G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3
G00000353 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000108465 (Ensembl human gene)
80279 (Entrez Gene)
691 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CDK5RAP3 (GeneCards)
608202 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:18673 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q96JB5 (UniProt)

Synonyms (7)

  • C53
  • FLJ13660
  • HSF-27
  • IC53
  • LZAP
  • MST016
  • OK/SW-cl.114

Literature (22)

Pubmed - other

  • Endothelium-specific overexpression of human IC53 downregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and elevates systolic blood pressure in mice.

    Zhuo ML, Huang Y, Chen JZ, Sun LH, Yang RF, Chen HZ, Lv X, Li HL, Wei YS, Liu G, Zhang R, Ma TM, Cai H, Hui RT, Liu DP and Liang CC

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005, PR China.

    Aims: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial cells (ECs) exert important functions in the regulation of blood pressure. A novel gene, IC53, as an isoform of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-binding protein gene C53, is mainly expressed in vascular ECs and is upregulated in the failing heart of rats. Overexpression of IC53 promotes proliferation of ECs. To examine whether IC53 plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, we constructed a transgenic (tg) mouse model of the IC53 gene and studied its phenotypes relevant to vascular function.

    IC53 cDNA was cloned from a human aorta cDNA library. Using the endothelium-specific VE-cadherin promoter, we constructed tg mice in which IC53 was specifically overexpressed in vascular endothelia and found that the tg mice exhibit elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in contrast to the wild-type (wt) controls. Further studies revealed impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and decreased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression, and activity in the tg mice. Inhibition of IC53 in human umbilical vein ECs induces upregulation of eNOS activity.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that IC53 participates in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. Endothelium-specific overexpression of IC53 is associated with elevated SBP, which may be in part attributed to the downregulation of eNOS signalling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL077440, R01 HL088975

    Cardiovascular research 2009;84;2;292-9

  • Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    Jiang H, Wu J, He C, Yang W and Li H

    Children's Memorial Research Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: R21 AG027840, R21 AG027840-01A1, R21 AG027840-02; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM081776, R01 GM081776-01A1, R01 GM081776-02

    Cell research 2009;19;4;458-68

  • LZAP, a putative tumor suppressor, selectively inhibits NF-kappaB.

    Wang J, An H, Mayo MW, Baldwin AS and Yarbrough WG

    Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    LZAP has been reported to inhibit cellular proliferation and clonogenic growth. Here, we report that decreased LZAP expression promoted cellular transformation, xenograft tumor growth, and xenograft tumor vascularity. Loss of LZAP also increased cellular invasion, and MMP-9 expression dependent on NF-kappaB. LZAP directly bound to RelA, impaired serine 536 phosphorylation of RelA, increased HDAC association with RelA, inhibited basal and stimulated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, and was found at the promoter of selective NF-kappaB-responsive genes. LZAP protein levels were markedly decreased in 32% of primary HNSCCs (n = 28) and decreased LZAP levels in primary HNSCC correlated with increased expression of the NF-kappaB-regulated genes IL-8 and IkappaBalpha. In aggregate, these data support a role of LZAP in NF-kappaB regulation and tumor suppression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA095644, CA104397, CA73756, CA75080; NIAID NIH HHS: AI35098; NIDCR NIH HHS: 2R01 DE013173-05

    Cancer cell 2007;12;3;239-51

  • Usefulness of CDK5RAP3, CCNB2, and RAGE genes for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Stav D, Bar I and Sandbank J

    Pulmonary Institute, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel. dstav@asaf.health.gov.il

    We used oligonucleotide microarrays with probe sets to 22,283 genes to analyze the gene expression profile of lung adenocarcinoma. Cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples were obtained from 23 patients with stage I or II lung cancer; 18 tissue pairs and 5 cancerous tissues. A list of 2065 genes that differentiate between cancerous and noncancerous tissues was generated using Winsorized paired t-tests. We analyzed CDK5RAP3 and CCNB2, which are involved in cell cycle progression, and RAGE. The first 2 of these 3 genes proved to be overexpressed in tumor tissue, whereas the RAGE gene was suppressed in tumor tissue. When CDK5RAP3 and CCNB2 were examined in individual patients we found that in cases where one of these genes was only slightly overexpressed the other was highly overexpressed. The combined expression of the 2 cell cycle genes was found to be statistically significant for differentiating between cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Inclusion of the data for the RAGE gene made the differentiation more powerful. The gene expression ratio gave a clear result: when CDK5RAP3 was expressed more than RAGE, the tissue was carcinomatous, and vice versa. We therefore conclude that these 3 genes may be used as a very reliable biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma.

    The International journal of biological markers 2007;22;2;108-13

  • Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 Interactome: evidence for the close connectivity of risk genes and a potential synaptic basis for schizophrenia.

    Camargo LM, Collura V, Rain JC, Mizuguchi K, Hermjakob H, Kerrien S, Bonnert TP, Whiting PJ and Brandon NJ

    Merck Research Labs, Merck & Co., Boston, MA 02115, USA. miguel_camargo@merck.com

    Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a schizophrenia risk gene associated with cognitive deficits in both schizophrenics and the normal ageing population. In this study, we have generated a network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) around DISC1. This has been achieved by utilising iterative yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) screens, combined with detailed pathway and functional analysis. This so-called 'DISC1 interactome' contains many novel PPIs and provides a molecular framework to explore the function of DISC1. The network implicates DISC1 in processes of cytoskeletal stability and organisation, intracellular transport and cell-cycle/division. In particular, DISC1 looks to have a PPI profile consistent with that of an essential synaptic protein, which fits well with the underlying molecular pathology observed at the synaptic level and the cognitive deficits seen behaviourally in schizophrenics. Utilising a similar approach with dysbindin (DTNBP1), a second schizophrenia risk gene, we show that dysbindin and DISC1 share common PPIs suggesting they may affect common biological processes and that the function of schizophrenia risk genes may converge.

    Molecular psychiatry 2007;12;1;74-86

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A novel ARF-binding protein (LZAP) alters ARF regulation of HDM2.

    Wang J, He X, Luo Y and Yarbrough WG

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    The tumour suppressor ARF (alternative reading frame) is encoded by the INK4a (inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4)/ARF locus, which is frequently altered in human tumours. ARF binds MDM2 (murine double minute 2) and releases p53 from inhibition by MDM2, resulting in stabilization, accumulation and activation of p53. Recently, ARF has been found to associate with other proteins, but, to date, little is known about ARF-associated proteins that are implicated in post-translational regulation of ARF activity. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a novel protein, LZAP (LXXLL/leucine-zipper-containing ARF-binding protein), that interacts with endogenous ARF in mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that LZAP reversed the ability of ARF to inhibit HDM2's ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53, but simultaneously co-operated with ARF, maintaining p53 stability and increasing p53 transcriptional activity. Expression of LZAP, in addition to ARF, increased the percentage of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression of LZAP also caused activation of p53 and a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest in the absence of ARF. Taken together, our data suggest that LZAP can regulate ARF biochemical and biological activity. Additionally, LZAP has p53-dependent cell-cycle effects that are independent of ARF.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: 2 R01-DE013173-05, R01 DE013173

    The Biochemical journal 2006;393;Pt 2;489-501

  • CDK5 is a novel regulatory protein in PPARgamma ligand-induced antiproliferation.

    Kim E, Chen F, Wang CC and Harrison LE

    Division of Surgical Oncology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family and has been studied mainly in the differentiation of post-mitotic neurons. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of cdk5 expression and activity in colon cancer cells and to investigate its role in the regulation of PPARgamma ligand-induced antiproliferation. We observed that cdk5 protein levels and kinase activity were elevated in both HT-29 cells and human tumor tissue in comparison to decreased levels in normal colonic mucosa. To elucidate cdk5's role in PPARgamma ligand-induced antiproliferation of colon cancer cells, HT-29 cells were treated with ciglitazone. A dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell proliferation were observed after ciglitazone exposure, which correlated with a decrease in cdk5 protein expression and kinase activity. Importantly, these ciglitazone-induced antiproliferative changes were reversed when cdk5 was overexpressed. Although present, p35, the regulatory protein of cdk5, showed no significant changes in protein expression with the introduction of ciglitazone. This is the first report of cdk5/p35 expression and kinase activity in colon cancer cells, which is associated with ciglitazone-induced antiproliferation in HT-29 cells.

    International journal of oncology 2006;28;1;191-4

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Novel interaction between nuclear co-activator CBP and the CDK5 activator binding protein - C53.

    Yin X, Warner DR, Roberts EA, Pisano MM and Greene RM

    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville, Birth Defects Center, 501 S. Preston Street, Suite 301, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

    cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) is a multifunctional transcriptional co-activator that plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. CBP is expressed in murine embryonic orofacial tissue and is developmentally regulated. To identify nuclear factors associating with CBP in developing orofacial tissue, a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from embryonic orofacial tissue from gestational days 11-13 mouse embryos was conducted. The carboxy terminal region of CBP (including the C/H3 region) was utilized as a bait. C53, a 57 kDa protein known to bind to the p25 activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5, was identified as a novel binding partner of CBP. The association of C53 with CBP was confirmed in vitro by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays, and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Reporter assays demonstrated that C53 had little effect on CBP mediated transcriptional activation. These results identify C53 as a novel binding partner for CBP. Recent research on presenilin-loss induced neurodegeneration demonstrated decreased expression of CBP and increased levels of the Cdk5 activator p25, both C53 binding proteins, suggesting that C53 might play a role in regulating neuronal proliferation, migration and/or differentiation in embryonic development.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20RR017702; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE05550

    International journal of molecular medicine 2005;16;2;251-6

  • Cdk5 activator-binding protein C53 regulates apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress via modulating the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint.

    Jiang H, Luo S and Li H

    Children's Memorial Research Center, The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Feinberg School of Medicine and IGP Graduate Program, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.

    In response to DNA damage, the cellular decision of life versus death involves an intricate network of multiple factors that play critical roles in regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, and cell death. DNA damage checkpoint proteins are crucial for maintaining DNA integrity and normal cellular functions, but they may also reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Here we report the involvement of Cdk5 activator p35-binding protein C53 in regulation of apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress through modulating Cdk1-cyclin B1 function. C53 was originally identified as a Cdk5 activator p35-binding protein and a caspase substrate. Importantly, our results demonstrated that C53 deficiency conferred partial resistance to genotoxic agents such as etoposide and x-ray irradiation, whereas ectopic expression of C53 rendered cells susceptible to multiple genotoxins that usually trigger G(2)/M arrest. Furthermore, we found that Cdk1 activity was required for etoposide-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. Overexpression of C53 promoted Cdk1 activity and nuclear accumulation of cyclin B1, whereas C53 deficiency led to more cytoplasmic retention of cyclin B1, suggesting that C53 acts as a pivotal player in modulating the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint. Finally, C53 and cyclin B1 co-localize and associate in vivo, indicating a direct role of C53 in regulating the Cdk1-cyclin B1 complex. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that in response to genotoxic stress, C53 serves as an important regulatory component of the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint. By overriding the G(2)/M checkpoint-mediated inhibition of Cdk1-cyclin B1 function, ectopic expression of C53 may represent a novel approach for chemo- and radio-sensitization of cancer cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;21;20651-9

  • Induction of HSF1 expression is associated with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Cen H, Zheng S, Fang YM, Tang XP and Dong Q

    Cancer Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Zhejiang University, Hanzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province, China.

    Aim: To explore the activation of signal transduction pathways related with the carcinogenesis of sporadic colon cancers.

    Methods: A gene array monitoring the activation of 8 signal transduction pathways (PathwayFinder GEArray) was used to screen the differentially expressed genes between colorectal cancer and normal colon tissues. The differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by RT-PCR, using RNA derived from colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue of 35 patients.

    Results: The expression of HSF1, HSF27, HSP90 and iNOS was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to normal colon tissue using PathwayFinder GEArray. The RT-PCR results showed that the expression of HSF1 was increased in 86% (30/35) patients and the expression of iNOS was increased in 63% (22/35) patients.

    Conclusion: The induction of HSF1 gene expression is associated with sporadic colon cancer. HSF1 induces heat shock stress signaling pathway, which might play a role in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2004;10;21;3122-6

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cloning and characterization of human IC53-2, a novel CDK5 activator binding protein.

    Xie YH, He XH, Tang YT, Li JJ, Pan ZM, Qin WX, Wan DF and Gu JR

    State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai 200032, China.

    We have identified IC53-2, a human homologue of the rat C53 gene from a human placenta cDNA library (GeneBank Accession No.AF217982). IC53-2 can bind to the CDK5 activator p35 by in vitro association assay. IC53-2 is mapped to human chromosome 17q21.31. The IC53-2 transcript is highly expressed in kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and placenta. It is abundantly expressed in SMMC-7721, C-33A, 3AO, A431 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines by RT-PCR assay. Stable transfection of IC53-2 cDNA into the hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell remarkably stimulates its growth in vitro. The above results indicate that IC53-2 is a novel human gene, which may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation.

    Cell research 2003;13;2;83-91

  • A novel gene IC53 stimulates ECV304 cell proliferation and is upregulated in failing heart.

    Chen J, Liu B, Liu Y, Han Y, Yu H, Zhang Y, Lu L, Zhen Y and Hui R

    Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine and Center for Molecular Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 167 Beilishilu, Beijing 100037, China.

    C53, cloned from rat brain cDNA library, can bind to p35, the precursor of activator of Cdk5. A novel gene with 84% homolog to C53, named IC53, was cloned from our 5300 EST database of human aorta cDNA library (GenBank Accession No. AF110322). Computational analysis showed that IC53 cDNA is 2538 bp long, encoding 419 amino acids, mapped to chromosome 17q21.31 with 12 exons, ubiquitously expressed in 12 tested normal tissues and 8 tumor cell lines from MTN membranes and vascular endothelial cells by Northern blot and in situ hybridization, and upregulated in the rat models of subacute heart failure and chronic ischemic heart failure by left coronary ligation. Stable transfection of IC53 stimulates ECV304 cell proliferation by 2.1-fold compared to cells with empty vector (P<0.05). The results support that IC53 is a novel gene, mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and mediates cell proliferation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;294;1;161-6

  • Identification of a neuronal Cdk5 activator-binding protein as Cdk5 inhibitor.

    Ching YP, Pang AS, Lam WH, Qi RZ and Wang JH

    Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes, including neuronal cell differentiation, apoptosis, neuron migration, and formation of neuromuscular junction. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and an essential regulatory subunit, neuronal Cdk5 activator (p35(nck5a) or p25(nck5a)), which is expressed primarily in neurons of central nervous tissue. In our previous study using the yeast two-hybrid screening method, three novel p35(nck5a)-associated proteins were isolated. Here we show that one of these proteins, called C42, specifically inhibits the activation of Cdk5 by Nck5a. Co-immunoprecipitation data suggested that C42 and p35(nck5a) could form a complex within cultured mammalian cells. Deletion analysis has mapped the inhibitory domain of C42 to a region of 135 amino acids, which is conserved in Pho81, a yeast protein that inhibits the yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase Pho85. The Pho85.Pho80 kinase complex has been shown to be the yeast functional homologue of the mammalian Cdk5/p35(nck5a) kinase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;18;15237-40

  • Identification of a common protein association region in the neuronal Cdk5 activator.

    Wang X, Ching YP, Lam WH, Qi Z, Zhang M and Wang JH

    Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) depends on the association with neuronal Cdk5 activator (Nck5a) for kinase activity. A variety of cellular proteins have been shown to undergo high affinity association with Nck5a, including three novel proteins, C42, C48, and C53 found by a yeast two-hybrid screen (Ching, Y. P., Qi, Z., and Wang, J. H. (2000) Gene 242, 285-294). The three proteins show competitive binding to Nck5a suggesting that they bind at a common site. The binding site has been mapped to a region of 26 amino acid residues (residues 145 to 170) at the N-terminal boundary of the kinase activation domain of Nck5a. This region of Nck5a contains an amphipathic alpha-helix whose hydrophobic face is involved in Cdk5 activation (Chin, K. T., Ohki, S, Tang, D., Cheng, H. C., Wang, J. H. , and Zhang, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 7120-7127). Several lines of evidence suggest that Nck5a interacts with the binding proteins at the hydrophilic face of the amphipathic alpha-helix. First, the Nck5a-(145-170) peptide can bind Cdk5 and Nck5a-binding proteins simultaneously. Second, the association of Nck5a-(145-170) to C48 can be markedly reduced by high ionic strength whereas the interaction between Nck5a and Cdk5 is not affected. Third, substitution of Glu(157) by glutamine in Nck5a-(145-170) abolishes the peptide's ability to bind to the three Nck5a-binding proteins without diminishing its Cdk5 binding activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;41;31763-9

  • Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    Ching YP, Qi Z and Wang JH

    Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon. bcyching@ust.hk

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Gene 2000;242;1-2;285-94

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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