G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001606
Gene symbol
RTN3 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
reticulon 3
Orthologue
G00000357 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000133318 (Ensembl human gene)
10313 (Entrez Gene)
703 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
RTN3 (GeneCards)
Literature
604249 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:10469 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O95197 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • ASYIP
  • HAP
  • NSPL2
  • NSPLII
  • RTN3-A1

Literature (37)

Pubmed - other

  • RTN3 inducing apoptosis is modulated by an adhesion protein CRELD1.

    Xiang R and Zhao S

    Department of Cardiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic China. shirlesmile@yahoo.com.cn

    Reticulon3 (RTN3), as a member of the reticulon family, is generally regarded as a novel human apoptosis-inducing protein. But the extensional role of RTN3 remains virtually unknown. Herein, we showed that cysteine rich with EGF like domains 1(CRELD1), a cell adhesion molecule played a critical role in atrioventricular septal defects and it had mutual effect with RTN3 in vitro. Furthermore, we discovered that ectopic CRELD1 could interact with ectopic or endogenous RTN3. CRELD1 bound with RTN3 so as to increase the localization of RTN3 on the plasma membrane and decreased the apoptotic activity of RTN3 moderately. Moreover, the tunicamycin-inducing cell apoptosis was partly suppressed by this kind of interaction mentioned above. These results suggested that CRELD1 could partly change the localization of RTN3 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane and modulate the apoptotic activity of RTN3 through binding with it.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2009;331;1-2;225-30

  • The two-hydrophobic domain tertiary structure of reticulon proteins is critical for modulation of beta-secretase BACE1.

    Kume H, Murayama KS and Araki W

    Department of Demyelinating Disease and Aging, National Institute of Neuroscience, NCNP, Tokyo, Japan.

    beta-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a membrane-bound protease that is essential for the production of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). Given the crucial role of Abeta accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), inhibition of BACE1 activity may represent a feasible therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AD. Recently, we and others identified reticulon 3 (RTN3) and reticulon 4-B/C (RTN4-B/C or Nogo-B/C) as membrane proteins that interact with BACE1 and inhibit its ability to produce Abeta. In this study, we employed various mutants of RTN3 and RTN4-C and C. elegans RTN to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which RTNs regulate BACE1. We found that RTN3 mutants lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal or loop domain as well as a RTN4-C mutant lacking the C-terminal domain bound to BACE1 comparably to wild-type RTN3 and RTN4-C. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type RTN3, RTN4-C, and these RTN mutants similarly reduced Abeta40 and Abeta42 secretion by cells expressing Swedish mutant APP. C. elegans RTN, which has low homology to human RTNs, also interacted with BACE1 and inhibited Abeta secretion. In contrast, two RTN3 mutants containing deletions of the first or second potential transmembrane domains and an RTN3 swap mutant of the second transmembrane domain bound BACE1 but failed to inhibit Abeta secretion. Collectively, these results suggest that the two-transmembrane-domain tertiary structure of RTN proteins is critical for the ability of RTNs to modulate BACE1 activity, whereas N-terminal, C-terminal and loop regions are not essential for this function.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2009;87;13;2963-72

  • The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.

    Landa I, Ruiz-Llorente S, Montero-Conde C, Inglada-Pérez L, Schiavi F, Leskelä S, Pita G, Milne R, Maravall J, Ramos I, Andía V, Rodríguez-Poyo P, Jara-Albarrán A, Meoro A, del Peso C, Arribas L, Iglesias P, Caballero J, Serrano J, Picó A, Pomares F, Giménez G, López-Mondéjar P, Castello R, Merante-Boschin I, Pelizzo MR, Mauricio D, Opocher G, Rodríguez-Antona C, González-Neira A, Matías-Guiu X, Santisteban P and Robledo M

    Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

    In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9)). Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A) within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;9;e1000637

  • NMR studies reveal a novel mode for hFADD to bind with the unstructured hRTN3 which initiates the ER-stress activated apoptosis.

    Liu J, Zhu W, Qin H and Song J

    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore.

    RTN3 can recruit Fas-associated death domain (FADD), thus initiating the ER-stress activated apoptosis. It also interacts with the beta-secretase and its aggregation is critically associated with Alzheimer's disease. Here, we first investigated the solution conformation of hRTN3, subsequently characterized its binding with hFADD. The results reveal: (1) both hRTN3 N- and C-termini are intrinsically unstructured. Nevertheless, the C-terminus contains two short helix-populated regions. (2) The unstructured hRTN3 C-terminus can bind to hFADD as shown by ITC. Further NMR investigation successfully identified the binding involved hRTN3 residues. (3) Although upon hRTN3-binding, the perturbed hFADD residues were distributed over the whole sequence, the majority of the significantly perturbed are over its death effector domain, very different from the previously observed binding mode for FADD. This study also implies a possible linkage between Alzheimer's disease and ER-stress activated apoptosis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;383;4;433-9

  • The occurrence of aging-dependent reticulon 3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites decreases cognitive function.

    Shi Q, Hu X, Prior M and Yan R

    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Reticulon 3 (RTN3) has been shown to mark a distinct and abundant population of dystrophic neurites named RTN3 immunoreactive dystrophic neurites (RIDNs) in patients' brains of Alzheimer disease (AD). Transgenic mice expressing RTN3 (Tg-RTN3) also spontaneously develop RIDNs. To determine whether RIDNs formed in Tg-RTN3 mice would ever naturally occur in the nontransgenic mouse brain, we targeted our examination to elderly mouse brains on the basis that AD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease where the decline in cognitive function becomes progressively increased during the course of the disease. Here, we demonstrate that the distribution of RIDNs is abundant, rather than sporadic, in elderly but not young mouse brains. RIDNs in the elderly brain have two distinct populations: abundantly dispersed RIDNs that can only be marked by RTN3, and less abundantly clustered RIDNs that can be marked by multiple proteins including RTN3, ubiquitin, and phosphorylated neurofilament. The abundance of RIDNs in Tg-RTN3 mice at the age of 3 months resembles that of 24-month-old wild type mice, suggesting that this animal model mimics and accelerates the natural occurrence of RIDNs. Importantly, we demonstrate that preformed RIDNs appear to reduce dendritic spine density and synaptic function. Further analysis from mechanistic studies suggests that elevated levels of RTN3 lead to an imbalance in the axonal transport of RTN3, which results in the accumulation of RTN3 in swollen neurites. Collectively, these results suggest that blocking the formation of RIDNs may be a promising strategy to impede cognitive decline in the elderly and in AD patients.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG025493, R01 AG025493, R01 AG025493-01

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;16;5108-15

  • Expression of reticulon 3 in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Kume H, Konishi Y, Murayama KS, Kametani F and Araki W

    Department of Demyelinating Disease and Ageing, National Institute of Neuroscience, NCNP, Tokyo, Japan.

    Aims: Reticulon 3 (RTN3), a member of the reticulon family of proteins, interacts with the beta-secretase, beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and inhibits its activity to produce beta-amyloid protein. The aim of the present study was to clarify the biological role of RTN3 in the brain and its potential involvement in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We performed immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses using a specific antibody against RTN3 to investigate the expression and subcellular localization of RTN3 in control and AD brain tissue samples.

    Results: Western blot analysis revealed no significant differences in the RTN3 levels between control and AD brains. Immunohistochemical staining showed that RTN3 immunoreactivity was predominantly localized in pyramidal neurones of the cerebral cortex. The patterns of RTN3 immunostaining were similar in control and AD cerebral cortices, and senile plaques were generally negative for RTN3. Biochemical subcellular fractionation disclosed that RTN3 colocalized with BACE1 in various fractions, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Double-immunofluorescence staining additionally indicated that RTN3 was localized in both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments in neurones.

    Conclusions: These results show that RTN3 is primarily expressed in pyramidal neurones of the human cerebral cortex and that no clear difference of RTN3 immunoreactivity is observable between control and AD brains. Our data also suggest that there is considerable colocalization of RTN3 with BACE1 at a subcellular level.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P30 AG019610, P30 AG019610-069002, P30 AG019610-079002, P30 AG019610-089002, P30 AG19610

    Neuropathology and applied neurobiology 2009;35;2;178-88

  • Variation in RTN3 and PPIL2 genes does not influence platelet membrane beta-secretase activity or susceptibility to alzheimer's disease in the northern Irish population.

    Carson R, McKnight AJ, Todd S, Liu WW, Heggarty S, Craig D, McGuinness B, Irvine GB, Passmore AP and Johnston JA

    Centre for Public Health, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Whitla Medical Building, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.

    Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for production of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta), which are proposed to drive the pathological changes found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reticulon 3 (RTN3) is a negative modulator of BACE1 (beta-secretase) proteolytic activity, while peptidylprolyl isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 (PPIL2) positively regulates BACE1 expression. The present study investigated whether there was any association between genetic variation in RTN3 and PPIL2, and either risk for AD, or levels of platelet beta-secretase activity, in a large Northern Irish case-control sample. Four hundred and sixty-nine patients with a diagnosis of probable AD (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and 347 control individuals (MMSE > 28/30) were genotyped. SNPs in both genes were selected by downloading genotype data from the International HapMap Project (Phase II) and tags selected using multimarker approach in Haploview, where r (2) > 0.8 and LOD > 3.0. Non-synonymous SNPs of interest were also included. Genotyping was performed by Sequenom iPLEX and TaqMan technologies. Alleles, genotypes and multi-marker haplotypes were tested for association with AD, and platelet beta-secretase activities were measured for a subset of individuals (n = 231). Eight SNPs in RTN3 and 7 in PPIL2 were genotyped. We found no significant associations between allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies and risk of AD. Further, there was no effect of genotype on platelet membrane beta-secretase activity. We conclude that common or potentially functional genetic variation in these BACE1 interacting proteins does not affect platelet membrane beta-secretase activity or contribute to risk of AD in this population.

    Neuromolecular medicine 2009;11;4;337-44

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • The membrane topology of RTN3 and its effect on binding of RTN3 to BACE1.

    He W, Shi Q, Hu X and Yan R

    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Reticulon 3 (RTN3) has recently been shown to modulate Alzheimer BACE1 activity and to play a role in the formation of dystrophic neurites present in Alzheimer brains. Despite the functional importance of this protein in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis, the functional correlation to the structural domain of RTN3 remained unclear. RTN3 has two long transmembrane domains, but its membrane topology was not known. We report here that the first transmembrane domain dictates membrane integration and its membrane topology. RTN3 adopts a omega-shape structure with two ends facing the cytosolic side. Subtle changes in RTN3 membrane topology can disrupt its binding to BACE1 and its inhibitory effects on BACE1 activity. Thus, the determination of RTN3 membrane topology may provide an important structural basis for our understanding of its cellular functions.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG025493

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;40;29144-51

  • Anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 is enhanced by its interaction with RTN3.

    Zhu L, Xiang R, Dong W, Liu Y and Qi Y

    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

    Bcl-2 is known as a critical inhibitor of apoptosis triggered by a broad range of stimuli, mainly acting on the mitochondria. It can interact with many members of the Bcl-2 family, influence mitochondrial membrane permeability and modulate cell apoptosis. RTN3, a member of the reticulon (RTN) family, was predominantly localized on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Its N- and C-termini, both facing the cytoplasm, can recruit some proteins to the ER to modulate some physiological functions. We found that RTN3, which does not belong to the Bcl-2 family, can interact with Bcl-2 on the ER. In normal HeLa cells, ectopic overexpressed Bcl-2 could reduce the cell apoptosis induced by overexpressed RTN3. When the HeLa cells stably expressing Bcl-2 were treated with tunicamycin, endogenous RTN3 increased in the cell microsomal fraction. This change increased the Bcl-2 in microsomal fractions and also in the mitochondrial fractions where the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 mainly acts. These results suggest that RTN3 could bind with Bcl-2 and mediate its accumulation in mitochondria, which modulate the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2.

    Cell biology international 2007;31;8;825-30

  • Reticulon 3 binds the 2C protein of enterovirus 71 and is required for viral replication.

    Tang WF, Yang SY, Wu BW, Jheng JR, Chen YL, Shih CH, Lin KH, Lai HC, Tang P and Horng JT

    Department of Biochemistry and Chang Gung Bioinformatics Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

    Enterovirus 71 is an enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. The 2C protein of poliovirus, a relative of enterovirus 71, is essential for viral replication. The poliovirus 2C protein is associated with host membrane vesicles, which form viral replication complexes where viral RNA synthesis takes place. We have now identified a host-encoded 2C binding protein called reticulon 3, which we found to be associated with the replication complex through direct interaction with the enterovirus 71-encoded 2C protein. We observed that the N terminus of the 2C protein, which has both RNA- and membrane-binding activity, interacted with reticulon 3. This region of interaction was mapped to its reticulon homology domain, whereas that of 2C was encoded by the 25th amino acid, isoleucine. Reticulon 3 could also interact with the 2C proteins encoded by other enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and coxsackievirus A16, implying that it is a common factor for such viral replication. Reduced production of reticulon 3 by RNA interference markedly reduced the synthesis of enterovirus 71-encoded viral proteins and replicative double-stranded RNA, reducing plaque formation and apoptosis. Furthermore, reintroduction of nondegradable reticulon 3 into these knockdown cells rescued enterovirus 71 infectivity, and viral protein and double-stranded RNA synthesis. Thus, reticulon 3 is an important component of enterovirus 71 replication, through its potential role in modulation of the sequential interactions between enterovirus 71 viral RNA and the replication complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;8;5888-98

  • Reticulon 3 mediates Bcl-2 accumulation in mitochondria in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Wan Q, Kuang E, Dong W, Zhou S, Xu H, Qi Y and Liu Y

    The National Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, People's Republic of China.

    Reticulon3 (RTN3), firstly isolated from the retina and widely expressed in human tissues with the highest expression in the brain, is presumed to play an important role in the developing axons through the transport of liquids and proteins. We have identified and characterized RTN3 as a RTN4B/ASY interaction protein. Here we demonstrated that ER-stress activated RTN3 expression. CHOP and ATF6 were sufficient to up-regulate the expression of RTN3. The down-regulation of RTN3 would induce apoptosis and attenuate the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, indicating RTN3 was required for the cellular survival and optimal anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. Our present studies also indicated ER-stress induced RTN3 up-regulation could trigger Bcl-2 translocation from ER to mitochondria. Moreover, the previous studies showed that RTN4B was also a Bcl-2-interacted protein. We found that RTN3 and RTN4B could block the access of Bcl-2 to each other and thereafter determined the Bcl-2 subcellular distribution. Taken together, our findings indicate that RTN3 is directly involved in the ER-constituents trafficking events through dually acting as an essential and important ER-stress sensor, and a trigger for the Bcl-2 translocation.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2007;12;2;319-28

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Adaptor FADD is recruited by RTN3/HAP in ER-bound signaling complexes.

    Xiang R, Liu Y, Zhu L, Dong W and Qi Y

    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan, 430072, PR China.

    It has been well established that FADD plays a critical role in the membrane bound death-inducing signaling complexes. Herein, we report that endogenous FADD could interact with ectopic or endogenous RTN3/HAP. ER-bound RTN3 protein recruited endogenous FADD to the ER membrane and subsequently initiated caspase-8 cascade, including activation of caspase-8, processing of Bid and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endogenous FADD was recruited by ER-bound endogenous RTN3 to the ER membrane under the tunicamycin stimulation. The dominant negative form of FADD containing DD could abolish these RTN3 generated events in the caspase-8 cascade. Moreover, we found that RTN3 induced caspase-9 processing was only partially resulted from caspase-8 activation (data unshown), indicating that multiple caspase cascades participated in the apoptosis from RTN3 over-expression. Furthermore, NogoB/ASY, a homologue of RTN3 and a potential RTN3 interacting protein, also associated with FADD and induced cytochrome c release in a FADD dependent manner.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2006;11;11;1923-32

  • Mapping of interaction domains mediating binding between BACE1 and RTN/Nogo proteins.

    He W, Hu X, Shi Q, Zhou X, Lu Y, Fisher C and Yan R

    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

    BACE1 is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease that specifically cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the beta-secretase site. Membrane bound reticulon (RTN) family proteins interact with BACE1 and negatively modulate BACE1 activity through preventing access of BACE1 to its cellular APP substrate. Here, we focused our study on RTN3 and further show that a C-terminal QID triplet conserved among mammalian RTN members is required for the binding of RTN to BACE1. Although RTN3 can form homo- or heterodimers in cells, BACE1 mainly binds to the RTN monomer and disruption of the QID triplet does not interfere with the dimerization. Correspondingly, the C-terminal region of BACE1 is required for the binding of BACE1 to RTNs. Furthermore, we show that the negative modulation of BACE1 by RTN3 relies on the binding of RTN3 to BACE1. The knowledge from this study may potentially guide discovery of small molecules that can mimic the effect of RTN3 on the inhibition of BACE1 activity.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG025493

    Journal of molecular biology 2006;363;3;625-34

  • Reticulons RTN3 and RTN4-B/C interact with BACE1 and inhibit its ability to produce amyloid beta-protein.

    Murayama KS, Kametani F, Saito S, Kume H, Akiyama H and Araki W

    Department of Demyelinating Disease and Ageing, National Institute of Neuroscience, NCNP, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan.

    Beta-secretase beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is a membrane-bound aspartyl protease necessary for the generation of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To gain insight into the mechanisms by which BACE1 activity is regulated, we used proteomic methods to search for BACE1-interacting proteins in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which overexpress BACE1. We identified reticulon 4-B (RTN4-B; Nogo-B) as a BACE1-associated membrane protein. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed a physical association between BACE1 and RTN4-B, RTN4-C (the shortest isoform of RTN-4), and their homologue reticulon 3 (RTN3), both in SH-SY5Y cells and in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Overexpression of these reticulons (RTNs) resulted in a 30-50% reduction in the secretion of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 from HEK293 cells expressing the AD-associated Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP), but did not affect Abeta secretion from cells expressing the APP beta-C-terminal fragment (beta-CTF), indicating that these RTNs can inhibit BACE1 activity. Furthermore, a BACE1 mutant lacking most of the N-terminal ectodomain also interacted with these RTNs, suggesting that the transmembrane region of BACE1 is critical for the interaction. We also observed a similar interaction between these RTNs and the BACE1 homologue BACE2. Because RTN3 and RTN4-B/C are substantially expressed in neural tissues, our findings suggest that they play important roles in the regulation of BACE1 function and Abeta production in the brain.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2006;24;5;1237-44

  • Co-involvement of the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in cell death induced by the novel ER-targeted protein HAP.

    Xu H, Zhou Q, Liu X and Qi YP

    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Section of Molecular Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China.

    HAP (a homologue of the ASY/Nogo-B protein), a novel human apoptosis-inducing protein, was found to be identical to RTN3. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that HAP localized exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that its overexpression could induce cell apoptosis via a depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. In this study, we show that overexpression of HAP causes the activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3. We still detected the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltaomegam) and the release of cytochrome c in HAP-overexpressing HeLa cells. All the results indicate that both the mitochondria and the ER are involved in apoptosis caused by HAP overexpression, and suggest that HAP overexpression may initiate an ER overload response (EOR) and bring about the downstream apoptotic events.

    Cellular & molecular biology letters 2006;11;2;249-55

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Reticulon 3 is involved in membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi.

    Wakana Y, Koyama S, Nakajima K, Hatsuzawa K, Nagahama M, Tani K, Hauri HP, Melançon P and Tagaya M

    School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

    Reticulons (RTNs) constitute a family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated proteins with a reticular distribution. Despite the implication of their neuronal isoforms in axonal regeneration, the function of their widely expressed isoforms is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the role of the ubiquitously expressed RTN3 in membrane trafficking. Ectopically expressed RTN3 exhibited heterogeneous patterns; filamentous, reticular, and granular distributions. The ER morphology changed accordingly. In cells where RTN3 displayed a filamentous/reticular distribution, protein transport between the ER and Golgi was blocked, and Golgi proteins were dispersed. In contrast, ERGIC-53, a marker for the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, accumulated at the perinuclear region, and remained there even after cells were treated with agents that induce redistribution of Golgi proteins to the ER, indicating an inhibition of Golgi-to-ER transport of ERGIC-53. These results suggest that RTN3 plays a role in membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;334;4;1198-205

  • Identification of a new RTN3 transcript, RTN3-A1, and its distribution in adult mouse brain.

    Cai Y, Saiyin H, Lin Q, Zhang P, Tang L, Pan X and Yu L

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai, P.R. China.

    The Reticulon (RTN) family of proteins is thought to play important roles in the regulation of neuronal regeneration. In this study, we have identified a novel alternative splicing isoform of the RTN gene family, RTN3-A1, which contains an additional 2.3-kb exon. The transcripts of human and mouse RTN3-A1 (about 5.0 kb) were first discovered by database sequence mining and analysis, and verified by cloning and sequencing. Northern blot analysis of 16 human tissues with a common probe of RTN3 transcripts and a specific probe for RTN3-A1 demonstrated that human RTN3-A1 is expressed mainly in brain tissues with a weak expression in the skeletal muscle. With Western blot analysis, the expected 100-kDa RTN3-A1 protein was detected in mouse brain. In situ hybridization with a mouse RTN3-A1-specific cRNA probe revealed that the mouse RTN3-A1 mRNA was regionally expressed in the neurons of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum of the adult mouse brain. In contrast to the transcripts of RTN1 and RTN2, RTN3-A1 shares some significant similarity with RTN4-A in exon structure, tissue distribution, and brain expression profile. Since other reports have shown that RTN4-A inhibits neuronal outgrowth and restricts the plasticity of the central nervous system, we speculate that RTN3-A1 might play certain roles in the central nervous system.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2005;138;2;236-43

  • ER Ca2+ depletion triggers apoptotic signals for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) overload response induced by overexpressed reticulon 3 (RTN3/HAP).

    Kuang E, Wan Q, Li X, Xu H, Liu Q and Qi Y

    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

    Perturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, either by the mutant proteins not folding correctly, or by an excessive accumulation of proteins in the organelle, will lead to the unfolded protein response (UPR) or ER overload response (EOR). The signal-transducing pathways for UPR have been identified, whereas the pathway for EOR remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that the overexpression of reticulon 3 (RTN3, also named HAP, homologue of ASY protein) caused apoptosis with the depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores. In present research, we characterized RTN3 as a novel EOR-induced protein, triggering the apoptotic signals through the release of ER Ca(2+) and the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Our studies showed that overexpressed RTN3 induced EOR, eliciting ER-specific apoptosis with activation of caspase-12 and mitochondrial dysfunction through ER Ca(2+) depletion and the sustained elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpressed RTN3 and stimuli that activate both EOR and UPR, not UPR only, were able to induce up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HeLa cells through ER Ca(2+) release and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), resulting in endogenous calcium-dependent nitric oxide protecting cells against ER specific apoptosis, which suggested that the nitric oxide and iNOS represented a likely protective response to EOR, not the UPR. These results supported that the release of ER Ca(2+) stores triggered the initial signal-transducing pathways for EOR induced by overexpressed RTN3.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2005;204;2;549-59

  • Tissue specificity and regulation of the N-terminal diversity of reticulon 3.

    Di Scala F, Dupuis L, Gaiddon C, De Tapia M, Jokic N, Gonzalez de Aguilar JL, Raul JS, Ludes B and Loeffler JP

    Laboratoire de Signalisations Moléculaires et Neurodégénérescence, EA 3433, Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de Médecine, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex, France.

    Over the last few years, the widely distributed family of reticulons (RTNs) is receiving renewed interest because of the implication of RTN4/Nogo in neurite regeneration. Four genes were identified in mammals and are referred to as RTN1, 2, 3 and the neurite outgrowth inhibitor RTN4/Nogo. In the present paper, we describe the existence of five new isoforms of RTN3 that differ in their N-termini, and analysed their tissue distribution and expression in neurons. We redefined the structure of human and murine rtn3 genes, and identified two supplementary exons that may generate up to seven putative isoforms arising by alternative splicing or differential promoter usage. We confirmed the presence of five of these isoforms at the mRNA and protein levels, and showed their preferential expression in the central nervous system. We analysed rtn3 expression in the cerebellum further, and observed increased levels of several of the RTN3 isoforms during cerebellum development and during in vitro maturation of cerebellar granule cells. This pattern of expression paralleled that shown by RTN4/Nogo isoforms. Specifically, RTN3A1 expression was down-regulated upon cell death of cerebellar granule neurons triggered by potassium deprivation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the rtn3 gene generates multiple isoforms varying in their N-termini, and that their expression is tightly regulated in neurons. These findings suggest that RTN3 isoforms may contribute, by as yet unknown mechanisms, to neuronal survival and plasticity.

    The Biochemical journal 2005;385;Pt 1;125-34

  • Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    Otsuki T, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Hayashi K, Suzuki Y, Yamamoto J, Wakamatsu A, Kimura K, Sakamoto K, Hatano N, Kawai Y, Ishii S, Saito K, Kojima S, Sugiyama T, Ono T, Okano K, Yoshikawa Y, Aotsuka S, Sasaki N, Hattori A, Okumura K, Nagai K, Sugano S and Isogai T

    Helix Research Institute, Yana, Kisarazu-shi, Chiba, Japan.

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2005;12;2;117-26

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mammalian apoptosis-inducing protein, HAP, induces bacterial cell death.

    Gan M, Qi Y, Wan Q, Kuang E, Liu Q and Liu X

    Division of Molecular Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

    In attempting to produce the HAP, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeted apoptosis-inducing protein, as a GST-fusion protein we found that the expression of HAP, but not GST alone, induced bacterial cell death. The HAP protein inhibited the bacterial growth within 30 min after inducting HAP expression. The transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that the morphology of the bacterial cells expressing hap was changed dramatically: unusually elongated phenotype compared with those of controls and finally leading to cell death. The lethality of HAP was relieved by the addition of vitamin E as a reducing agent and under anaerobic growth conditions. These results suggest that a trace amount of HAP induces bacterial cell death and the death is related with reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Molecular biology reports 2004;31;3;159-64

  • Reticulon family members modulate BACE1 activity and amyloid-beta peptide generation.

    He W, Lu Y, Qahwash I, Hu XY, Chang A and Yan R

    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Inhibiting the activity of the beta-amyloid converting enzyme 1 (BACE1) or reducing levels of BACE1 in vivo decreases the production of amyloid-beta. The reticulon family of proteins has four members, RTN1, RTN2, RTN3 and RTN4 (also known as Nogo), the last of which is well known for its role in inhibiting neuritic outgrowth after injury. Here we show that reticulon family members are binding partners of BACE1. In brain, BACE1 mainly colocalizes with RTN3 in neurons, whereas RTN4 is more enriched in oligodendrocytes. An increase in the expression of any reticulon protein substantially reduces the production of Abeta. Conversely, lowering the expression of RTN3 by RNA interference increases the secretion of Abeta, suggesting that reticulon proteins are negative modulators of BACE1 in cells. Our data support a mechanism by which reticulon proteins block access of BACE1 to amyloid precursor protein and reduce the cleavage of this protein. Thus, changes in the expression of reticulon proteins in the human brain are likely to affect cellular amyloid-beta and the formation of amyloid plaques.

    Nature medicine 2004;10;9;959-65

  • 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is a direct target for the nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1): role in FGFR1 signaling.

    Hu Y, Fang X, Dunham SM, Prada C, Stachowiak EK and Stachowiak MK

    Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 142214, USA.

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a transmembrane protein capable of transducing stimulation by secreted FGFs. In addition, newly synthesized FGFR1 enters the nucleus in response to cellular stimulation and during development. Nuclear FGFR1 can transactivate CRE (cAMP responsive element), activate CRE-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and gene activities causing cellular growth and differentiation. Here, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to identify FGFR1-binding proteins and the mechanism of nuclear FGFR1 action. Ten FGFR1-binding proteins were identified. Among the proteins detected with the intracellular FGFR1 domain was a 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK1), a regulator of CREB, CBP, and histone phosphorylation. FGFR1 bound to the N-terminal region of RSK1. The FGFR1-RSK1 interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in the nucleus and cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Predominantly nuclear FGFR1-RSK1 interaction was observed in the rat brain during neurogenesis and in cAMP-stimulated cultured neural cells. In TE671 cells, transfected FGFR1 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated, almost exclusively, with nuclear RSK1. Nuclear RSK1 kinase activity and RSK1 activation of CREB were enhanced by transfected FGFR1. In contrast, kinase-deleted FGFR1 (TK-), which did not bind to RSK1 failed to stimulate nuclear RSK1 activity or RSK1 activation of CREB. Kinase inactive FGFR1 (K514A) bound effectively to nuclear RSK1, but it failed to stimulate RSK1. Thus, active FGFR1 kinase regulates the functions of nuclear RSK1. The interaction of nuclear FGFR1 with pluripotent RSK1 offers a new mechanism through which FGFR1 may control fundamental cellular processes.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43621-01HL-49376

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;28;29325-35

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Overexpression of human reticulon 3 (hRTN3) in astrocytoma.

    Huang X, Yang H, Zhou Y, Liu J, Yin B, Peng X, Qiang B and Yuan J

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.

    Neuroendocrine-specific protein (NSP) reticulons (RTN) are endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. At least 4 different RTN genes have been identified in mammals, but in most cases, the functions of the encoded proteins except mammalian RTN4-A and RTN4-B are still elusive. In the present study, the expression of human reticulon 3 (hRTN3) in a variety of tissues was investigated. Northern blotting hybridization revealed higher expression of hRTN3 in normal brain and some endocrine-related organs such as thyroid relative to other non-endocrine organs. Twelve surgical specimens meeting the histological criteria for astrocytoma grade II, III and IV were investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis, which demonstrated the overexpression of hRTN3 in astrocytoma tumor cells, while in non-cancerous brain tissues hRTN3 was mainly expressed in neurons and almost no signals in glia cells could be detected. The differential expression of hRTN3 between astrocytoma and non-cancerous tissue may provide insight into the progress of astrocytoma.

    Clinical neuropathology 2004;23;1;1-7

  • Pro-apoptotic ASY/Nogo-B protein associates with ASYIP.

    Qi B, Qi Y, Watari A, Yoshioka N, Inoue H, Minemoto Y, Yamashita K, Sasagawa T and Yutsudo M

    Institute of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples Republic of China.

    We have previously shown that ectopic expression of the ASY/Nogo-B gene induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Nogo-A, a splice variant of the ASY, has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system. To investigate the mechanism of ASY-induced apoptosis or inhibition of neuronal regeneration, we cloned a cDNA for the ASY-interacting protein from the human cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid method, and obtained a cDNA we designated as ASYIP. The ASYIP protein contains two hydrophobic regions and a double lysine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif at its C-terminus, which was shown to be identical to RTN3, a reticulon family protein of unknown function. We showed that ASY and ASYIP proteins formed a complex also in human cells. Mutational analysis indicated that both of the hydrophobic regions of the ASYIP protein were required for the association. By immunofluorescence analysis, the ASYIP protein was shown to be co-localized with ASY in the ER. Characterization of the ASYIP gene may be very useful in clarifying the mechanism of ASY-induced apoptosis or Nogo-involved inhibition of neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2003;196;2;312-8

  • Glucosylceramide synthase and its functional interaction with RTN-1C regulate chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in neuroepithelioma cells.

    Di Sano F, Fazi B, Citro G, Lovat PE, Cesareni G and Piacentini M

    Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

    Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, has been implicated in many biological phenomena, including multidrug resistance. GCS inhibition, by both antisense and the specific inhibitor (D-threo)-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), results in a drastic decrease of apoptosis induced by the p53-independent chemotherapeutic agent N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in neuroepithelioma cells. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a member of the reticulon (RTN) family (RTN-1C) as the major GCS-protein partner. Interestingly, RTN-1C not only interacts with GCS at Golgi/ER interface but also modulates its catalytic activity in situ. In fact, overexpression of RTN-1C sensitizes CHP-100 cells to fenretinide-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate a novel p53-independent pathway of apoptosis regulated by Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum protein interactions, which is relevant for cancer combined therapy.

    Cancer research 2003;63;14;3860-5

  • A reticular rhapsody: phylogenic evolution and nomenclature of the RTN/Nogo gene family.

    Oertle T, Klinger M, Stuermer CA and Schwab ME

    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, and Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. oertle@hifo.unizh.ch

    Reticulon (RTN) genes code for a family of proteins relatively recently described in higher vertebrates. The four known mammalian paralogues (RTN1, -2, -3, and -4/Nogo) have homologous carboxyl termini with two characteristic large hydrophobic regions. Except for RTN4-A/Nogo-A, thought to be an inhibitor for neurite outgrowth, restricting the regenerative capabilities of the mammalian CNS after injury, the functions of other family members are largely unknown. The overall occurrence of RTNs in different phyla and the evolution of the RTN gene family have hitherto not been analyzed. Here we expound data showing that the RTN family has arisen during early eukaryotic evolution potentially concerted to the establishment of the endomembrane system. Over 250 reticulon-like (RTNL) genes were identified in deeply diverging eukaryotes, fungi, plants, and animals. A systematic nomenclature for all identified family members is introduced. The analysis of exon-intron arrangements and of protein homologies allowed us to isolate key steps in the history of these genes. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that present RTNs evolved from an intron-rich reticulon ancestor mainly by the loss of different introns in diverse phyla. We also present evidence that the exceptionally large RTN4-A-specific exon 3, which harbors a potent neurite growth inhibitory region, may have arisen de novo approximately 350 MYA during transition to land vertebrates. These data emphasize on the one hand the universal role of reticulons in the eukaryotic system and on the other hand the acquisition of putative new functions through acquirement of novel amino-terminal exons.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2003;17;10;1238-47

  • Generation of multiple mRNA transcripts from the novel human apoptosis-inducing gene hap by alternative polyadenylation utilization and the translational activation function of 3' untranslated region.

    Qu X, Qi Y and Qi B

    Institute of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China.

    hap, a novel human apoptosis-inducing gene, was identified to have two major mRNA species of 1.8 and 2.7 kb in length by Northern blot analysis of poly(A)(+) RNA from multiple human tissues. The two hap transcripts derive from the alternative polyadenylation site selection: an AATAAA signal at position 1528-1533 nt for the 1.8 kb mRNA, and an AATAAA signal at position 2375-2380 nt for the 2.7 kb mRNA. The 3'-UTR spanning the region between the second and the third polyadenylation site of 2.7 kb hap was demonstrated to exert a translational activation function for hap itself and the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression by approximately threefold, despite no differences observed in the steady-state level of relative cytoplasmic mRNA. Comparing the mRNA stability of two hap transcripts indicated that the longer mRNA was not more stable than the short one. Taken together, all these data provide evidence that the hap 3'-UTR containing within the second and the third polyadenylation signal can regulate gene translation rather than transcription and mRNA stability.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2002;400;2;233-44

  • Cloning of a novel member of the reticulon gene family (RTN3): gene structure and chromosomal localization to 11q13.

    Moreira EF, Jaworski CJ and Rodriguez IR

    Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    A novel member of the neuron-specific protein (NSP) or newly named reticulon (RTN) gene family was isolated during a subtraction cloning between macula and peripheral retina. The mRNA for this NSP/RTN-like gene is approximately threefold more abundant in macula than in peripheral retina. The cDNA is 2527 bp long and contains an open reading frame of 236 amino acids. The deduced peptide shows a strong similarity to the NSP/RTN and tropomyosin-like gene families but it is clearly a novel member. The gene contains seven exons and spans more than 15 kb. The gene was localized to chromosome 11q13 between markers D11S4535 and D11S4627 using somatic cell hybrid panels. Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a pseudogene(s) that was subsequently localized to chromosome 4. Multitissue Northern blot analysis found this gene to be widely expressed in human tissues with the highest expression in the brain. We are calling this gene RTN3 to reflect the newly proposed nomenclature.

    Genomics 1999;58;1;73-81

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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