role very early in colorectal tumorigenesis and may be a target for chemoprevention.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66725, P30 CA043703, P30 CA43703, R01 CA066725, R01 CA066725-10

    International journal of cancer 2009;125;1;249-52

  • p63 promotes cell survival through fatty acid synthase.

    Sabbisetti V, Di Napoli A, Seeley A, Amato AM, O'Regan E, Ghebremichael M, Loda M and Signoretti S

    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

    There is increasing evidence that p63, and specifically DeltaNp63, plays a central role in both development and tumorigenesis by promoting epithelial cell survival. However, few studies have addressed the molecular mechanisms through which such important function is exerted. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme that synthesizes long-chain fatty acids and is involved in both embryogenesis and cancer, has been recently proposed as a direct target of p53 family members, including p63 and p73. Here we show that knockdown of either total or DeltaN-specific p63 isoforms in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC9) or immortalized prostate epithelial (iPrEC) cells caused a decrease in cell viability by inducing apoptosis without affecting the cell cycle. p63 silencing significantly reduced both the expression and the activity of FASN. Importantly, stable overexpression of either FASN or myristoylated AKT (myr-AKT) was able to partially rescue cells from cell death induced by p63 silencing. FASN induced AKT phosphorylation and a significant reduction in cell viability was observed when FASN-overexpressing SCC9 cells were treated with an AKT inhibitor after p63 knockdown, indicating that AKT plays a major role in FASN-mediated survival. Activated AKT did not cause any alteration in the FASN protein levels but induced its activity, suggesting that the rescue from apoptosis documented in the p63-silenced cells expressing myr-AKT cells may be partially mediated by FASN. Finally, we demonstrated that p63 and FASN expression are positively associated in clinical squamous cell carcinoma samples as well as in the developing prostate. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that FASN is a functionally relevant target of p63 and is required for mediating its pro-survival effects.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA131945; NIDDK NIH HHS: R21 DK072152, R21 DK72152

    PloS one 2009;4;6;e5877

  • Fatty acid synthase: a metabolic enzyme and candidate oncogene in prostate cancer.

    Migita T, Ruiz S, Fornari A, Fiorentino M, Priolo C, Zadra G, Inazuka F, Grisanzio C, Palescandolo E, Shin E, Fiore C, Xie W, Kung AL, Febbo PG, Subramanian A, Mucci L, Ma J, Signoretti S, Stampfer M, Hahn WC, Finn S and Loda M

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Background: Overexpression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. We sought to directly assess the oncogenic potential of FASN.

    Methods: We used immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (iPrECs), androgen receptor-overexpressing iPrECs (AR-iPrEC), and human prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cells that stably overexpressed FASN for cell proliferation assays, soft agar assays, and tests of tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. Transgenic mice expressing FASN in the prostate were generated to assess the effects of FASN on prostate histology. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting in iPrEC-FASN cells treated with stimulators of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis (ie, camptothecin and anti-Fas antibody, respectively) or with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting FASN. FASN expression was compared with the apoptotic index assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling method in 745 human prostate cancer samples by using the least squares means procedure. All statistical tests were two-sided.

    Results: Forced expression of FASN in iPrECs, AR-iPrECs, and LNCaP cells increased cell proliferation and soft agar growth. iPrECs that expressed both FASN and androgen receptor (AR) formed invasive adenocarcinomas in immunodeficient mice (12 of 14 mice injected formed tumors vs 0 of 14 mice injected with AR-iPrEC expressing empty vector (P < .001, Fisher exact test); however, iPrECs that expressed only FASN did not. Transgenic expression of FASN in mice resulted in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, the incidence of which increased from 10% in 8- to 16-week-old mice to 44% in mice aged 7 months or more (P = .0028, Fisher exact test), but not in invasive tumors. In LNCaP cells, siRNA-mediated silencing of FASN resulted in apoptosis. FASN overexpression protected iPrECs from apoptosis induced by camptothecin but did not protect iPrECs from Fas receptor-induced apoptosis. In human prostate cancer specimens, FASN expression was inversely associated with the apoptotic rate (mean percentage of apoptotic cells, lowest vs highest quartile of FASN expression: 2.76 vs 1.34, difference = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 2.39, Ptrend = .0046).

    Conclusions: These observations suggest that FASN can act as a prostate cancer oncogene in the presence of AR and that FASN exerts its oncogenic effect by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55075, P01CA89021, P50 CA90381, R01CA131945

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2009;101;7;519-32

  • The SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative.

    Persson B, Kallberg Y, Bray JE, Bruford E, Dellaporta SL, Favia AD, Duarte RG, Jörnvall H, Kavanagh KL, Kedishvili N, Kisiela M, Maser E, Mindnich R, Orchard S, Penning TM, Thornton JM, Adamski J and Oppermann U

    IFM Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. bpn@ifm.liu.se

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with presently over 46,000 members. In phylogenetic comparisons, members of this superfamily show early divergence where the majority have only low pairwise sequence identity, although sharing common structural properties. The SDR enzymes are present in virtually all genomes investigated, and in humans over 70 SDR genes have been identified. In humans, these enzymes are involved in the metabolism of a large variety of compounds, including steroid hormones, prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids and xenobiotics. It is now clear that SDRs represent one of the oldest protein families and contribute to essential functions and interactions of all forms of life. As this field continues to grow rapidly, a systematic nomenclature is essential for future annotation and reference purposes. A functional subdivision of the SDR superfamily into at least 200 SDR families based upon hidden Markov models forms a suitable foundation for such a nomenclature system, which we present in this paper using human SDRs as examples.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: P41 HG003345; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA012153; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM038148, R01 GM038148-19

    Chemico-biological interactions 2009;178;1-3;94-8

  • AMPK-sensed cellular energy state regulates the release of extracellular Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Oliveras-Ferraros C, Vazquez-Martin A, Fernández-Real JM and Menendez JA

    Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona (ICO-Girona), Hospital de Girona "Dr. Josep Trueta", Ctra. França s/n, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a 250-kDa cytosolic multi-enzyme catalyzing eukaryotic de novo FA biogenesis, unexpectedly localizes in cancer cell culture supernatants and in the blood of cancer patients. High levels of "extracellular FASN" have recently been found in supernatants from Hepatitis C Virus-infected liver cells. The ultimate mechanism regulating FASN release, however, remained completely undefined. When the AMPK-activating drug AICAR was used to simulate an elevated AMP/ATP ratio in breast cancer cells, ELISA-based analyses revealed that extracellular FASN dramatically augmented in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Immunoblotting procedures using a battery of anti-FASN antibodies further confirmed that, in response to AMPK activation, FASN protein is depleted from the cytosol to accumulate as different FASN isoforms in the extracellular milieu. siRNA-induced blockade of AMPK expression largely attenuated AICAR-promoted FASN release. FASN release might represent a previously unrecognized mechanism through which AMPK monitor and restores cellular energy state in response to increasing AMP/ATP ratios.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;378;3;488-93

  • Serum concentrations of extracellular fatty acid synthase in patients with steatohepatitis.

    Marsillach J, Oliveras-Ferraros C, Beltrán R, Rull A, Aragonès G, Alonso-Villaverde C, Vázquez-Martín A, Joven J, Menéndez JA and Camps J

    Centre de Recerca Biomèdica, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.

    Background: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme synthesized by the liver and plays an important role in lipogenesis. The present study aimed to assess whether serum FASN concentrations are altered in patients with chronic liver disease, and to investigate whether its measurement may be a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of this derangement.

    Methods: We investigated 93 patients with chronic liver disease (14 minimal change disease, 79 steatohepatitis) and 100 control subjects. Serum FASN concentrations were measured using ELISA.

    Results: Patients had a significant increase in serum FASN concentration (p<0.001), which was specifically associated with the hepatic Knodell sub-index III of portal inflammation (p=0.019). In addition, serum FASN concentrations were significantly correlated with the circulating levels of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (Spearman rho=0.375; p<0.001) and type III procollagen-N-peptide (P-III-P) (Spearman rho=0.297; p<0.001).

    Conclusions: Serum FASN concentrations are increased in patients with chronic liver impairment, and are associated with specific histological alterations and biochemical markers of portal inflammation. These data suggest that FASN measurement may contribute significantly to the evaluation of these patients.

    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine 2009;47;9;1097-9

  • Cohort study of fatty acid synthase expression and patient survival in colon cancer.

    Ogino S, Nosho K, Meyerhardt JA, Kirkner GJ, Chan AT, Kawasaki T, Giovannucci EL, Loda M and Fuchs CS

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. shuji_ogino@dfci.harvard.edu

    Purpose: Energy balance seems to be important in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is physiologically regulated by energy balance and is often upregulated in colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, the influence of FASN expression on patient outcome is uncertain.

    Using the database of 647 patients with colon cancer in two independent cohort studies, FASN overexpression was detected in 84 tumors (13%) by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of colon cancer-specific and overall mortalities, adjusted for patient characteristics and related tumoral features, including KRAS, BRAF, p53, microsatellite instability and the CpG island methylation phenotype.

    Results: There were 279 deaths, including 160 colon cancer-specific deaths. FASN overexpression was associated with a significant reduction in colon cancer-specific mortality by both univariate and multivariate analyses (adjusted HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.89) and an insignificant trend toward improved overall mortality (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.13). Notably, the effect of FASN expression on mortality might be different according to body mass index (BMI; P(interaction) = .019); the adjusted HR of overall mortality for FASN overexpression was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.39 to 1.02) among patients with BMI less than 27.5 kg/m(2) and 2.91 (95% CI, 1.19 to 7.12) among those with BMI >or= 27.5 kg/m(2). Moreover, the adverse effect of moderate overweight/obesity on overall survival was limited to FASN-positive tumors (adjusted HR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.14 to 14.8; BMI >or= 27.5 kg/m(2) v < 27.5 kg/m(2)). CONCLUSION Among nonobese patients with colon cancer, tumoral FASN overexpression is associated with improved survival, whereas among moderately overweight or obese patients (BMI >or= 27.5 kg/m(2)), FASN overexpression may predict a worse outcome.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K07 CA122826, P01 CA055075, P01 CA055075-14, P01 CA087969, P01 CA087969-09, P01 CA55075, P01 CA87969, P50 CA127003, P50 CA127003-02

    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008;26;35;5713-20

  • Characterization of a novel anti-fatty acid synthase (FASN) antiserum in breast tissue.

    Jensen KC, Schaeffer DF, Cheang M, Montgomery K, West RB, Gilks CB, Ross D, Turashvili G, Schnitt S and van de Rijn M

    Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. kjensen1@stanford.edu

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression has been reported in many different tumors, including breast cancer. In gene microarray studies, the fatty acid synthase gene co-clustered with cytokeratins 5 and 17 and other genes that defined the basal-like subset of breast cancers. To define the use of this marker in breast pathology, a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (S143) to a peptide fragment of this gene was produced and compared with a commercially available monoclonal antibody by immunohistochemistry on various tissue microarrays and whole tissue sections. The tissue microarrays included 1090 breast cancers and 244 normal breast tissues. Whole tissue sections consisted of benign and malignant tissues from breast resection specimens. In contrast to other 'basal' markers identified by gene expression profiling data, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression pattern in normal breast was notable for its expression in only a small subset of basal and suprabasal cells. Dual staining experiments revealed that the subpopulation of cells labeling with FASN did not coexpress myoepithelial markers CK5/6 or p63, but did coexpress e-cadherin. In addition to staining a subset of basal and suprabasal cells, the antiserum highlighted apocrine differentiation, and stained 106/144 (74%) cases of columnar cell lesions and five of five cases of flat epithelial atypia. Despite its association with basal keratins in gene array studies, FASN expression did not correlate significantly with the outcome in breast cancer. We describe an expression pattern that highlights only a subset of basal and suprabasal cells in normal breast ducts and we show by dual expression studies that this subset of cells is different from myoepithelial and basal cytokeratin-positive cells. In addition, FASN expression is described in apocrine metaplasia, columnar cell lesions, and flat epithelial atypia.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2008;21;12;1413-20

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • Overexpression of fatty acid synthase is associated with palmitoylation of Wnt1 and cytoplasmic stabilization of beta-catenin in prostate cancer.

    Fiorentino M, Zadra G, Palescandolo E, Fedele G, Bailey D, Fiore C, Nguyen PL, Migita T, Zamponi R, Di Vizio D, Priolo C, Sharma C, Xie W, Hemler ME, Mucci L, Giovannucci E, Finn S and Loda M

    Department of Medical Oncology, Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key metabolic enzyme for liponeogenesis highly expressed in several human cancers, displays oncogenic properties such as resistance to apoptosis and induction of proliferation when overexpressed. To date, no mechanism has been identified to explain the oncogenicity of FASN in prostate cancer. We generated immortalized prostate epithelial cells (iPrECs) overexpressing FASN, and found that (14)C-acetate incorporation into palmitate synthesized de novo by FASN was significantly elevated in immunoprecipitated Wnt-1 when compared to isogenic cells not overexpressing FASN. Overexpression of FASN caused membranous and cytoplasmic beta-catenin protein accumulation and activation, whereas FASN knockdown by short-hairpin RNA resulted in a reduction in the extent of beta-catenin activation. Orthotopic transplantation of iPrECs overexpressing FASN in nude mice resulted in invasive tumors that overexpressed beta-catenin. A strong significant association between FASN and cytoplasmic (stabilized) beta-catenin immunostaining was found in 862 cases of human prostate cancer after computerized subtraction of the membranous beta-catenin signal (P<0.001, Spearman's rho=0.33). We propose that cytoplasmic stabilization of beta-catenin through palmitoylation of Wnt-1 and subsequent activation of the pathway is a potential mechanism of FASN oncogenicity in prostate cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55075, P01 CA055075, P01 CA089021, P01CA89021, P50 CA090381, P50 CA90381, R01 CA131945, R01 CA131945-01A1, R01CA131945; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903, R01 GM038903

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2008;88;12;1340-8

  • Inhibition of fatty-acid synthase induces caspase-8-mediated tumor cell apoptosis by up-regulating DDIT4.

    Knowles LM, Yang C, Osterman A and Smith JW

    Cancer Research Center, Burham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Fatty-acid synthase (FAS) is up-regulated in a broad range of cancers, including those of the breast, prostate, and ovaries. In tumor cells, the inhibition of FAS elicits cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, so it is considered a potential drug target for oncology. Results from this study show that inhibition of FAS, by either knockdown with small interfering RNA or inhibition with the small molecule drug orlistat, leads to activation of the receptor-mediated apoptotic cascade (caspase-8-mediated) and ultimately to cell death. However, knockdown of two enzymes upstream of FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha and ATP-citrate lyase, fails to activate caspase-8 or to elicit apoptosis in tumor cells, even though palmitate synthesis was suppressed. Using differential gene analysis, we traced the unique apoptotic effect of FAS inhibition to up-regulation of DDIT4 (DNA damage-inducible transcript 4), a stress-response gene that negatively regulates the mTOR pathway. These findings indicate that suppression of palmitate synthesis is not sufficient for eliciting tumor cell death and suggest that the unique effect of inhibition of FAS results from negative regulation of the mTOR pathway via DDIT4.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA108959, CA69306, CA6982713; NCRR NIH HHS: RR020843; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL080718

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;46;31378-84

  • Fatty acid synthase is up-regulated during hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatitis C virus entry and production.

    Yang W, Hood BL, Chadwick SL, Liu S, Watkins SC, Luo G, Conrads TP and Wang T

    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

    Unlabelled: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that causes serious illness, including acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we have identified 175 proteins from a cell culture supernatant fraction containing the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus, among which fatty acid synthase (FASN), the multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, was confirmed to be highly enriched. Subsequent studies showed that FASN expression increased in the human hepatoma cell line, Huh7, or its derivative, upon HCV infection. Blocking FASN activity by C75, a pharmacological FASN inhibitor, led to decreased HCV production. Reduction of FASN by RNA interference suppressed viral replication in both replicon and infection systems. Remarkably, FASN appeared to be selectively required for the expression of claudin-1, a tight junction protein that was recently identified as an entry coreceptor for HCV, but not for the expression of another HCV coreceptor, CD81. The decrease in Claudin-1 expression resulting from FASN inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in transepithelial electric resistance of Huh7 cells, implying a reduction in the relative tightness of the cell monolayer. Consequently, the entry of human immunodeficiency virus-HCV pseudotypes was significantly inhibited in C75-treated Huh7 cells.

    Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first line of evidence that demonstrates that HCV infection directly induces FASN expression, and thus suggests a possible mechanism by which HCV infection alters the cellular lipid profile and causes diseases such as steatosis.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1R21AI068784-01A1, R21 AI068784, R21 AI068784-01A1; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK088787

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;48;5;1396-403

  • Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    Choi WI, Jeon BN, Park H, Yoo JY, Kim YS, Koh DI, Kim MH, Kim YR, Lee CE, Kim KS, Osborne TF and Hur MW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University School of Medicine, 134, ShinChon-Dong, SeoDaeMoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752, Korea.

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;43;29341-54

  • Co-expression of fatty acid synthase and caveolin-1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: implications for tumor progression and clinical outcome.

    Witkiewicz AK, Nguyen KH, Dasgupta A, Kennedy EP, Yeo CJ, Lisanti MP and Brody JR

    Department of Pathology, Jefferson Center for Pancreatic, Biliary and Related Cancers, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease that afflicts over 35,000 Americans every year. Since therapeutic options are limited, understanding the molecular aspects of this disease is critical for moving towards targeted treatment of this aggressive form of cancer. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) are two proteins that have been shown to be dysregulated in a number of cancers. Functionally these proteins have been shown to be involved in the process of tumorigenesis. We thus surveyed the expression of both these critical proteins in a series of pancreatic precancerous lesions (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PanIN) and pancreatic cancers. Cav-1 and FASN expression correlated predominantly with clinical characteristics, such as histologic grade and advanced tumor stage (e.g., high Cav-1 and FASN expression correlated with poor differentiation status) and a significant survival advantage was found in patients with low co-expressing FASN and Cav-1 tumors. Cav-1 and FASN expression was absent in PanIN lesions and the normal ducts and acini. Of note, Cav-1 expression was detected in the fibroblasts of the desmoplastic pancreatic cancer stroma, but not in stromal cells of the normal pancreas. Mechanistically, these data support the notion that these proteins are co-regulated either directly or indirectly by another factor. Importantly, the co-expression of these proteins significantly correlates with clinical features and survival status of pancreatic cancer patients. Thus, Cav-1 and FASN may functionally cooperate in the process of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and as such, may be good candidate prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2008;7;19;3021-5

  • Fatty acid synthase and AKT pathway signaling in a subset of papillary thyroid cancers.

    Uddin S, Siraj AK, Al-Rasheed M, Ahmed M, Bu R, Myers JN, Al-Nuaim A, Al-Sobhi S, Al-Dayel F, Bavi P, Hussain AR and Al-Kuraya KS

    Department of Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Fahad National Center for Children's Cancer and Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Cancer, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

    Context: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in de novo synthesis of fatty acids. FASN is overexpressed in variety of human cancers, but its role has not been elucidated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).

    Objective: Our objective was to investigate the role of FASN and its relationship with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT activation in a large series of PTC in a tissue microarray format followed by studies using PTC cell lines and Nude mice.

    Design: Analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays. FASN and phospho-AKT protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.

    Results: Our data show that expression of FASN is associated with activated AKT (phospho-AKT) in a subset of PTC. Treatment of PTC cell lines (NPA-187, ONCO-DG-1, and B-CPAP) with C-75, an inhibitor of FASN, suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in all cell lines. Treatment of PTC cells with C-75 or expression of FASN small interfering RNA causes down-regulation of FASN and inactivation of AKT activity. Furthermore, treatment of PTC cell lines with C-75 results in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway involving the proapoptotic factor Bad, activation of Bax, activation of caspases, and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins. Finally, treatment of NPA-187 xenografts with C-75 results in growth inhibition of tumors in Nude mice via down-regulation of FASN expression and inactivation of AKT.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that FASN and activated AKT pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of PTC.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2008;93;10;4088-97

  • Caveolin-1 interacts with a lipid raft-associated population of fatty acid synthase.

    Di Vizio D, Adam RM, Kim J, Kim R, Sotgia F, Williams T, Demichelis F, Solomon KR, Loda M, Rubin MA, Lisanti MP and Freeman MR

    The Urological Diseases Research Center and Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. dolores.divizio@childrens.harvard.edu

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a cytoplasmic biosynthetic enzyme, is the major source of long-chain fatty acids, particularly palmitate. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a palmitoylated lipid raft protein that plays a key role in signal transduction and cholesterol transport. Both proteins have been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, and Cav-1 regulates FASN expression in a mouse model of aggressive PCa. We demonstrate that FASN and Cav-1 are coordinately upregulated in human prostate tumors in a hormone-insensitive manner. Levels of FASN and Cav-1 protein expression discriminated between localized and metastatic cancers, and the two proteins exhibited analogous subcellular locations in a tumor subset. Endogenous FASN and Cav-1 were reciprocally co-immunoprecipitated from human and murine PCa cells, indicating that FASN forms a complex with Cav-1. FASN, a cytoplasmic enzyme, was induced to associate transiently with lipid raft membranes following alterations in signal transduction within the Src, Akt and EGFR pathways, suggesting that co-localization of FASN and Cav-1 is dependent on activation of upstream signaling mediators. A Cav-1 palmitoylation mutant, Cav-1(C133/143/156S), that prevents phosphorylation by Src, did not interact with FASN. When overexpressed in Cav-1-negative PCa cells, Cav-1(C133/143/156S) caused a reduction of both Src and Akt levels, as well as of their active, phosphorylated forms, in comparison with wild type Cav-1. These findings suggest that FASN and Cav-1 physically and functionally interact in PCa cells. They also imply that palmitoylation within this complex is involved in tumor growth and survival.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA101046, R01 CA112303; NIDDK NIH HHS: P50 DK65298; PHS HHS: R3747556,

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2008;7;14;2257-67

  • Differential expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ErbB2 in nonmalignant and malignant oral keratinocytes.

    Silva SD, Cunha IW, Rangel AL, Jorge J, Zecchin KG, Agostini M, Kowalski LP, Coletta RD and Graner E

    Departament of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, Av. Limeira 901, CP 52, Areão, Piracicaba, CEP SP, Brazil.

    The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ErbB2 expression in nonmalignant oral epithelium and oral or head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC/HNSCC). Morphologically normal, hyperkeratotic, and dysplastic oral epithelium as well as well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated for FAS, ErbB2, and Ki-67. These proteins were also analyzed in a tissue microarray with 55 HNSCC. SCC-9 cells were used to study FAS and ErbB2 during differentiation. FAS expression was higher in hyperkeratosis, dysplasias, and OSCC than in normal epithelium. Well-differentiated OSCC/HNSCC were more positive for FAS than the poorly differentiated tumors. ErbB2 was observed at the surface of nonmalignant and well-differentiated OSCC/HNSCC keratinocytes and in the cytoplasm of poorly differentiated cells. Ki-67 index was progressively higher from normal oral epithelium to OSCC, inversely correlated with cell surface ErbB2, and positively correlated with intracytoplasmic ErbB2. Finally, SCC-9 cell cultures were enriched in membrane ErbB2-positive cells after differentiation by anchorage deprivation. In conclusion, FAS is overexpressed in OSCC/HNSCC and hyperkeratotic oral epithelium and ErbB2 is found at the cell surface of differentiating keratinocytes and in the cytoplasm of poorly differentiated tumor cells. Ki-67 index is higher in epithelial dysplasias and OSCC than in morphologically normal oral epithelium.

    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2008;453;1;57-67

  • Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase transcription by hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 2.

    Oem JK, Jackel-Cram C, Li YP, Zhou Y, Zhong J, Shimano H, Babiuk LA and Liu Q

    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E3, Canada.

    Transcriptional factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) activates the transcription of lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase (FAS). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often associated with lipid accumulation within the liver, known as steatosis in the clinic. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well characterized. Here, we showed that HCV non-structural protein 2 (NS2) activated SREBP-1c transcription in human hepatic Huh-7 cells as measured by using a human SREBP-1c promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. We further showed that sterol regulatory element (SRE) and liver X receptor element (LXRE) in the SREBP-1c promoter were involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV NS2. Furthermore, expression of HCV NS2 resulted in the upregulation of FAS transcription. We also showed that FAS upregulation by HCV NS2 was SREBP-1-dependent since deleting the SRE sequence in a FAS promoter and expressing a dominant-negative SREBP-1 abrogated FAS promoter upregulation by HCV NS2. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV NS2 can upregulate the transcription of SREBP-1c and FAS, and thus is probably a contributing factor for HCV-associated steatosis.

    The Journal of general virology 2008;89;Pt 5;1225-30

  • Fatty acid synthase expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: clinicopathological findings.

    Silva SD, Perez DE, Nishimoto IN, Alves FA, Pinto CA, Kowalski LP and Graner E

    Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil.

    Background: Overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the cytosolic enzyme responsible for the conversion of dietary carbohydrates to fatty acids, has been reported in several human malignancies and pointed as a potential prognostic marker for some tumors. This study investigated whether FAS immunohistochemical expression is correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    The clinical features of 102 patients with OSCC of the tongue treated in a single institution were obtained from the medical records and all histopathological diagnoses were reviewed. The expression of FAS was determined by the standard immunoperoxidase technique in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens and correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors.

    Results: Eighty-one cases (79.41%) were positive for FAS. Microscopic characteristics such as histological grade (P < 0.05), lymphatic permeation (P < 0.001), perineural infiltration (P < 0.05), and nodal metastasis (P < 0.02) were associated with FAS status. A significantly lower survival probability for patients with advanced clinical stage (log-rank test, P < 0.001), lymph nodes metastasis (log-rank test, P < 0.001), presence of vascular permeation (log-rank test, P = 0.05), and perineural invasion (log-rank test, P = 0.01) was observed in the studied samples.

    Conclusion: The expression of FAS in OSCC of the tongue is associated with the microscopic characteristics that determine disease progression and prognosis.

    Oral diseases 2008;14;4;376-82

  • The effect of dietary carbohydrate on genes for fatty acid synthase and inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissues from lean and obese subjects.

    Hudgins LC, Baday A, Hellerstein MK, Parker TS, Levine DM, Seidman CE, Neese RA, Tremaroli JD and Hirsch J

    The Rogosin Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA. hudgins@rockefeller.edu

    Background: Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) is markedly stimulated in humans by low-fat diets enriched in simple sugars. However, the dietary responsiveness of the key enzyme controlling DNL in human adipose tissue, fatty acid synthase (FAS), is uncertain.

    Hypothesis: Adipose tissue mRNA for FAS is increased in lean and obese subjects when hepatic DNL is elevated by a eucaloric, low-fat, high-sugar diet.

    Design: Twelve lean and seven obese volunteers were given two eucaloric diets (10% vs. 30% fat; 75% vs. 55% carbohydrate; sugar/starch 60/40) each for 2 weeks by a random-order cross-over design. FAS mRNA in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissues was compared to hepatic DNL measured in serum by isotopic and nonisotopic methods. Adipose tissue mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6, which are inflammatory cytokines that modulate DNL, was also assayed.

    Results: The low-fat high-sugar diet induced a 4-fold increase in maximum hepatic DNL (P<.001) but only a 1.3-fold increase in adipose tissue FAS mRNA (P=.029) and no change in cytokine mRNA. There was a borderline significant positive correlation between changes in FAS mRNA and hepatic DNL (P=.039). Compared to lean subjects, obese subjects had lower levels of FAS mRNA and higher levels of cytokine mRNA (P<.001).

    Conclusions: The results suggest that key elements of human adipose tissue DNL are less responsive to dietary carbohydrate than is hepatic DNL and may be regulated by diet-independent factors. Irrespective of diet, there is reduced expression of the FAS gene and increased expression of cytokine genes in adipose tissues of obese subjects.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 00102, M01 RR000102, M01 RR000102-390372, RR000102-390372; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 40995, P30 DK 26687, P30 DK026687, P30 DK026687-27

    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2008;19;4;237-45

  • Dietary soy protein inhibits DNA damage and cell survival of colon epithelial cells through attenuated expression of fatty acid synthase.

    Xiao R, Su Y, Simmen RC and Simmen FA

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA.

    Dietary intake of soy protein decreases tumor incidence in rat models of chemically induced colon cancer. We hypothesized that decreased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) underlies, in part, the tumor-preventive effects of soy protein, since FASN overexpression characterizes early tumorigenesis. Here, we show that colonic FASN levels are reduced with dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI), compared with a control casein diet, in male Sprague-Dawley rats administered the colon carcinogen azoxymethane. SPI consumption resulted in decreased serum insulin levels and decreased azoxymethane-induced tumor suppressor p53 phosphorylation in colon crypt epithelium. To evaluate potential links between insulin and FASN leading to DNA damage, C2(BBe)1 colon epithelial cells, treated with insulin and/or the carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), were evaluated for DNA damage and apoptosis after transfection with control or FASN small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). While the numbers of DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (biomarker of DNA damage) induced by NMU were unaffected by transfection of FASN siRNA, insulin induction of these sites was decreased with FASN knockdown. By contrast, NMU-induced apoptosis of C2(BBe)1, as well as intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-6, was enhanced by transfected FASN siRNA. Increased FASN expression in IEC-6 cells by addition of liver X receptor agonist T0901317 did not affect apurinic/apyrimidinic site number, but enhanced cell killing by cerulenin, a FASN inhibitor. Moreover, insulin rescued NMU-treated cells from apoptosis in an FASN-dependent manner. Results suggest that dietary SPI, by decreasing circulating insulin levels and colon FASN expression, attenuates insulin-induced DNA damage and FASN-mediated anti-apoptosis during carcinogenesis, resulting in an overall reduced tumorigenic state.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N02-CB-07008

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008;294;4;G868-76

  • Molecular docking study of the interactions between the thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase and its ligands.

    Cheng F, Wang Q, Chen M, Quiocho FA and Ma J

    Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA.

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) thioesterase domain (TE) is an attractive drug target to treat obesity and cancer. On the basis of the recently published crystal structure of TE domain of hFAS, we performed molecular surface analysis and docking study to characterize the molecular interactions between the enzyme and its various ligands. Surface analysis identified the ligand-binding pocket of TE domain that encompasses the catalytic triad of Ser2308, His2481, Asp2338. Docking of palmitate, the main biological product of hFAS, into this pocket revealed the ligand-binding mode, in which the hydrophobic interactions are the dominant driving forces. The catalytic mechanism of TE domain can also be well explained based on the generated TE-palmitate complex structure. Moreover, the comparison of the binding modes of five fatty acids with chain lengths ranging from 12 to 20 carbons confirmed that the ligand binding pocket of TE domain is a decisive factor in chain length specificity. In addition, docking of two known TE inhibitors, c75 and orlistat revealed the pharmacophore of these hFAS TE inhibitors, which will prove useful in structure-based drug design against this important target.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM067801, R01-GM068826

    Proteins 2008;70;4;1228-34

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Fatty acid synthase gene is up-regulated by hypoxia via activation of Akt and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1.

    Furuta E, Pai SK, Zhan R, Bandyopadhyay S, Watabe M, Mo YY, Hirota S, Hosobe S, Tsukada T, Miura K, Kamada S, Saito K, Iiizumi M, Liu W, Ericsson J and Watabe K

    Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois 62794-9626, USA.

    The fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene is significantly up-regulated in various types of cancers, and blocking the FAS expression results in apoptosis of tumor cells. Therefore, FAS is considered to be an attractive target for anticancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanism by which the FAS gene is up-regulated in tumor cells is poorly understood. We found that FAS was significantly up-regulated by hypoxia, which was also accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human breast cancer cell lines. The FAS expression was also activated by H(2)O(2), whereas N-acetyl-L-cystein, a ROS inhibitor, suppressed the expression. We also found that the hypoxia significantly up-regulated sterol regulatory-element binding protein (SREBP)-1, the major transcriptional regulator of the FAS gene, via phosphorylation of Akt followed by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Moreover, our results of reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicate that SREBP-1 strongly bound to the SREBP binding site/E-box sequence on the FAS promoter under hypoxia. In our xenograft mouse model, FAS was strongly expressed in the hypoxic regions of the tumor. In addition, our results of immunohistochemical analysis for human breast tumor specimens indicate that the expressions of both FAS and SREBP-1 were colocalized with hypoxic regions in the tumors. Furthermore, we found that hypoxia-induced chemoresistance to cyclophosphamide was partially blocked by a combination of FAS inhibitor and cyclophosphamide. Taken together, our results indicate that FAS gene is up-regulated by hypoxia via activation of the Akt and HIF1 followed by the induction of the SREBP-1 gene, and that hypoxia-induced chemoresistance is partly due to the up-regulation of FAS.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01CA124650, 1R01CA129000

    Cancer research 2008;68;4;1003-11

  • A new mechanism of drug resistance in breast cancer cells: fatty acid synthase overexpression-mediated palmitate overproduction.

    Liu H, Liu Y and Zhang JT

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Walther Oncology Center/Walther Cancer Institute and Indiana University Cancer Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

    Multidrug resistance is a major problem in successful cancer chemotherapy. Various mechanisms of resistance, such as ABC transporter-mediated drug efflux, have been discovered using established model cancer cell lines. While characterizing a drug-resistant breast cancer cell line, MCF7/AdVp3000, we found that fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed. In this study, we showed that ectopic overexpression of FASN indeed causes drug resistance and that reducing the FASN expression increased the drug sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 but not in the normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A1. Use of FASN inhibitor, Orlistat, at low concentrations also sensitized cells with FASN overexpression to anticancer drugs. The FASN-mediated drug resistance appears to be due to a decrease in drug-induced apoptosis from an overproduction of palmitic acid by FASN. Together with previous findings of FASN as a poor prognosis marker for breast cancer patients, our results suggest that FASN overexpression is a new mechanism of drug resistance and may be an ideal target for chemosensitization in breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA120221, CA94961

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2008;7;2;263-70

  • Overexpression of fatty acid synthase gene activates HER1/HER2 tyrosine kinase receptors in human breast epithelial cells.

    Vazquez-Martin A, Colomer R, Brunet J, Lupu R and Menendez JA

    Catalan Institute of Oncology, Health Services Division of Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain.

    Objectives: More than 50 years ago, we learned that breast cancer cells (and those of many other types of tumour) endogenously synthesize 95% of fatty acids (FAs) de novo, despite having adequate nutritional lipid supply. Today, we know that breast cancer cells benefit from this phenomenon in terms of enhanced cell proliferation, survival, chemoresistance and metastasis. However, the exact role of the major lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) as cause, correlate or facilitator of breast cancer remains unidentified.

    To evaluate a causal effect of FASN-catalysed endogenous FA biosynthesis in the natural history of breast cancer disease, HBL100 cells (an SV40-transformed in vitro model for near-normal gene expression in the breast epithelium), and MCF10A cells (a non-transformed, near diploid, spontaneously immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line) were acutely forced to overexpress the human FASN gene.

    Results: Following transient transfection with plasmid pCMV6-XL4 carrying full-length human FASN cDNA (gi: NM 004104), HBL100 cells enhanced their endogenous lipid synthesis while acquiring canonical oncogenic properties such as increased size and number of colonies in semisolid (i.e. soft-agar) anchorage-independent cultures. Anchorage-dependent cell proliferation assays in low serum (0.1% foetal bovine serum), MTT-based assessment of cell metabolic status and cell death ELISA-based detection of apoptosis-induced DNA-histone fragmentation, together revealed that sole activation of endogenous FA biosynthesis was sufficient to significantly enhance breast epithelial cell proliferation and survival. When analysing molecular mechanisms by which acute activation of de novo FA biosynthesis triggered a transformed phenotype, HBL100 cells, transiently transfected with pCMV6-XL4/FASN, were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in the number of phosphor-tyrosine (Tyr)-containing proteins, as detected by 4G10 antiphosphor-Tyr monoclonal antibody. Phosphor-Tyr-specific antibodies recognizing the phosphorylation status of either the 1173 Tyr residue of epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) or the 1248 Tyr residue of HER2, further revealed that FASN-induced Tyr-phosphorylation at approximately 180 kDa region mainly represented that of these key members of the HER (erbB) network, which remained switched-off in mock-transfected HBL100 cells. ELISA and immunoblotting procedures demonstrated that FASN overactivation significantly increased (> 200%) expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 proteins in HBL100 cells. Proteome Profilertrade mark antibody arrays capable of simultaneously detecting relative levels of phosphorylation of 42 phospho-receptor Tyr-kinases (RTKs) confirmed that acute activation of endogenous FA biosynthesis specifically promoted hyper-Tyr-phosphorylation of HER1 and HER2 in MCF10A cells. This FASN-triggered HER1/HER2-breast cancer-like phenotype was specifically inhibitable either by FASN inhibitor C75 or by Tyr-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib (Iressa) and lapatinib (Tykerb) but not by chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. Transient overexpression of FASN dramatically increased HBL100 breast epithelial cells' sensitivity to cytotoxic effects of C75, gefitinib and lapatinib (approximately 8, 10 and > 15 times, respectively), while significantly decreasing (approximately 3 times) cisplatin efficacy.

    Conclusions: Although we cannot definitely establish FASN as a novel oncogene in breast cancer, this study reveals for the first time that exacerbated endogenous FA biosynthesis in non-cancerous epithelial cells is sufficient to induce a cancer-like phenotype functionally dependent on the HER1/HER2 duo. These findings may perhaps radically amend our current perspective of endogenously synthesized fat, as on its own, it appears to actively increase signal-to-noise ratio in the HER1/HER2-driven progression of human breast epithelial cells towards malignancy.

    Cell proliferation 2008;41;1;59-85

  • The human fatty acid synthase: a new therapeutic target for coxsackievirus B3-induced diseases?

    Rassmann A, Henke A, Jarasch N, Lottspeich F, Saluz HP and Munder T

    Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans-Knoell-Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, D-07745 Jena, Germany.

    Coxsackievirus is linked to a large variety of severe human and animal diseases such as myocarditis. The interplay between host factors and virus components is crucial for the fate of the infected cells. However, host proteins which may play a role in coxsackievirus-induced diseases are ill-defined. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts obtained from coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected and uninfected HeLa or HepG2 cells combined with spot analysis revealed several proteins which are exclusively up-regulated in infected cells. One of these proteins was identified as the fatty acid synthase (FAS). By using cerulenin and C75, two known inhibitors of FAS we were able to significantly block CVB3 replication. FAS appears to be directly involved in CVB3-caused pathology and is therefore suitable as a therapeutic target in CVB3-induced diseases.

    Antiviral research 2007;76;2;150-8

  • Mechanism and substrate recognition of human holo ACP synthase.

    Bunkoczi G, Pasta S, Joshi A, Wu X, Kavanagh KL, Smith S and Oppermann U

    Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.

    Mammals utilize a single phosphopantetheinyl transferase for the posttranslational modification of at least three different apoproteins: the carrier protein components of cytosolic and mitochondrial fatty acid synthases and the aminoadipate semialdehyde reductase involved in lysine degradation. We determined the crystal structure of the human phosphopantetheinyl transferase, a eukaryotic phosphopantetheinyl transferase characterized, complexed with CoA and Mg(2+), and in ternary complex with CoA and ACP. The involvement of key residues in ligand binding and catalysis was confirmed by mutagenesis and kinetic analysis. Human phosphopantetheinyl transferase exhibits an alpha/beta fold and 2-fold pseudosymmetry similar to the Sfp phosphopantetheinyl transferase from Bacillus subtilis. Although the bound ACP exhibits a typical four-helix structure, its binding is unusual in that it is facilitated predominantly by hydrophobic interactions. A detailed mechanism is proposed describing the substrate binding and catalytic process.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK16073, R01 DK016073; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM069717, R01 GM069717; Wellcome Trust

    Chemistry & biology 2007;14;11;1243-53

  • Up-regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and fatty acid synthase by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 at the translational level in breast cancer cells.

    Yoon S, Lee MY, Park SW, Moon JS, Koh YK, Ahn YH, Park BW and Kim KS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Genetic Science, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, Seoul, Korea.

    Expression of the HER2 oncogene is increased in approximately 30% of human breast carcinomas and is closely correlated with the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN). In the present study, we determined the mechanism by which FASN and acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACCalpha) could be induced by HER2 overexpression. SK-BR-3 and BT-474 cells, breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2, expressed higher levels of FASN and ACCalpha compared with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in which HER2 expression is low. The induction of FASN and ACCalpha in BT474 cells were not mediated by the activation of SREBP-1. Exogenous HER2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells induced the expression of FASN and ACCalpha, and the HER2-mediated increase in ACCalpha and FASN was inhibited by both LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, and rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. In addition, the activation of mTOR by the overexpression of RHEB in MDA-MB-231 cells increased the synthetic rates of both FASN and ACCalpha. On the other hand, FASN and ACCalpha were reduced in BT-474 cells by a blockade of the mTOR signaling pathway. These changes observed in their protein levels were not accompanied by changes in their mRNA levels. The 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of both FASN and ACCalpha mRNAs were involved in selective translational induction that was mediated by mTOR signal transduction. These results strongly suggest that the major mechanism of HER2-mediated induction of FASN and ACCalpha in the breast cancer cells used in this study is translational regulation primarily through the mTOR signaling pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;36;26122-31

  • Crystal structure of the thioesterase domain of human fatty acid synthase inhibited by Orlistat.

    Pemble CW, Johnson LC, Kridel SJ and Lowther WT

    Center for Structural Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    Human fatty acid synthase (FAS) is uniquely expressed at high levels in many tumor types. Pharmacological inhibition of FAS therefore represents an important therapeutic opportunity. The drug Orlistat, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, inhibits FAS, induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and inhibits the growth of prostate tumor xenografts. We determined the 2.3-A-resolution crystal structure of the thioesterase domain of FAS inhibited by Orlistat. Orlistat was captured in the active sites of two thioesterase molecules as a stable acyl-enzyme intermediate and as the hydrolyzed product. The details of these interactions reveal the molecular basis for inhibition and suggest a mechanism for acyl-chain length discrimination during the FAS catalytic cycle. Our findings provide a foundation for the development of new cancer drugs that target FAS.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA114104

    Nature structural & molecular biology 2007;14;8;704-9

  • Fatty acid synthase gene expression in human adipose tissue: association with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Berndt J, Kovacs P, Ruschke K, Klöting N, Fasshauer M, Schön MR, Körner A, Stumvoll M and Blüher M

    Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, Ph.-Rosenthal-Str. 27, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

    Increased expression and activity of the lipogenic pathways in adipose tissue may contribute to the development of obesity. As a central enzyme in lipogenesis, the gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FASN) was identified as a candidate gene for determining body fat. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased FASN expression links metabolic alterations of excess energy intake, including hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia and altered adipokine profile to increased body fat mass.

    In paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from 196 participants (lean or obese), we investigated whether FASN mRNA expression (assessed by PCR) in adipose tissue is increased in obesity and related to visceral fat accumulation, measures of insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp) and glucose metabolism.

    Results: FASN mRNA expression was increased by 1.7-fold in visceral vs subcutaneous fat. Visceral adipose tissue FASN expression was correlated with FASN protein levels, subcutaneous FASN expression, visceral fat area, fasting plasma insulin, serum concentrations of IL-6, leptin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity, independently of age, sex and BMI. Moreover, we found significant correlations between FASN expression and markers of renal function, including serum creatinine and urinary albumin excretion.

    Increased FASN gene expression in adipose tissue is linked to visceral fat accumulation, impaired insulin sensitivity, increased circulating fasting insulin, IL-6, leptin and RBP4, suggesting an important role of lipogenic pathways in the causal relationship between consequences of excess energy intake and the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Diabetologia 2007;50;7;1472-80

  • Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase promoter by hepatitis C virus core protein: genotype-3a core has a stronger effect than genotype-1b core.

    Jackel-Cram C, Babiuk LA and Liu Q

    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Hepatitis C virus genotype-3a (HCV-3a) is directly linked to steatosis development. We studied the effects of HCV-3a core protein on the promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a major enzyme involved in de novo lipid synthesis.

    HCV-3a and -1b core genes were cloned and expressed. Using a FAS promoter-luciferase reporter, we demonstrated that both HCV-3a and -1b core proteins up-regulated the FAS promoter. However, HCV-3a core protein expression induced significantly higher FAS promoter activity than HCV-1b core. We further showed that FAS up-regulation by HCV core was dependent on transcription factor sterol response element binding protein-1. Mutational analysis showed that processing of HCV core protein of different genotypes was differentially involved in FAS promoter up-regulation. Although lipid droplet localization of HCV core protein was not important for FAS up-regulation, a specific amino acid residue (Phe(164)) within the FATG lipid droplet localization sequence of HCV-3a core protein played a major role in the stronger FAS activation by HCV-3a core.

    Conclusions: The stronger effect of HCV-3a core protein on FAS activation in comparison to HCV-1b core could contribute to the higher prevalence and severity of steatosis in HCV-3a infections.

    Journal of hepatology 2007;46;6;999-1008

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Identifying leukocyte gene expression patterns associated with plasma lipid levels in human subjects.

    Ma J, Dempsey AA, Stamatiou D, Marshall KW and Liew CC

    ChondroGene, Inc., 800 Petrolia Road, Unit 15, Toronto, Ont., Canada M3J 3K4.

    Plasma lipid levels have been known to be risk factors for atherosclerosis for decades, and in recent years it has become accepted that inflammation is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma lipids and leukocytes by profiling and analyzing leukocyte gene expression in response to plasma lipid levels. We discovered several interesting patterns of leukocyte gene expression: (1) the expression of a number of immune response- and inflammation-related genes are correlated with plasma lipid levels; (2) genes involved in lipid metabolism and in the electron transport chain were positively correlated with triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels, and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels; (3) genes involved in platelet activation were negatively correlated with HDL levels; (4) transcription factors regulating lipogenesis-related genes were correlated with plasma lipid levels; (5) a number of genes correlated with plasma lipid levels were found to be located in the regions of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with hyperlipemia. Our findings suggest that leukocytes respond to changing plasma lipid levels by regulating a network of genes, including genes involved in immune response, and lipid and fatty acid metabolism.

    Atherosclerosis 2007;191;1;63-72

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • The lipogenic enzymes DGAT1, FAS, and LPL in adipose tissue: effects of obesity, insulin resistance, and TZD treatment.

    Ranganathan G, Unal R, Pokrovskaya I, Yao-Borengasser A, Phanavanh B, Lecka-Czernik B, Rasouli N and Kern PA

    Central Arkansas Veterans HealthCare System, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. ranganathangouri@uams.edu

    Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol transferase (DGAT), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and LPL are three enzymes important in adipose tissue triglyceride accumulation. To study the relationship of DGAT1, FAS, and LPL with insulin, we examined adipose mRNA expression of these genes in subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (SI). DGAT1 and FAS (but not LPL) expression were strongly correlated with SI. In addition, the expression of DGAT1 and FAS (but not LPL) were higher in normal glucose-tolerant subjects compared with subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (P < 0.005). To study the effects of insulin sensitizers, subjects with IGT were treated with pioglitazone or metformin for 10 weeks, and lipogenic enzymes were measured in adipose tissue. After pioglitazone treatment, DGAT1 expression was increased by 33 +/- 10% (P < 0.05) and FAS expression increased by 63 +/- 8% (P < 0.05); however, LPL expression was not altered. DGAT1, FAS, and LPL mRNA expression were not significantly changed after metformin treatment. The treatment of mice with rosiglitazone also resulted in an increase in adipose expression of DGAT1 by 2- to 3-fold, as did the treatment of 3T3 F442A adipocytes in vitro with thiazolidinediones. These data support a more global concept suggesting that adipose lipid storage functions to prevent peripheral lipotoxicity.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR-14288, M01 RR014288; NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG017482; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-39176, DK-71277, R01 DK039176, R01 DK071277, R37 DK039176

    Journal of lipid research 2006;47;11;2444-50

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Tamoxifen-induced anorexia is associated with fatty acid synthase inhibition in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and accumulation of malonyl-CoA.

    López M, Lelliott CJ, Tovar S, Kimber W, Gallego R, Virtue S, Blount M, Vázquez MJ, Finer N, Powles TJ, O'Rahilly S, Saha AK, Diéguez C and Vidal-Puig AJ

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QR, U.K.

    Fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus has recently been shown to regulate feeding. The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TMX) exerts a potent anorectic effect. Here, we show that the anorectic effect of TMX is associated with the accumulation of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus and inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN). Furthermore, we demonstrate that FAS mRNA expression is physiologically regulated by fasting and refeeding in the VMN but not in other hypothalamic nuclei. Thus, the VMN appears to be the hypothalamic site where regulation of FAS and feeding converge. Supporting the potential clinical relevance of these observations, reanalysis of a primary breast cancer prevention study showed that obese women treated with TMX gained significantly less body weight over a 6-year period than obese women given placebo. The finding that TMX can modulate appetite through alterations in FAS expression and malonyl-CoA levels suggests a link between hypothalamic sex steroid receptors, fatty acid metabolism, and feeding behavior.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0400192, G9824984; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 19514; Wellcome Trust

    Diabetes 2006;55;5;1327-36

  • The fatty acid synthase gene is a conserved p53 family target from worm to human.

    D'Erchia AM, Tullo A, Lefkimmiatis K, Saccone C and Sbisà E

    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare Ernesto Quagliariello, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy. annamaria.derchia@biologia.uniba.it

    The discovery that the p53 family consists of three members (p53, p63 and p73) in vertebrates and of a single homolog in invertebrates has raised the challenge of understanding the functions of the ancestor and how they have evolved and differentiated within the duplicated genes in vertebrates. Here, we report that the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene, encoding for a key enzyme involved in the biogenesis of membrane lipids in rapidly proliferating cells, is a conserved target of the p53 family throughout the evolution. We show that CEP-1, the C. elegans p53 homolog, is able to bind the two p53 family responsive elements (REs) identified in the worm fasn-1 gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that fasn-1 expression is modulated by CEP-1 in vivo, by comparing wild-type and CEP-1 knockout worms. In human, luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that TAp73alpha and DeltaNp63alpha, but not p53, TAp73beta and TAp63alpha bind the two p53 REs of the human FASN gene. We show that the ectopic expression of TAp73alpha and DeltaNp63alpha leads to an increase of FASN mRNA levels, while their silencing produces a decrease of FASN expression. Furthermore, we present data showing a correlation between DeltaNp63alpha and FASN expression in cellular proliferation. Of relevant importance is that fasn-1 is the first CEP-1 direct target gene identified so far in C. elegans and our results suggest a new CEP-1 role in cellular proliferation and development, besides the one already described in apoptosis of germ cells. These data confirm the hypothesis that the ancestral functions of the single invertebrate gene may have been spread out among the three vertebrate members, each of them have acquired specific role in cell cycle regulation.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2006;5;7;750-8

  • Fatty acid synthase hyperactivation in human colorectal cancer: relationship with tumor side and sex.

    Notarnicola M, Altomare DF, Calvani M, Orlando A, Bifulco M, D'Attoma B and Caruso MG

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Institute for Digestive Diseases S. de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Italy.

    Objective: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a multienzyme protein required for the conversion of acetyl coenzyme A and malonyl coenzyme A to palpitate. High levels of FAS expression have been found in many human cancers, including breast, prostate and colon. In this study, we evaluated FAS activity levels and the expression of its mRNA in normal colorectal mucosa and cancer tissue from patients operated for colorectal carcinoma. In addition, the hypothesis of a relation between FAS activity and p53 mutation status of patients was tested.

    Methods: Forty-two patients were enrolled in the study. FAS activity was measured by using a radiometric assay. FAS gene expression was determined using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and p53 mutations by polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Results: FAS activity levels were significantly higher in cancer than in the corresponding normal mucosa. Tumors located on the left side of the colon showed higher levels of FAS activity and tumors from male patients showed higher FAS activity than tumors from females. No difference was detected in mRNA FAS levels according to tumor side and gender. Moreover, lower levels of FAS activity were detected in patients carrying the p53 mutation.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that biological factors including sex and gene mutation status, as well as stratification of patients with colorectal cancer into right- and left-sided subsets, may be important in patient selection for targeted therapies and for the subsequent assessment of objective therapeutic responses.

    Oncology 2006;71;5-6;327-32

  • Substrate recognition by the human fatty-acid synthase.

    Carlisle-Moore L, Gordon CR, Machutta CA, Miller WT and Tonge PJ

    Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400, USA.

    The human fatty-acid synthase (HFAS) is a potential target for anti-tumor drug discovery. As a prelude to the design of compounds that target the enoyl reductase (ER) component of HFAS, the recognition of NADPH and exogenous substrates by the ER active site has been investigated. Previous studies demonstrate that modification of Lys-1699 by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate results in a specific decrease in ER activity. For the overall HFAS reaction, the K1699A and K1699Q mutations reduced kcat and kcat/KNADPH by 8- and 600-fold, respectively (where KNADPH indicates the Km value for NADPH). Thus, Lys-1699 contributes 4 kcal/mol to stabilization of the rate-limiting transition state following NADPH binding, while also stabilizing the most stable ground state after NADPH binding by 3 kcal/mol. A similar effect of the mutations on the ER partial reaction was observed, in agreement with the proposal that Lys-1699 is located in the ER NADPH-binding site. Most unexpectedly, however, both kcat and kcat/KNADPH for the beta-ketoacyl reductase (BKR) reaction were also impacted by the Lys-1699 mutations, raising the possibility that the ER and BKR activities share a single active site. However, based on previous data indicating that the two reductase activities utilize distinct cofactor binding sites, mutagenesis of Lys-1699 is hypothesized to modulate BKR activity via allosteric effects between the ER and BKR NADPH sites.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA058530-12, R01 CA058530, R01 CA058530-12; NIAID NIH HHS: AIA44639, R01 AI044639, R21 AI044639

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;52;42612-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Fatty acid synthase expression in Paget's disease of the vulva.

    Alo PL, Galati GM, Sebastiani V, Ricci F, Visca P, Mariani L, Romagnoli F, Lombardi G and Tondo UD

    Department of Experimental Pathology and Medicine, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy. pieroluigi.alo@uniroma1.it

    We explored the immunohistochemical expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in Paget's disease of the vulva (PDV) and its association with clinico-pathological features. FAS is a recently discovered molecule involved in energy supply of normal cells. FAS is also overexpressed in neoplastic tissues because of their increased necessity of energy. Specimens from 20 patients with PDV were immunohistochemically evaluated; increased FAS expression was observed in 7 of 8 patients with invasive PDV (87%), in 3 of 4 patients with microinvasive PDV (75%), and in 1 of 8 patients with noninvasive PDV (12%). Statistical analysis revealed that increased FAS expression was associated with invasive PDV (p = 0.04). To our knowledge, this association of FAS in PDV is the first to be reported in literature. These observations reveal that FAS is a reliable marker of aggressiveness in PDV. The knowledge of FAS statistical association in invasive PDV is an important finding that may stratify these patients in different prognostic groups and determine therapeutic approaches for patient care.

    International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 2005;24;4;404-8

  • FAS expression inversely correlates with PTEN level in prostate cancer and a PI 3-kinase inhibitor synergizes with FAS siRNA to induce apoptosis.

    Bandyopadhyay S, Pai SK, Watabe M, Gross SC, Hirota S, Hosobe S, Tsukada T, Miura K, Saito K, Markwell SJ, Wang Y, Huggenvik J, Pauza ME, Iiizumi M and Watabe K

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62702, USA.

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a key enzyme of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, has been shown to be overexpressed in various types of human cancer and is, therefore, considered to be an attractive target for anticancer therapy. However, the exact mechanism of overexpression of the FAS gene in tumor cells is not well understood. In this report, we demonstrate that the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN has a significant inverse correlation with FAS expression in the case of prostate cancer in the clinical setting, and inhibition of the PTEN gene leads to the overexpression of FAS in vitro. We also found that the combination of the expression status of these two genes is a better prognostic marker than either gene alone. Furthermore, our results indicate that the specific inhibition of FAS gene by siRNA leads to apoptosis of prostate tumor cells, and inhibition of PI 3-kinase pathway synergizes with FAS siRNA to enhance tumor cell death. These results provide a strong rationale for exploring the therapeutic use of an inhibitor of the PTEN signaling pathway in conjunction with the FAS siRNA to inhibit prostate tumor growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5R01CA89438; PHS HHS: 1R15V50079473

    Oncogene 2005;24;34;5389-95

  • Does endogenous fatty acid metabolism allow cancer cells to sense hypoxia and mediate hypoxic vasodilatation? Characterization of a novel molecular connection between fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha)-related expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer cells overexpressing her-2/neu oncogene.

    Menendez JA, Vellon L, Oza BP and Lupu R

    Department of Medicine, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Research Institute, 1001 University Place, Evanston, IL 60201, USA. jmemendez@enh.org

    Her-2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene overexpression is associated with increased tumor progression and metastasis. Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the key lipogenic enzyme responsible for the endogenous synthesis of fatty acids, has been shown to be one of the genes regulated by Her-2/neu at the level of transcription, translation, and biosynthetic activity. Interestingly, we recently established that both pharmacological inhibition of FAS activity and silencing of FAS gene expression specifically suppress Her-2/neu oncoprotein expression and tyrosine-kinase activity in breast and ovarian Her-2/neu overexpressors. Unraveling the functional organization of this novel bi-directional molecular connection between Her-2/neu and FAS-dependent neoplastic lipogenesis is a major challenge that the field is only beginning to take on. Considering that Her-2/neu overexpression correlates with increased expression of the hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which, in a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner, plays a key role in the expression of several genes including cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we hypothesized that FAS blockade should result in a concomitant down-regulation of VEGF. Unexpectedly, the specific inhibition of the de novo fatty acid synthesis with the small-molecule inhibitor of FAS activity C75 resulted in a dramatic dose-dependent enhancement (up to 500% increase) of VEGF secretion in Her-2/neu-overexpressing SK-Br3, BT-474, and SKOV3 cancer cells. Concurrently, FAS blockade drastically activated MAPK and promoted further a prominent accumulation of HIF-1alpha in Her-2/neu overexpressors. Moreover, U0126-induced inhibition of MAPK activity completely abolished C75-induced up-regulation of HIF-1alpha expression and VEGF secretion, whereas it did not modulate C75-induced down-regulation of Her-2/neu oncogene. Importantly, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the FAS gene recapitulated C75's effects by up-regulating VEGF secretion, MAPK activation and HIF-1alpha expression. Therefore, it appears that perturbation of cancer-associated endogenous fatty metabolism triggers a "hypoxia-like" (oxygen-independent) condition that actively rescues Her-2/neu-dependent MAPK --> HIP-1alpha --> VEGF cascade. It is tempting to suggest that an intact FAS-catalyzed endogenous fatty acid metabolism is a necessary metabolic adaptation to support the enhanced ability of Her-2/neu-overexpressing cancer cells to survive cellular hypoxia in a HIF-alpha-dependent manner.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2005;94;5;857-63

  • In support of fatty acid synthase (FAS) as a metabolic oncogene: extracellular acidosis acts in an epigenetic fashion activating FAS gene expression in cancer cells.

    Menendez JA, Decker JP and Lupu R

    Department of Medicine, Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Research Institute, Evanston, Illinois 60201, USA. javiermenendez72@yahoo.com

    Relatively little information exists on the ultimate molecular mechanisms by which the lipogenic enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) is differentially overexpressed in a biologically aggressive subset of human malignancies. Since the microenvironment of solid tumors contains regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity, it has recently been suggested that cancer-associated FAS is a novel metabolic oncogene conferring a selective growth advantage upon stresses such as hypoxia and/or low pH. Here, we performed transient transfection studies with a 178-bp FAS promoter fragment harboring a complex Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBP)-binding site to evaluate whether extracellular low pH and/or hypoxia may act in an epigenetic fashion by inducing changes in the transcriptional activation of FAS gene in cancer cells. First, MCF-7 breast cancer cells cultured in acidosis (pH 6.5), but not under hypoxia or in the presence of hypoxia mimetics, demonstrated a more than two-fold increase in the transcriptional activity of FAS promoter-reporter constructs compared with control cells grown under standard culture conditions (pH 7.4). Second, the up-regulatory effect of extracellular acidosis on the transcriptional activation of FAS gene was not observed when the FAS promoter was truncated at the SREBP-binding site. Third, MCF-7 cells engineered to overexpress the Her-2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene exhibited a SREBP-dependent activation of the FAS promoter-reporter construct up to three-fold higher than that found in wild-type MCF-7 cells, while extracellular acidosis resulted only in a marginal increase of Her-2/neu-promoted activation of FAS gene. This study reveals for the first time that extracellular acidosis can work in an epigenetic fashion by up-regulating the transcriptional expression of FAS gene in breast cancer cells, a stimulatory effect that is equally mimicked by well-characterized oncogenic stimuli such as Her-2/neu. These findings, altogether, support the "metabolic oncogene" theory for FAS overexpression in cancer cells.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2005;94;1;1-4

  • Human fatty acid synthase: structure and substrate selectivity of the thioesterase domain.

    Chakravarty B, Gu Z, Chirala SS, Wakil SJ and Quiocho FA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Human fatty acid synthase is a large homodimeric multifunctional enzyme that synthesizes palmitic acid. The unique carboxyl terminal thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase hydrolyzes the growing fatty acid chain and plays a critical role in regulating the chain length of fatty acid released. Also, the up-regulation of human fatty acid synthase in a variety of cancer makes the thioesterase a candidate target for therapeutic treatment. The 2.6-A resolution structure of human fatty acid synthase thioesterase domain reported here is comprised of two dissimilar subdomains, A and B. The smaller subdomain B is composed entirely of alpha-helices arranged in an atypical fold, whereas the A subdomain is a variation of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold. The structure revealed the presence of a hydrophobic groove with a distal pocket at the interface of the two subdomains, which constitutes the candidate substrate binding site. The length and largely hydrophobic nature of the groove and pocket are consistent with the high selectivity of the thioesterase for palmitoyl acyl substrate. The structure also set the identity of the Asp residue of the catalytic triad of Ser, His, and Asp located in subdomain A at the proximal end of the groove.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM 068826, R01 GM068826

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;44;15567-72

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Inhibition of tumor-associated fatty acid synthase activity enhances vinorelbine (Navelbine)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells.

    Menendez JA, Colomer R and Lupu R

    Department of Medicine, Evanston Northwestern Research Institute, Evanston, IL 60201, USA.

    The lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) is differentially overexpressed and hyperactivated in a biologically aggressive subset of breast carcinomas and minimally in most normal adult tissues, rendering it an interesting target for anti-neoplastic therapy development. Current trends in the treatment of human breast cancer are with drug combinations that result in improved responses as well as the ability to use less toxic concentrations of the drugs. Here, we envisioned that combinations of conventional chemotherapeutic agents with novel compounds directed against breast cancer-associated FAS hyperactivity may provide increased efficacy over existing therapy for human breast cancer. Specifically, we examined the ability of the mycotoxin cerulenin, a potent and non-competitive inhibitor of FAS activity, to enhance the cytotoxic effects of vinorelbine (Navelbine), a derivative of vinca alkaloid that interferes with tubulin assembly and exhibits activity against metastatic breast cancer. SK-Br3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines were employed as models of high, moderate and low levels of FAS ('cerulenin-target'), respectively. Combinations of cerulenin with vinorelbine were tested for synergism, additivity or antagonism using the isobologram and the median-effect plot (Chou-Talalay) analyses. Breast cancer cells were either simultaneously exposed to cerulenin and vinorelbine for 24 h or sequentially to cerulenin for 24 h followed by vinorelbine for 24 h. Concurrent exposure to cerulenin and vinorelbine resulted in synergistic interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, while additivity was found in SK-Br3 cells. Sequencing cerulenin followed by vinorelbine resulted in synergism for SK-Br3 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas it showed additive effects in MCF-7 cells. FAS activity blockade was found to synergistically enhance apoptosis-inducing activity of vinorelbine, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for histone-associated DNA fragments. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating that breast cancer-associated FAS is playing an active role in human breast cancer chemosensitivity. We suggest that pharmacological inhibition of FAS activity is a novel molecular approach to enhance the cytotoxic effects of existing chemotherapeutic agents in human breast cancer.

    Oncology reports 2004;12;2;411-22

  • Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) suppresses HER2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene overexpression in cancer cells.

    Menendez JA, Vellon L, Mehmi I, Oza BP, Ropero S, Colomer R and Lupu R

    Department of Medicine, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, 1001 University Place, Evanston, IL 60201, USA.

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity is a potential therapeutic target to treat cancer and obesity. Here, we have identified a molecular link between FAS and HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene, a marker for poor prognosis that is overexpressed in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. Pharmacological FAS inhibitors cerulenin and C75 were found to suppress p185(HER2) oncoprotein expression and tyrosine-kinase activity in breast and ovarian HER2 overexpressors. Similarly, p185(HER2) expression was dramatically down-regulated when FAS gene expression was silenced by using the highly sequence-specific mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi). Pharmacological and RNAi-mediated silencing of FAS specifically down-regulated HER2 mRNA and, concomitantly, caused a prominent up-regulation of PEA3, a transcriptional repressor of HER2. A cytoplasmic redistribution of p185(HER2) was associated with marked morphological changes of FAS RNAi-transfected cells, whereas chemical inhibitors of FAS promoted a striking nuclear accumulation of p185(HER2). The simultaneous targeting of FAS and HER2 by chemical FAS inhibitors and the humanized antibody directed against p185(HER2) trastuzumab, respectively, was synergistically cytotoxic toward HER2 overexpressors. Similarly, concurrent RNAi-mediated silencing of FAS and HER2 genes synergistically stimulated apoptotic cell death in HER2 overexpressors. p185(HER2) was synergistically down-regulated after simultaneous inhibition of FAS and HER2 by either pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNA. These findings provide evidence of an active role of FAS in cancer evolution by specifically regulating oncogenic proteins closely related to malignant transformation, strongly suggesting that HER2 oncogene may act as the key molecular sensor of energy imbalance after the perturbation of tumor-associated FAS hyperactivity in cancer cells.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;29;10715-20

  • A novel missense substitution (Val1483Ile) in the fatty acid synthase gene (FAS) is associated with percentage of body fat and substrate oxidation rates in nondiabetic Pima Indians.

    Kovacs P, Harper I, Hanson RL, Infante AM, Bogardus C, Tataranni PA and Baier LJ

    Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA.

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces a rapid decline in fat stores in mice, suggesting a role for this enzyme in energy homeostasis. The human FAS gene (FAS) maps to chromosome 17q25, a region previously shown to have suggestive linkage to adiposity in a genome-wide linkage scan for genetic determinants of obesity in Pima Indians. To investigate the potential role of FAS in the pathophysiology of human obesity, the FAS gene was sequenced and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Five representative SNPs were genotyped in 216 full-blooded, nondiabetic Pima Indians for association analyses. A Val1483Ile polymorphism (GTC to ATC; allele frequency of A = 0.10) was associated with percentage of body fat and 24-h substrate oxidation rates measured in a respiratory chamber. Compared with homozygotes for the Val variant, subjects with Ile/x had a lower mean percentage of body fat (30 +/- 1 vs. 33 +/- 1%, P = 0.002; adjusted for age, sex, and family membership) and a lower mean carbohydrate oxidation rate (983 +/- 41 vs. 1,094 +/- 19 kcal/day, P = 0.03), which resulted in a lower mean 24-h respiratory quotient (0.845 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.850 +/- 0.01 kcal/day, P = 0.04; both adjusted for age, sex, family membership, percentage of body fat, and energy balance). Our findings indicate that the Val1483Ile substitution in FAS is protective against obesity in Pima Indians, an effect possibly explained by the role of this gene in the regulation of substrate oxidation.

    Diabetes 2004;53;7;1915-9

  • The human fatty acid synthase gene and de novo lipogenesis are coordinately regulated in human adipose tissue.

    Wang Y, Jones Voy B, Urs S, Kim S, Soltani-Bejnood M, Quigley N, Heo YR, Standridge M, Andersen B, Dhar M, Joshi R, Wortman P, Taylor JW, Chun J, Leuze M, Claycombe K, Saxton AM and Moustaid-Moussa N

    Department of Nutrition and Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1920,USA.

    Despite its potential importance in obesity and related disorders, little is known about regulation of lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. To investigate this area at the molecular and mechanistic levels, we studied lipogenesis and the regulation of 1 of its core enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FAS), in human adipose tissue in response to hormonal and nutritional manipulation. As a paradigm for lipogenic genes, we cloned the upstream region of the human FAS gene, compared its sequence to that of FAS orthologs from other species, and identified important regulatory elements that lie upstream of the FAS coding region. Lipogenesis, as assessed by glucose incorporation into lipids, was increased by insulin and more so by the combination of insulin and dexamethasone (Dex, a potent glucocorticoid analogue). In parallel, FAS expression, activity, and gene transcription rate were also significantly increased by these treatments. We also showed that linoleic acid, a representative PUFA, attenuated the actions of insulin and Dex on fatty acid and lipid synthesis as well as FAS activity and expression. Using reporter assays, we determined that the regions responsible for hormonal regulation of the FAS gene lie in the proximal portion of the gene's 5'-flanking region, within which we identified an insulin response element similar to the E-box sequence we identified previously in the rat FAS gene. In summary, we demonstrated that lipogenesis occurs in human adipose tissue and can be induced by insulin, further enhanced by glucocorticoids, and suppressed by PUFA in a hormone-dependent manner.

    The Journal of nutrition 2004;134;5;1032-8

  • Fatty acid synthase expression is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein BRLF1 and is required for lytic viral gene expression.

    Li Y, Webster-Cyriaque J, Tomlinson CC, Yohe M and Kenney S

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early (IE) protein BRLF1 (R) is a transcription factor that induces the lytic form of EBV infection. R activates certain early viral promoters through a direct binding mechanism but induces transcription of the other EBV IE gene, BZLF1 (Z), indirectly through cellular factors binding to a CRE motif in the Z promoter (Zp). Here we demonstrate that R activates expression of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) cellular gene through a p38 stress mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. B-cell receptor engagement of Akata cells also increases FAS expression. The FAS gene product is required for de novo synthesis of the palmitate fatty acid, and high-level FAS expression is normally limited to liver, brain, lung, and adipose tissue. We show that human epithelial tongue cells lytically infected with EBV (from oral hairy leukoplakia lesions) express much more FAS than uninfected cells. Two specific FAS inhibitors, cerulenin and C75, prevent R activation of IE (Z) and early (BMRF1) lytic EBV proteins in Jijoye cells. In addition, cerulenin and C75 dramatically attenuate IE and early lytic gene expression after B-cell receptor engagement in Akata cells and constitutive lytic viral gene expression in EBV-positive AGS cells. However, FAS inhibitors do not reduce lytic viral gene expression induced by a vector in which the Z gene product is driven by a strong heterologous promoter. In addition, FAS inhibitors do not reduce R activation of a naked DNA reporter gene construct driven by the Z promoter (Zp). These results suggest that cellular FAS activity is important for induction of Z transcription from the intact latent EBV genome, perhaps reflecting the involvement of lipid-derived signaling pathways or palmitoylated proteins. Furthermore, using FAS inhibitors may be a completely novel approach for blocking the lytic form of EBV replication.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2-R01-CA58853, P01 CA019014, P01-CA19014, R01 CA058853

    Journal of virology 2004;78;8;4197-206

  • Fatty acid synthase: a metabolic oncogene in prostate cancer?

    Baron A, Migita T, Tang D and Loda M

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    In 1920, Warburg suggested that tumors consistently rely on anaerobic pathways to convert glucose to ATP even in the presence of abundant oxygen [Warberg, 1956] despite the fact that it is less efficient for energy supply than aerobic glycolysis. The reasons for this remain obscure to date. More often than not, the microenvironment of solid tumors contains regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity. In this context hypoxia can act in an epigenetic fashion, inducing changes in gene expression and in metabolism for survival. It is reasonable to assume that only the tumor cells capable of developing an unusual tolerance to limiting oxygen availability and to the acidosis resulting from excessive lactate production, can survive. In addition to the striking changes that occur in glucose metabolism, studies in human cancer patients suggest that there is often also an increase in free fatty acid turnover, oxidation and clearance [Legaspi et al., 1987; Hyltander et al., 1991]. For instance, a lipid mobilizing factor produced by tumor cells appears to be responsible for the increase in whole body fatty acid oxidation [Russell and Tisdale, 2002]. Fatty acids synthesis in tumor tissues also occurs at very high rates, as first demonstrated more than half a century ago [Medes et al., 1953]. Importantly, (14)C glucose studies have shown that in tumor cells almost all fatty acids derive from de novo synthesis despite adequate nutritional supply [Sabine and Abraham, 1967; Ookhtens et al., 1984; Weiss et al., 1986]. In addition, tumors overexpressing fatty acid synthase (FAS), the enzyme responsible for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, display aggressive biologic behavior compared to those tumors with normal FAS levels, suggesting that FAS overexpression confers a selective growth advantage. Here, we will review the roles that FAS plays in important cellular processes such as apoptosis and proliferation. In addition, speculations on the putative role of FAS in the altered metabolic pathways of prostate cancer cells will be explored. Because of the frequent overexpression of this enzyme prostate cancer, FAS constitutes a therapeutic target in this disease.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2004;91;1;47-53

  • Cloning, expression, characterization, and interaction of two components of a human mitochondrial fatty acid synthase. Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein.

    Zhang L, Joshi AK and Smith S

    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California 94609.

    The possibility that human cells contain, in addition to the cytosolic type I fatty acid synthase complex, a mitochondrial type II malonyl-CoA-dependent system for the biosynthesis of fatty acids has been examined by cloning, expressing, and characterizing two putative components. Candidate coding sequences for a malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (malonyltransferase) and its acyl carrier protein substrate, identified by BLAST searches of the human sequence data base, were located on nuclear chromosomes 22 and 16, respectively. The encoded proteins localized exclusively in mitochondria only when the putative N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences were present as revealed by confocal microscopy of HeLa cells infected with appropriate green fluorescent protein fusion constructs. The mature, processed forms of the mitochondrial proteins were expressed in Sf9 cells and purified, the acyl carrier protein was converted to the holoform in vitro using purified human phosphopantetheinyltransferase, and the functional interaction of the two proteins was studied. Compared with the dual specificity malonyl/acetyltransferase component of the cytosolic type I fatty acid synthase, the type II mitochondrial counterpart exhibits a relatively narrow substrate specificity for both the acyl donor and acyl carrier protein acceptor. Thus, it forms a covalent acyl-enzyme complex only when incubated with malonyl-CoA and transfers exclusively malonyl moieties to the mitochondrial holoacyl carrier protein. The type II acyl carrier protein from Bacillus subtilis, but not the acyl carrier protein derived from the human cytosolic type I fatty acid synthase, can also function as an acceptor for the mitochondrial transferase. These data provide compelling evidence that human mitochondria contain a malonyl-CoA/acyl carrier protein-dependent fatty acid synthase system, distinct from the type I cytosolic fatty acid synthase, that resembles the type II system present in prokaryotes and plastids. The final products of this system, yet to be identified, may play an important role in mitochondrial function.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 16073

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;41;40067-74

  • Cloning, expression, and characterization of a human 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase with broad substrate specificity.

    Joshi AK, Zhang L, Rangan VS and Smith S

    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California 94609, USA.

    A single candidate 4'-phosphopantetheine transferase, identified by BLAST searches of the human genome sequence data base, has been cloned, expressed, and characterized. The human enzyme, which is expressed mainly in the cytosolic compartment in a wide range of tissues, is a 329-residue, monomeric protein. The enzyme is capable of transferring the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A to a conserved serine residue in both the acyl carrier protein domain of the human cytosolic multifunctional fatty acid synthase and the acyl carrier protein associated independently with human mitochondria. The human 4'-phosphopantetheine transferase is also capable of phosphopantetheinylation of peptidyl carrier and acyl carrier proteins from prokaryotes. The same human protein also has recently been implicated in phosphopantetheinylation of the alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde dehydrogenase involved in lysine catabolism (Praphanphoj, V., Sacksteder, K. A., Gould, S. J., Thomas, G. H., and Geraghty, M. T. (2001) Mol. Genet. Metab. 72, 336-342). Thus, in contrast to yeast, which utilizes separate 4'-phosphopantetheine transferases to service each of three different carrier protein substrates, humans appear to utilize a single, broad specificity enzyme for all posttranslational 4'-phosphopantetheinylation reactions.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 16073

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;35;33142-9

  • Fatty acid synthase expression defines distinct molecular signatures in prostate cancer.

    Rossi S, Graner E, Febbo P, Weinstein L, Bhattacharya N, Onody T, Bubley G, Balk S and Loda M

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The androgen-regulated enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS), required for de novo lipogenesis, is overexpressed in several cancers including prostate carcinoma and has been associated with aggressive disease. FAS expression was assessed in 81 prostate carcinomas, both by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and by Affymetrix Hu95Av2 oligonucleotide arrays. Both FAS mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in prostate carcinomas compared with the corresponding normal tissue. FAS mRNA and protein expression increased substantially from normal to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, to low grade, to high grade, and to androgen-independent bone metastases. A significant correlation between FAS mRNA and protein expression was found in two thirds of the cases. In 17% of the cases, FAS protein levels were high despite low mRNA levels, and these tumors exhibited a distinct molecular signature when compared with tumors that did not express FAS protein. Whereas the latter group of tumors expressed some proapoptotic genes, tumors with high FAS levels overexpressed, among other genes, its transcriptional regulator, steroid regulator binding protein, and apolipoprotein E. These data demonstrate (1) the consistent overexpression of FAS in prostate carcinoma compared with the adjacent normal tissue, (2) a strong association between FAS and prostate tumor initiation and progression, (3) the highest FAS expression occurring in androgen-independent bone metastases, (4) the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of FAS in the majority and in a subset of prostate cancers, respectively, and (5) most importantly, the identification by FAS expression of prostate tumors with unique molecular signatures and potentially diverse biologic behavior.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA84995-04, CA90381-01A1, P01 CA89021-02

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2003;1;10;707-15

  • RNA interference-mediated silencing of the fatty acid synthase gene attenuates growth and induces morphological changes and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    De Schrijver E, Brusselmans K, Heyns W, Verhoeven G and Swinnen JV

    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Developmental Biology, Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Fatty acid synthase (FASE), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, is markedly overexpressed in many human epithelial cancers, rendering it an interesting target for antineoplastic therapy. Here, using the potent and highly sequence-specific mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi), we have silenced the expression of FASE in lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of FASE expression resulted in a major decrease in the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids and induced marked morphological changes, including a reduction in cell volume, a loss of cell-cell contacts, and the formation of spider-like extrusions. Furthermore, silencing of the FASE gene by RNAi significantly inhibited LNCaP cell growth and ultimately resulted in induction of apoptosis. Importantly and in striking contrast with LNCaP cells, RNAi-mediated inhibition of FASE did not influence growth rate or viability of nonmalignant cultured skin fibroblasts. These data indicate that RNAi opens new avenues toward the study of the role of FASE overexpression in tumor cells and provides an interesting and selective alternative to chemical FASE inhibitors in the development of antineoplastic therapy.

    Cancer research 2003;63;13;3799-804

  • Fatty acid synthase drives the synthesis of phospholipids partitioning into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Swinnen JV, Van Veldhoven PP, Timmermans L, De Schrijver E, Brusselmans K, Vanderhoydonc F, Van de Sande T, Heemers H, Heyns W and Verhoeven G

    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology (LEGENDO), University of Leuven, Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Johan.Swinnen@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key metabolic enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids. It plays a central role in the production of surfactant in fetal lungs, in the supply of fatty components of milk, and in the conversion and storage of energy in liver and adipose tissue. Remarkably high levels of FAS expression are found in the majority of human epithelial cancers. As the role of FAS in cancer cells remains largely unknown, we have initiated studies to assess the fate of newly synthesized lipids in cancer cells and have estimated the contribution of FAS to the synthesis of specific lipid classes by treating the cells with small interfering RNAs targeting FAS. Here, we show that in cancer cells FAS plays a major role in the synthesis of phospholipids partitioning into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains. These are raft-aggregates implicated in key cellular processes including signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell polarization, and cell migration. These findings reveal a novel role for FAS, provide important new insights into the otherwise poorly understood mechanisms underlying the control of lipid composition of membrane microdomains, and point to a link between FAS overexpression and dysregulation of membrane composition and functioning in tumor cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;302;4;898-903

  • Regulation of fatty acid synthase expression in breast cancer by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c.

    Yang Yu, Morin PJ, Han WF, Chen T, Bornman DM, Gabrielson EW and Pizer ES

    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

    Activation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression and fatty acid synthesis is a common event in human breast cancer. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism, including FAS. SREBP-1c expression is induced in liver and adipose tissue by insulin and by fasting/refeeding and is critical for nutritional regulation of lipogenic gene expression. In contrast, upregulation of fatty acid metabolism during in vitro transformation of human mammary epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells was driven by increased MAP kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling, which increased SREBP-1 levels. SREBP-1a was more abundant than SREBP-1c in many proliferative tissues and cultured cells and was thus a candidate to regulate lipogenesis for support of membrane synthesis during cell growth. We now show that SREBP-1c and FAS mRNA were both increased by H-ras transformation of MCF-10a breast epithelial cells and were both reduced by exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to the MAP kinase inhibitor, PD98059, or the PI 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, while SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 showed less variation. Similarly, the mRNA levels for FAS and SREBP-1c in a panel of primary human breast cancer samples showed much greater increases than did those for SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 and were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting coordinate regulation of SREBP-1c and FAS in clinical breast cancer. We conclude that regulation of FAS expression in breast cancer is achieved through modulation of SREBP-1c, similar to the regulation in liver and adipose tissue, although the upstream regulation of liopgenesis differs in these tissues.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29CA75219

    Experimental cell research 2003;282;2;132-7

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in CaCo-2 cells: effect on fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol transport.

    Field FJ, Born E, Murthy S and Mathur SN

    Department of Veterans Affairs, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. f-jeffrey-field@uiowa.edu

    Regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) by fatty acid flux was investigated in CaCo-2 cells. Cells were incubated with 1 mM taurocholate with or without 250 microM 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 or 22:6 fatty acids. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels and gene and protein expression of SREBPs were estimated. 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 fatty acids decreased the amount of mature SREBP-1 and mRNA levels of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. SREBP-2 gene or mature protein expression was not altered. Liver X receptor (LXR) activation by T0901317 increased gene expression of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase without altering SREBP-2. 20:5, but not 18:1, prevented the full expression of SREBP-1c mRNA by T0901317. T0901317 increased SREBP-1 mass without altering the mass of mature SREBP-2. Although only 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 suppressed SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and FAS expression, all fatty acids decreased the rate of fatty acid synthesis. T0901317 increased endogenous fatty acid synthesis yet did not increase secretion of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. In CaCo-2 cells, polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease gene and protein expression of SREBP-1 and FAS mRNA, probably through interference with LXR activity. Since all fatty acids decreased fatty acid synthesis, mechanisms other than changes in SREBP-1c expression must be entertained. Increased endogenous fatty acid synthesis does not promote triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein secretion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL49264

    The Biochemical journal 2002;368;Pt 3;855-64

  • Domain movements in human fatty acid synthase by quantized elastic deformational model.

    Ming D, Kong Y, Wakil SJ, Brink J and Ma J

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM-125, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    This paper reports the results of applying a computational method called the quantized elastic deformational model, to the determination of conformational flexibility of the supermolecular complex of human fatty acid synthase. The essence of this method is the ability to model large-scale conformational changes such as domain movements by treating the protein as an elastic object without the knowledge of protein primary sequence and atomic coordinates. The calculation was based on the electron density maps of the synthase at 19 A. The results suggest that the synthase is a very flexible molecule. Two types of flexible hinges in the structure were identified. One is an intersubunit hinge formed by the intersubunit connection and the other is an intrasubunit hinge located between domains I and II. Despite the fact that the dimeric synthase has a chemically symmetric structure, large domain movements around the hinge region occur in various directions and allow the molecule to adopt a wide range of conformations. These domain movements are likely to be important in facilitating and regulating the entire palmitate synthesis by coordinating the communication between components of the molecule, for instance, adjusting the distance between various active sites inside the catalytic reaction center. Finally, the ability to describe protein motions of a supermolecular complex, without the information of protein sequence and atomic coordinates, is a major advance in computational modeling of protein dynamics. The method provides an unprecedented ability to model protein motions at such a low resolution of structure.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM S 19091

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;12;7895-9

  • [Significance of fatty acid synthase expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Wang Y, Zhang X, Tan W, Fu J and Zhang W

    Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Institute (Hospital), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Methods: FAS was examined by immunohistochemical S-P technique in 175 specimens of NSCLC patients. Multiple clinical factors were analyzed according to their relation with expression of FAS.

    Results: The overall FAS expression rate was 31.4% (55/175). The expression of FAS in the non-adenocarcinoma patients was significantly higher than that of adenocarcinoma patients (38.4% vs 22.4%, P = 0.036). Higher FAS expression was also detected in patients who had vascular invasion or bone metastasis than those without (75.0% vs 29.3%, P = 0.02 and 46.9% vs 28.0%, P = 0.037). But, there was no significant difference between FAS and other clinical factors such as age, sex, smoking index, tumor size, stage, degree of differentiation, lymphatic metastasis, local recurrence or distant metastasis. Although there was no significant difference in the survival rates of FAS positive and negative patients (P = 0.066), the survival rate of FAS positive stage I patients was lower than that of negative ones (P = 0.005).

    Conclusion: Fatty acid synthase in the specimens of non-small cell lung cancer patients has no correlation with most clinical factors, except that, in early lesions, it may signify poor prognosis.

    Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] 2002;24;3;271-3

  • Direct and indirect mechanisms for regulation of fatty acid synthase gene expression by liver X receptors.

    Joseph SB, Laffitte BA, Patel PH, Watson MA, Matsukuma KE, Walczak R, Collins JL, Osborne TF and Tontonoz P

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    The nuclear receptors LXRalpha and LXRbeta have been implicated in the control of lipogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis. Ligand activation of these receptors in vivo induces expression of the LXR target gene SREBP-1c and increases plasma triglyceride levels. Expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a central enzyme in de novo lipogenesis and an established target of the SREBP-1 pathway, is also induced by LXR ligands. The effects of LXR ligands on FAS expression have been proposed to be entirely secondary to the induction of SREBP-1c. We demonstrate here that LXRs regulate FAS expression through direct interaction with the FAS promoter as well as through activation of SREBP-1c expression. Induction of FAS expression in HepG2 cells by LXR ligands is reduced, but not abolished, under conditions where SREBP processing is suppressed. Moreover, LXR ligands induce FAS expression in CHO-7 cells without altering expression of SREBP-1. We demonstrate that in addition to tandem SREBP sites, the FAS promoter contains a high affinity binding site for the LXR/RXR heterodimer that is conserved in diverse animal species including birds, rodents, and humans. The LXR and SREBP binding sites independently confer LXR responsiveness on the FAS promoter, and maximal induction requires both transcription factors. Transient elevation of plasma triglyceride levels in mice treated with a synthetic LXR agonist correlates with transient induction of hepatic FAS expression. These results indicate that the LXR signaling pathway modulates FAS expression through distinct but complementary mechanisms and suggest that the FAS gene may be a critical target in the control of lipogenesis by LXRs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;13;11019-25

  • Quaternary structure of human fatty acid synthase by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Brink J, Ludtke SJ, Yang CY, Gu ZW, Wakil SJ and Chiu W

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of human fatty acid synthase obtained by electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle image processing. The structure shows that the synthase is composed of two monomers, arranged in an antiparallel orientation, which is consistent with biochemical data. The monomers are connected to each other at their middle by a bridge of density, a site proposed to be the combination of the interdomain regions of the two monomers. Each monomer subunit appears to be subdivided into three structural domains. With this reconstruction of the synthase, we propose a location for the enzyme's two fatty acid synthesis sites.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR002250, P41RR012109, P41RR02250; NIGMS NIH HHS: GMS19091

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;1;138-43

  • Human fatty acid synthase: role of interdomain in the formation of catalytically active synthase dimer.

    Chirala SS, Jayakumar A, Gu ZW and Wakil SJ

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    The human and animal fatty acid synthases are dimers of two identical multifunctional proteins (M(r) 272,000) arranged in an antiparallel configuration. This arrangement generates two active centers for fatty acid synthesis separated by interdomain (ID) regions and predicts that two appropriate halves of the monomer should be able to reconstitute an active fatty acid synthesizing center. This prediction was confirmed by the reconstitution of the synthase active center by using two heterologously expressed halves of the monomer protein. Each of these recombinant halves of synthase monomer contains half of the ID regions. We show here that the fatty acid synthase activity could not be reconstituted when the ID sequences present in the two recombinant halves are deleted, suggesting that these ID sequences are essential for fatty acid synthase dimer formation. Further, we confirm that the ID sequences are the only regions of fatty acid synthase monomers that showed significant dimer formation, by using the yeast two-hybrid system. These results are consistent with the proposal that the ID region, which has no known catalytic activity, associates readily and holds together the two dynamic active centers of the fatty acid synthase dimer, therefore playing an important role in the architecture of catalytically active fatty acid synthase.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: F32 GM019091, GM-19091

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;6;3104-8

  • FIST/HIPK3: a Fas/FADD-interacting serine/threonine kinase that induces FADD phosphorylation and inhibits fas-mediated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation.

    Rochat-Steiner V, Becker K, Micheau O, Schneider P, Burns K and Tschopp J

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, CH-1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.

    Fas is a cell surface death receptor that signals apoptosis. Several proteins have been identified that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain of Fas. Fas-associated death domain (FADD), which couples Fas to procaspase-8, and Daxx, which couples Fas to the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway, bind independently to the Fas death domain. We have identified a 130-kD kinase designated Fas-interacting serine/threonine kinase/homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (FIST/HIPK3) as a novel Fas-interacting protein. Binding to Fas is mediated by a conserved sequence in the COOH terminus of the protein. FIST/HIPK3 is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. In transfected cell lines, FIST/HIPK3 causes FADD phosphorylation, thereby promoting FIST/HIPK3-FADD-Fas interaction. Although Fas ligand-induced activation of Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is impaired by overexpressed active FIST/HIPK3, cell death is not affected. These results suggest that Fas-associated FIST/HIPK3 modulates one of the two major signaling pathways of Fas.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;192;8;1165-74

  • Identification of a novel FAS/ER-alpha fusion transcript expressed in human cancer cells.

    Ye Q, Chung LW, Li S and Zhau HE

    Molecular Urology and Therapeutics Program, Department of Urology, Box 422, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. qy3x@virginia.edu

    A semi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) in human prostate cancer cells. Unexpectedly, a novel fatty acid synthase (FAS)/ER-alpha fusion transcript was identified, in which the N-terminus of FAS was fused in-frame with the C-terminus of ER-alpha. The existence of the FAS/ER-alpha transcript was further confirmed by RT-PCR analysis using various sets of amplification primers and different reverse-transcribed primers in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide to eliminate the secondary structure of RNA. The predicted FAS/ER-alpha protein would contain largely domain I of FAS and the entire ligand binding domain of ER-alpha. The FAS/ER-alpha was expressed in a variety of human cancer cell lines including prostate, breast, cervical and bladder cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that the presence of FAS/ER-alpha may complicate the FAS and the ER-alpha signalling pathway.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1493;3;373-7

  • Fatty acid synthase is expressed mainly in adult hormone-sensitive cells or cells with high lipid metabolism and in proliferating fetal cells.

    Kusakabe T, Maeda M, Hoshi N, Sugino T, Watanabe K, Fukuda T and Suzuki T

    Department of Pathology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan.

    Animal fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a homodimer protein which synthesizes long-chain fatty acids and is rich in liver, brain, breast, and lung. However, the precise cellular localization of FAS in human tissues has not been elucidated. Immunohistochemistry with a new antibody to human FAS revealed that in adult human tissues FAS is distributed mainly in cells with high lipid metabolism (adipocytes, corpus luteum, hepatocytes, sebaceous glands, and Type II alveolar cells), in hormone-sensitive cells (anterior pituitary, apocrine gland, breast, endometrium, prostate, seminal vesicle, and adrenal cortex), and in a subset of epithelial cells of duodenum and stomach, colon absorptive cells, cerebral neurons, basket cells of cerebellum, decidua, uroepithelium, and epidymis. In fetal cells at 20 weeks of gestation, FAS was mainly present in proliferative epithelial cells of the digestive and respiratory systems, proximal renal tubules, adrenocortical cells, and mesenchymal and hematolymphoid cells. Staining was significant in nonproliferating cells, as observed in adult, and in sympathetic ganglion cells, Leidig cells of testis, and Langhans cells of chorionic villi. FAS is maintained in hormone-sensitive cells and/or cells active in lipid metabolism in the adult and is expressed in proliferating cells in the fetus, suggesting active fatty acid synthesis for energy utilization or membrane lipids.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2000;48;5;613-22

  • Human fatty acid synthase: assembling recombinant halves of the fatty acid synthase subunit protein reconstitutes enzyme activity.

    Jayakumar A, Chirala SS and Wakil SJ

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Our model of the native fatty acid synthase (FAS) depicts it as a dimer of two identical multifunctional proteins (Mr approximately 272,000) arranged in an antiparallel configuration so that the active Cys-SH of the beta-ketoacyl synthase of one subunit (where the acyl group is attached) is juxtaposed within 2 A of the pantetheinyl-SH of the second subunit (where the malonyl group is bound). This arrangement generates two active centers for fatty acid synthesis and predicts that if we have two appropriate halves of the monomer, we should be able to reconstitute an active fatty acid-synthesizing site. We cloned, expressed, and purified catalytically active thioredoxin (TRX) fusion proteins of the NH2-terminal half of the human FAS subunit protein (TRX-hFAS-dI; residues 1-1,297; Mr approximately 166) and of the C-terminal half (TRX-hFAS-dII-III; residues 1,296-2,504; Mr approximately 155). Adding equivalent amounts of TRX-hFAS-dI and TRX-hFAS-dII-III to a reaction mixture containing acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH resulted in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. The rate of synthesis was dependent upon the presence of both recombinant proteins and reached a constant level when they were present in equivalent amounts, indicating that the reconstitution of an active fatty acid-synthesizing site required the presence of every partial activity associated with the subunit protein. Analyses of the product acids revealed myristate to be the most abundant with small amounts of palmitate and stearate, possibly because of the way the fused recombinant proteins interacted with each other so that the thioesterase hydrolyzed the acyl group in its myristoyl state. The successful reconstitution of the human FAS activity from its domain I and domains II and III fully supports our model for the structure-function relationship of FAS in animal tissues.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: F32 GM019091, GM-19091

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;23;12326-30

  • Expression of fatty acid synthase is closely linked to proliferation and stromal decidualization in cycling endometrium.

    Pizer ES, Kurman RJ, Pasternack GR and Kuhajda FP

    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins, Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

    Estrogen-driven proliferative phase growth is the most rapid physiological proliferative process that occurs in the adult. The tissue growth that occurs during this phase of the menstrual cycle requires incorporation of a substantial quantity of fatty acid into the structural lipids of cell membranes. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major biosynthetic enzyme required for de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In this immunohistochemical study, we have observed that human endometrium displays distinct patterns of FAS expression in the proliferative and secretory phases of the normal menstrual cycle. Proliferative endometrial glands and stroma show high FAS expression that closely correlates with expression of Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors, supporting the view that FAS expression plays a role in cellular proliferation in response to estrogen. FAS expression declines during early to midsecretory phase, then reappears in decidualized stromal cells in late secretory phase as well as in the decidua of pregnancy. The second wave of FAS expression correlates with progesterone-receptor localization in the decidual cells, a finding suggesting a second induction of FAS expression in the endometrium, associated with differentiation, that may be regulated by progesterone.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: T32 AI 07247

    International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 1997;16;1;45-51

  • Human fatty-acid synthase gene. Evidence for the presence of two promoters and their functional interaction.

    Hsu MH, Chirala SS and Wakil SJ

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    We have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone coding for the first three exons and the 5'-flanking region of the human fatty-acid synthase gene. The translation initiation site, ATG, is located in exon II. Primer extension and S1 nuclease analyses showed the presence of three transcription initiation (Ti) sites: Ti I, Ti II, and Ti III. The Ti I site is mapped to the beginning of the untranslated exon I and preceded by a promoter with recognizable TATA and CAAT boxes. The Ti II and Ti III sites are located in intron I, at 60 and 49 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation site ATG in exon II, respectively. These two Ti sites are preceded by four putative Sp1 boxes, but lack TATA and CAAT boxes. Analysis of luciferase reporter gene expression in transient transfection assays confirmed the existence of two promoters. A 200-base pair 5'-flanking region, which has strong promoter activity comparable with that of the CMV promoter, is considered human fatty-acid synthase promoter I. In a wild-type human fatty-acid synthase-luciferase construct, in which promoter I and intron I are present in their natural configuration, the reporter gene activity is only 1% of that of promoter I. Deletion analysis showed the existence of promoter II, which is located in intron I immediately upstream of the Ti II site. The strength of promoter II is approximately th of that of promoter I in transient transfection assays. Further analysis of reporter gene constructs showed that promoter II inhibited the reporter gene activity of the wild-type construct that contained promoter I and intron I and that the spatial separation of the two promoters is important for this inhibition. A model is proposed based on the possibility that the assembly of transcription complexes on promoter II creates a "roadblock" and reduces the overall expression of the fatty-acid synthase gene by interfering with the progression of transcription from promoter I.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-19091

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;23;13584-92

  • Human fatty acid synthase: properties and molecular cloning.

    Jayakumar A, Tai MH, Huang WY, al-Feel W, Hsu M, Abu-Elheiga L, Chirala SS and Wakil SJ

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS; EC was purified to near homogeneity from a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. The HepG2 FAS has a specific activity of 600 nmol of NADPH oxidized per min per mg, which is about half that of chicken liver FAS. All the partial activities of human FAS are comparable to those of other animal FASs, except for the beta-ketoacyl synthase, whose significantly lower activity is attributable to the low 4'-phosphopantetheine content of HepG2 FAS. We cloned the human brain FAS cDNA. The cDNA sequence has an open reading frame of 7512 bp that encodes 2504 amino acids (M(r), 272,516). The amino acid sequence of the human FAS has 79% and 63% identity, respectively, with the sequences of the rat and chicken enzymes. Northern analysis revealed that human FAS mRNA was about 9.3 kb in size and that its level varied among human tissues, with brain, lung, and liver tissues showing prominent expression. The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the HepG2 FAS cDNA (bases 2327-3964) was identical to that of the cDNA from normal human liver and brain tissues, except for a 53-bp sequence (bases 3892-3944) that does not alter the reading frame. This altered sequence is also present in HepG2 genomic DNA. The origin and significance of this sequence variance in the HepG2 FAS gene are unclear, but the variance apparently does not contribute to the lower activity of HepG2 FAS.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM19091

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;19;8695-9

  • Human fatty acid synthase mRNA: tissue distribution, genetic mapping, and kinetics of decay after glucose deprivation.

    Semenkovich CF, Coleman T and Fiedorek FT

    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    To better understand the accelerated decay of fatty acid synthase (FAS) message that occurs after glucose deprivation (J. Biol. Chem. 1993. 268: 6961-6970), we characterized the 3' terminus of the human message and the kinetics of FAS mRNA decay in HepG2 cells. The FAS gene was localized to human chromosome 17q24-25 and to syntenic distal mouse chromosome 11. Expression of the FAS message in human tissues was ubiquitous with high levels in liver, lung, and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. The 806 nucleotide 3' untranslated region of the human mRNA contained two regions with the instability pentamer AUUUA. Unlike short-lived messages containing AUUUA motifs, FAS mRNA decay after glucose deprivation was not first order, and there were no detectable changes in the poly(A) tail. Glucose deprivation transiently caused FAS message to sediment more rapidly than control message in density gradients. In vivo treatment with different translational inhibitors showed that translation per se was not necessary for FAS mRNA decay; association of polysomes with FAS message protected it from decay. In cell-free decay experiments, FAS mRNA decay was more rapid using components from glucose-deprived than glucose-treated cells. These data suggest that glucose regulates cytoplasmic HepG2 FAS mRNA stability by partitioning the message between a translated pool not subject to degradation and a decay compartment, features reminiscent of regulated stability for other diet-responsive messages.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL47436; NIDDK NIH HHS: 5 P60 DK20579, DK44074

    Journal of lipid research 1995;36;7;1507-21

  • Isolation and chromosomal mapping of genomic clones encoding the human fatty acid synthase gene.

    Jayakumar A, Chirala SS, Chinault AC, Baldini A, Abu-Elheiga L and Wakil SJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

    We have isolated and sequenced 0.5- and 3.6-kb cDNA clones that cover the N-terminal and carboxy-terminal regions, respectively, of the human fatty acid synthase. To localize the fatty acid synthase gene and to define its genomic structure, we have also isolated overlapping genomic clones by screening two human YAC libraries with PCR primers derived from the fatty acid synthase cDNA sequences. The DNA inserts in these human fatty acid synthase YACs hybridized with human synthase-specific cDNA probes. Using biotin-labeled Alu-PCR products of the human synthase YACs as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the fatty acid synthase gene to chromosome 17q25. We also screened a chromosome 17-specific cosmid library with human synthase cDNA probes and isolated 12 cosmids, all of which had EcoRI fragments in common. DNA sequencing of an amplified PCR product from the fatty acid synthase cosmids confirmed that these genomic clones contained expressed fatty acid synthase sequences. Furthermore, the results of Southern analyses suggested that a single 40-kb cosmid clone encompasses the entire coding region of the fatty acid synthase gene. The synthase gene is located on chromosome 17 near the q25 band, which is close to the telomere and could serve as an important marker in analysis of this chromosome.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00210; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-19091

    Genomics 1994;23;2;420-4

  • Fatty acid synthesis: a potential selective target for antineoplastic therapy.

    Kuhajda FP, Jenner K, Wood FD, Hennigar RA, Jacobs LB, Dick JD and Pasternack GR

    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    OA-519 is a prognostic molecule found in tumor cells from breast cancer patients with markedly worsened prognosis. We purified OA-519 from human breast carcinoma cells, obtained its peptide sequence, and unambiguously identified it as fatty acid synthase through sequence homology and enzymology. Tumor fatty acid synthase is an approximately 270-kDa polypeptide which specifically abolished immunostaining of human breast cancers by anti-OA-519 antibodies. Tumor fatty acid synthase oxidized NADPH in a malonyl-CoA-dependent fashion and synthesized fatty acids composed of 80% palmitate, 10% myristate, and 10% stearate from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH with a specific activity of 624 nmol of NADPH oxidized per min per mg. Tumor cell lines with elevated fatty acid synthase showed commensurate increases in incorporation of [U-14C]acetate into acylglycerols demonstrating that fatty acid synthase increases occur in the context of overall increases in endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Cerulenin inhibited acylglycerol synthesis in tumor cells and fibroblast controls in a dose-dependent fashion and also caused a growth inhibition which generally paralleled the level of endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Supraphysiologic levels of palmitate, 14 microM in dimethyl sulfoxide, significantly reversed the growth inhibition caused by cerulenin at concentrations of up to 5 micrograms/ml, indicating that cerulenin-mediated growth inhibition was due to fatty acid synthase inhibition.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;14;6379-83

  • Fatty acid synthase, a proficient multifunctional enzyme.

    Wakil SJ

    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM191091

    Biochemistry 1989;28;11;4523-30

  • [Cancer diagnosis of the respiratory system].

    Wronkowski Z

    Pielegniarka i polozna 1975;12;7-8

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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