G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001594
Gene symbol
STUB1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
Orthologue
G00000345 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000073574 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000103266 (Ensembl human gene)
10273 (Entrez Gene)
710 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
STUB1 (GeneCards)
Literature
607207 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:11427 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UNE7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • CHIP
  • HSPABP2
  • NY-CO-7
  • SDCCAG7
  • UBOX1

Literature (81)

Pubmed - other

  • Co-chaperone CHIP stabilizes aggregate-prone malin, a ubiquitin ligase mutated in Lafora disease.

    Rao SN, Sharma J, Maity R and Jana NR

    Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience Laboratory, National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Gurgaon-122 050, India.

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation in either the dual specificity phosphatase laforin or ubiquitin ligase malin. A pathological hallmark of LD is the accumulation of cytoplasmic polyglucosan inclusions commonly known as Lafora bodies in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. How mutations in these two proteins cause disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Malin interacts with laforin and recruits to aggresomes upon proteasome inhibition and was shown to degrade misfolded proteins. Here we report that malin is spontaneously misfolded and tends to be aggregated, degraded by proteasomes, and forms not only aggresomes but also other cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates in all transfected cells upon proteasomal inhibition. Malin also interacts with Hsp70. Several disease-causing mutants of malin are comparatively more unstable than wild type and form aggregates in most transfected cells even without the inhibition of proteasome function. These cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates are immunoreactive to ubiquitin and 20 S proteasome. Interestingly, progressive proteasomal dysfunction and cell death is also most frequently observed in the mutant malin-overexpressed cells compared with the wild-type counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that the co-chaperone carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) stabilizes malin by modulating the activity of Hsp70. All together, our results suggest that malin is unstable, and the aggregate-prone protein and co-chaperone CHIP can modulate its stability.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;2;1404-13

  • Engineering a ubiquitin ligase reveals conformational flexibility required for ubiquitin transfer.

    Qian SB, Waldron L, Choudhary N, Klevit RE, Chazin WJ and Patterson C

    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Protein ubiquitination regulates numerous cellular functions in eukaryotes. The prevailing view about the role of RING or U-box ubiquitin ligases (E3) is to provide precise positioning between the attached substrate and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). However, the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer remains obscure. Using the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein as a model E3, we show herein that although U-box binding is required, it is not sufficient to trigger the transfer of ubiquitin onto target substrates. Furthermore, additional regions of the E3 protein that have no direct contact with E2 play critical roles in mediating ubiquitin transfer from E2 to attached substrates. By combining computational structure modeling and protein engineering approaches, we uncovered a conformational flexibility of E3 that is required for substrate ubiquitination. Using an engineered version of the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein ubiquitin ligase as a research tool, we demonstrate a striking flexibility of ubiquitin conjugation that does not affect substrate specificity. Our results not only reveal conformational changes of E3 during ubiquitin transfer but also provide a promising approach to custom-made E3 for targeted proteolysis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL65619, R01 HL065619, R37 HL065619; NIA NIH HHS: AG024282, P01 AG024282; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61728, GM75156, R01 GM061728, R01 GM061728-01A1, R01 GM061728-02, R01 GM061728-03, R01 GM061728-04, R01 GM061728-05A1, R01 GM061728-06, R01 GM061728-07, R01 GM061728-08, R01 GM061728-09A1, R01 GM075156

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;39;26797-802

  • CHIP functions an E3 ubiquitin ligase of Runx1.

    Shang Y, Zhao X, Xu X, Xin H, Li X, Zhai Y, He D, Jia B, Chen W and Chang Z

    School of Medicine, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    Runx1 is a key factor in the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Improper expression and mutations in Runx1 are frequently implicated in human leukemia. Here, we report that CHIP, the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein, also named Stub1, physically interacts with Runx1 through the TPR and Charged domains in the nucleus. Over-expression of CHIP directly induced Runx1 ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Interestingly, we found that CHIP-mediated degradation of Runx1 is independent of the molecular chaperone Hsp70/90. Taken together, we propose that CHIP serves as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates Runx1 protein stability via an ubiquitination and degradation mechanism that is independent of Hsp70/90.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;386;1;242-6

  • C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and survival through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of FoxO1.

    Li F, Xie P, Fan Y, Zhang H, Zheng L, Gu D, Patterson C and Li H

    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical Hospital, Beijing 100730, China.

    Forkhead transcription factors (FoxOs) play a pivotal role in controlling cellular proliferation and survival. The cellular level of these factors is tightly regulated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and ubiquitin-mediated degradation. However, the ubiquitin ligases responsible for the degradation of FoxO1 and the relevance of this regulation to smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and survival have not been fully identified. Here we showed that overexpression of C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) promoted ubiquitination and degradation of FoxO1 in SMCs in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both the U-box (containing ubiquitin ligase activity) and the charged (essential for FoxO1 binding) domains within CHIP were required for CHIP-mediated FoxO1 down-regulation. Moreover, interaction and ubiquitination of FoxO1 by CHIP depended on phosphorylation of FoxO1 at Ser-256. Furthermore, overexpression of CHIP repressed FoxO1-mediated transactivation and its proapoptotic function following tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment. In contrast, knockdown of CHIP by small interfering RNA enhanced FoxO1-mediated transactivation and its effect on SMC proliferation and survival. Taken together, our data indicate that CHIP is a negative regulator of FoxO1 activity through ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and inhibition of CHIP may serve as a potential therapeutic target for reducing proliferative arterial diseases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;30;20090-8

  • Regulation of LRRK2 stability by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    Ding X and Goldberg MS

    Department of Neurology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America.

    Dominantly inherited mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and have also been identified in individuals with sporadic PD. Although the exact cellular function of LRRK2 remains unknown, most PD-linked mutations appear to be toxic to cells in culture via mechanisms that depend on the kinase activity of LRRK2 or on the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP physically associates with LRRK2 and regulates the cellular abundance of LRRK2. We further show that LRRK2 forms a complex with overexpressed and endogenous CHIP and Hsp90. Our data indicates that the destabilization of LRRK2 by CHIP is due to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Hsp90 can attenuate CHIP-mediated degradation and this can be blocked by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. These findings provide important insight into the cellular regulation of LRRK2 stability and may lead to the development of therapeutics to treat PD based on controlling LRRK2 stability.

    PloS one 2009;4;6;e5949

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • CYP3A4 ubiquitination by gp78 (the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor, AMFR) and CHIP E3 ligases.

    Pabarcus MK, Hoe N, Sadeghi S, Patterson C, Wiertz E and Correia MA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, 94158-2280, United States.

    Human liver CYP3A4 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hemoprotein responsible for the metabolism of >50% of clinically prescribed drugs. After heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is degraded via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal pathway that utilizes Ubc7p/Cue1p, but none of the canonical Ub-ligases (E3s) Hrd1p/Hrd3p, Doa10p, and Rsp5p involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). To identify an Ub-ligase capable of ubiquitinating CYP3A4, we examined various in vitro reconstituted mammalian E3 systems, using purified and functionally characterized recombinant components. Of these, the cytosolic domain of the ER-protein gp78, also known as the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR), an UBC7-dependent polytopic RING-finger E3, effectively ubiquitinated CYP3A4 in vitro, as did the UbcH5a-dependent cytosolic E3 CHIP. CYP3A4 immunoprecipitation coupled with anti-Ub immunoblotting analyses confirmed its ubiquitination in these reconstituted systems. Thus, both UBC7/gp78 and UbcH5a/CHIP may be involved in CYP3A4 ERAD, although their relative physiological contribution remains to be established.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK26506, P30 DK026743, R01 DK026506, R01 DK026506-27, R56 DK026506; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM44037, R01 GM044037, R01 GM044037-16A1

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2009;483;1;66-74

  • The ubiquitin ligase CHIP acts as an upstream regulator of oncogenic pathways.

    Kajiro M, Hirota R, Nakajima Y, Kawanowa K, So-ma K, Ito I, Yamaguchi Y, Ohie SH, Kobayashi Y, Seino Y, Kawano M, Kawabe Y, Takei H, Hayashi S, Kurosumi M, Murayama A, Kimura K and Yanagisawa J

    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

    CHIP is a U-box-type ubiquitin ligase that induces ubiquitylation and degradation of its substrates, which include several oncogenic proteins. The relationship between CHIP and tumour progression, however, has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CHIP suppresses tumour progression in human breast cancer by inhibiting oncogenic pathways. CHIP levels were negatively correlated with the malignancy of human breast tumour tissues. In a nude mouse xenograft model, tumour growth and metastasis were significantly inhibited by CHIP expression. In contrast, knockdown of CHIP (shCHIP) in breast cancer cells resulted in rapid tumour growth and metastastic phenotypes in mice. In cell-based experiments, anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness of shCHIP cells was significantly elevated due to increased expression of Bcl2, Akt1, Smad and Twist. Proteomic analysis identified the transcriptional co-activator SRC-3 (refs 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19) as a direct target for ubiquitylation and degradation by CHIP. Knocking down SRC-3 in shCHIP cells reduced the expression of Smad and Twist, and suppressed tumour metastasis in vivo. Conversely, SRC-3 co-expression prevented CHIP-induced suppression of metastasis formation. These observations demonstrate that CHIP inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth and metastatic potential by degrading oncogenic proteins including SRC-3.

    Nature cell biology 2009;11;3;312-9

  • CHIP regulates leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 ubiquitination, degradation, and toxicity.

    Ko HS, Bailey R, Smith WW, Liu Z, Shin JH, Lee YI, Zhang YJ, Jiang H, Ross CA, Moore DJ, Patterson C, Petrucelli L, Dawson TM and Dawson VL

    Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Programs, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) is the most common cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Although most cases of PD are sporadic, some are inherited, including those caused by LRRK2 mutations. Because these mutations may be associated with a toxic gain of function, controlling the expression of LRRK2 may decrease its cytotoxicity. Here we show that the carboxyl terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (CHIP) binds, ubiquitinates, and promotes the ubiquitin proteasomal degradation of LRRK2. Overexpression of CHIP protects against and knockdown of CHIP exacerbates toxicity mediated by mutant LRRK2. Moreover, HSP90 forms a complex with LRRK2, and inhibition of HSP90 chaperone activity by 17AAG leads to proteasomal degradation of LRRK2, resulting in increased cell viability. Thus, increasing CHIP E3 ligase activity and blocking HSP90 chaperone activity can prevent the deleterious effects of LRRK2. These findings point to potential treatment options for LRRK2-associated PD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG017216, P01 AG017216; NINDS NIH HHS: NS04826, NS38377, NS54207, P50 NS038377, R01 NS048206, R21 NS054207

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;8;2897-902

  • Cysteine string protein promotes proteasomal degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) by increasing its interaction with the C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein and promoting CFTR ubiquitylation.

    Schmidt BZ, Watts RJ, Aridor M and Frizzell RA

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261.

    Cysteine string protein (Csp) is a J-domain-containing protein whose overexpression blocks the exit of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Another method of blocking ER exit, the overexpression of Sar1-GTP, however, yielded twice as much immature CFTR compared with Csp overexpression. This finding suggested that Csp not only inhibits CFTR ER exit but also facilitates the degradation of immature CFTR. This was confirmed by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, which returned the level of immature CFTR to that found in cells expressing Sar1-GTP only. CspH43Q, which does not interact with Hsc70/Hsp70 efficiently, did not promote CFTR degradation, suggesting that the pro-degradative effect of Csp requires Hsc70/Hsp70 binding/activation. In agreement with this, Csp overexpression increased the amount of Hsc70/Hsp70 co-immunoprecipitated with CFTR, whereas overexpression of CspH43Q did not. The Hsc70/Hsp70 binding partner C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) can target CFTR for proteasome-mediated degradation. Csp overexpression also increased the amount of CHIP co-immunoprecipitated with CFTR. In addition, CHIP interacted directly with Csp, which was confirmed by in vitro binding experiments. Csp overexpression also increased CFTR ubiquitylation and reduced the half-life of immature CFTR. These findings indicate that Csp not only regulates the exit of CFTR from the ER, but that this action is accompanied by Hsc70/Hsp70 and CHIP-mediated CFTR degradation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK62318, DK68196, DK72506

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;7;4168-78

  • A critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway.

    Sha Y, Pandit L, Zeng S and Eissa NT

    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Recent evidence suggests that aggresome formation is a physiologic stress response not limited to misfolded proteins. That stress response, termed "physiologic aggresome," is exemplified by aggresome formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an important host defense protein. CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is a highly conserved protein that has been shown to mediate substrate ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we show that CHIP has a previously unexpected critical role in the aggresome pathway. CHIP interacts with iNOS and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome as well as its sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP-mediated iNOS targeting to the proteasome sequentially precedes CHIP-mediated iNOS sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP is required for iNOS preaggresome structures to form a mature aggresome. Furthermore, CHIP is required for targeting the mutant form of cystic fibrosis transconductance regulator (CFTRDeltaF508) to the aggresome. Importantly, the ubiquitin ligase function of CHIP is required in targeting preaggresomal structures to the aggresome by promoting an iNOS interaction with histone deacetylase 6, which serves as an adaptor between ubiquitinated proteins and the dynein motor. This study reveals a critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;1;116-28

  • CHIP facilitates ubiquitination of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promotes its proteasomal degradation.

    Chen L, Kong X, Fu J, Xu Y, Fang S, Hua P, Luo L and Yin Z

    Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, PR China.

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is responsible for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from l-arginine in response to inflammatory mediators. It is reported that iNOS is degraded mainly by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in RAW264.7 cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In this study, we showed that iNOS was ubiquitinated and degraded dependent on CHIP (COOH terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein), a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin ligase. The results from overexpression and RNAi experiments demonstrated that CHIP decreased the protein level of iNOS, shortened the half-life of iNOS and attenuated the production of NO. Furthermore, CHIP promoted ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of iNOS by associating with iNOS. These results suggest that CHIP plays an important role in regulation iNOS activity.

    Cellular immunology 2009;258;1;38-43

  • CHIP deletion reveals functional redundancy of E3 ligases in promoting degradation of both signaling proteins and expanded glutamine proteins.

    Morishima Y, Wang AM, Yu Z, Pratt WB, Osawa Y and Lieberman AP

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 3510 MSRB I, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to Hsp70 and Hsp90, promotes degradation of several Hsp90-regulated signaling proteins and disease-causing proteins containing expanded glutamine tracts. In polyglutamine disease models, CHIP has been considered a primary protection factor by promoting degradation of these misfolded proteins. Here, we show that two CHIP substrates, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a classic Hsp90-regulated signaling protein, and the expanded glutamine androgen receptor (AR112Q), are degraded at the same rate in CHIP(-/-) and CHIP(+/+) mouse embryonic fibroblasts after treatment with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. CHIP(-/-) cytosol has the same ability as CHIP(+/+) cytosol to ubiquitinate purified neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), another established CHIP substrate. To determine whether other E3 ubiquitin ligases that bind to Hsp70 (Parkin) or Hsp90 (Mdm2) act on CHIP substrates, each E3 ligase was co-expressed with the GR, nNOS, AR112Q or Q78 ataxin-3. CHIP lowered the levels of all four proteins, Parkin acted on nNOS and Q78 ataxin-3 but not on the steroid receptors, and Mdm2 did not affect any of the co-expressed proteins. Moreover, both CHIP and Parkin co-localized to aggregates of the expanded glutamine AR formed in cell culture and in a knock-in mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. These observations establish that CHIP does not play an exclusive role in regulating the turnover of Hsp90 client signaling proteins or expanded glutamine tract proteins, and show that the Hsp70-dependent E3 ligase Parkin acts redundantly to CHIP on some substrates.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM77430; NINDS NIH HHS: NS055746, R01 NS055746

    Human molecular genetics 2008;17;24;3942-52

  • X-linked and cellular IAPs modulate the stability of C-RAF kinase and cell motility.

    Dogan T, Harms GS, Hekman M, Karreman C, Oberoi TK, Alnemri ES, Rapp UR and Rajalingam K

    Emmy Noether Group of DFG, Institut für Biochemie II, Goethe University Medical School, Frankfurt, Germany.

    Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) are evolutionarily conserved anti-apoptotic regulators. C-RAF protein kinase is a direct RAS effector protein, which initiates the classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. This signalling cascade mediates diverse biological functions, such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. Here we demonstrate that XIAP and c-IAPs bind directly to C-RAF kinase and that siRNA-mediated silencing of XIAP and c-IAPs leads to stabilization of C-RAF in human cells. XIAP binds strongly to C-RAF and promotes the ubiquitylation of C-RAF in vivo through the Hsp90-mediated quality control system, independently of its E3 ligase activity. In addition, XIAP or c-IAP-1/2 knockdown cells showed enhanced cell migration in a C-RAF-dependent manner. XIAP promotes binding of CHIP (carboxy terminal Hsc70-interacting protein), a chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase, to the C-RAF-Hsp90 complex in vivo. Interfering with CHIP expression resulted in stabilization of C-RAF and enhanced cell migration, as observed in XIAP knockdown cells. Our data show an unexpected role of XIAP and c-IAPs in the turnover of C-RAF protein, thereby modulating the MAPK signalling pathway and cell migration.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: GMO76167

    Nature cell biology 2008;10;12;1447-55

  • Cytosolic chaperones influence the fate of a toxin dislocated from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Spooner RA, Hart PJ, Cook JP, Pietroni P, Rogon C, Höhfeld J, Roberts LM and Lord JM

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom. r.a.spooner@warwick.ac.uk

    The plant cytotoxin ricin enters target mammalian cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and undergoes retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, its catalytic A chain (RTA) is reductively separated from the cell-binding B chain, and free RTA enters the cytosol where it inactivates ribosomes. Cytosolic entry requires unfolding of RTA and dislocation across the ER membrane such that it arrives in the cytosol in a vulnerable, nonnative conformation. Clearly, for such a dislocated toxin to become active, it must avoid degradation and fold to a catalytic conformation. Here, we show that, in vitro, Hsc70 prevents aggregation of heat-treated RTA, and that RTA catalytic activity is recovered after chaperone treatment. A combination of pharmacological inhibition and cochaperone expression reveals that, in vivo, cytosolic RTA is scrutinized sequentially by the Hsc70 and Hsp90 cytosolic chaperone machineries, and that its eventual fate is determined by the balance of activities of cochaperones that regulate Hsc70 and Hsp90 functions. Cytotoxic activity follows Hsc70-mediated escape of RTA from an otherwise destructive pathway facilitated by Hsp90. We demonstrate a role for cytosolic chaperones, proteins typically associated with folding nascent proteins, assembling multimolecular protein complexes and degrading cytosolic and stalled, cotranslocational clients, in a toxin triage, in which both toxin folding and degradation are initiated from chaperone-bound states.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; NIAID NIH HHS: 5U01AI65869-02, U01 AI065869; Wellcome Trust: 080566Z/06/Z

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;45;17408-13

  • Quercetin-induced ubiquitination and down-regulation of Her-2/neu.

    Jeong JH, An JY, Kwon YT, Li LY and Lee YJ

    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

    Her-2/neu (ErbB2) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase and acts as a co-receptor for the other EGFR family members. It is well known that high expression of Her-2/neu is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in many vegetables and fruits, has been studied extensively as a chemoprevention agent in several cancer models. In this study, we observed that quercetin decreased the level of Her-2/neu protein in time- and dose-dependent manners and also inhibited the downstream survival PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in Her-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer SK-Br3 cells. We also observed that quercetin induced polyubiquitination of Her-2/neu. When the proteasome pathway was blocked by MG-132 during quercetin treatment, accumulation of the NP-40 insoluble form of Her-2/neu occurred. Interestingly, data from immunocomplex studies revealed that quercetin promoted interaction between Her-2/neu and Hsp90 which is a molecular chaperone involved in stabilization of Her-2/neu. In this condition, inhibition of Hsp90 activity by a specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), or intracellular ATP depletion caused dissociation of Hsp90 from Her-2/neu and promoted ubiquitination and down-regulation of Her-2/neu protein. In addition, the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), a chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, played a crucial role in the quercetin-induced ubiquitination of Her-2/neu. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity of Her-2/neu by quercetin could indicate an lateration in the Her-2/neu structure which promotes CHIP recruitments and down-regulation of Her-2/neu. We believe that by using quercetin, new therapeutic strategies can be developed to treat Her-2/neu overexpressing cancers.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA121395, CA95191, CA96989, R01 CA095191, R01 CA095191-05, R01 CA096989, R03 CA121395

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2008;105;2;585-95

  • [Overexpression of CHIP in chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells induces mitotic abnormality].

    Gao Y, Wang Y, Zhang XH, Chen GZ, DU ZY, Xu YJ and Yu XD

    Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China.

    This study was aimed to investigate the possible influence of a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70/Hsp70-interacting protein) on biological characteristics of cancer cells. Stable overexpression models in CML K562 cells were established via lipofectamine-mediated wild type CHIP and its TPR or U-box deletion mutants gene transfection. Followed G418 pressure selection, K562-CHIP stable transfected cell clones were obtained by limited dilution. The proliferation status and cell cycle were observed by MTT assay and FACS. The expression of related proteins and morphological changes were detected by Western blot and Wright-Giemsa staining. The results showed that overexpression of wild type CHIP did not inhibit cell proliferation, but slightly increased cell ratio of G(2)/M phase. CHIP gene had no effect on the stability of BCR-ABL kinase protein. HDAC inhibitor FK228-induced BCR-ABL degradation did not enhanced by CHIP. Notably the enlarged cells and abnormal mitotic cells remarkably increased in K562 WT-CHIP cells, indicating that CHIP may involve in the regulation of mitotic process. It is concluded that wild type CHIP induces mitotic abnormity in K562 cells.

    Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi 2008;16;4;763-7

  • CHIP targets toxic alpha-Synuclein oligomers for degradation.

    Tetzlaff JE, Putcha P, Outeiro TF, Ivanov A, Berezovska O, Hyman BT and McLean PJ

    Department of Neurology, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSyn) can self-associate, forming oligomers, fibrils, and Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease. Current dogma suggests that oligomeric alphaSyn intermediates may represent the most toxic alphaSyn species. Here, we studied the effect of a potent molecular chaperone, CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein), on alphaSyn oligomerization using a novel bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. CHIP is a multidomain chaperone, utilizing both a tetratricopeptide/Hsp70 binding domain and a U-box/ubiquitin ligase domain to differentially impact the fate of misfolded proteins. In the current study, we found that co-expression of CHIP selectively reduced alphaSyn oligomerization and toxicity in a tetratricopeptide domain-dependent, U-box-independent manner by specifically degrading toxic alphaSyn oligomers. We conclude that CHIP preferentially recognizes and mediates degradation of toxic, oligomeric forms of alphaSyn. Further elucidation of the mechanisms of CHIP-induced degradation of oligomeric alphaSyn may contribute to the successful development of drug therapies that target oligomeric alphaSyn by mimicking or enhancing the powerful effects of CHIP.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG005134; NINDS NIH HHS: P50 NS038372, P50 NS038372-030001, P50 NS038372-080001, R01 NS063963, R01 NS063963-01A1

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;26;17962-8

  • CHIP promotes Runx2 degradation and negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation.

    Li X, Huang M, Zheng H, Wang Y, Ren F, Shang Y, Zhai Y, Irwin DM, Shi Y, Chen D and Chang Z

    Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    Runx2, an essential transactivator for osteoblast differentiation, is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this paper, we report that CHIP (C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein)/STUB1 regulates Runx2 protein stability via a ubiquitination-degradation mechanism. CHIP interacts with Runx2 in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of increased Runx2 protein levels, CHIP expression decreases, whereas the expression of other E3 ligases involved in Runx2 degradation, such as Smurf1 or WWP1, remains constant or increases during osteoblast differentiation. Depletion of CHIP results in the stabilization of Runx2, enhances Runx2-mediated transcriptional activation, and promotes osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial cells. In contrast, CHIP overexpression in preosteoblasts causes Runx2 degradation, inhibits osteoblast differentiation, and instead enhances adipogenesis. Our data suggest that negative regulation of the Runx2 protein by CHIP is critical in the commitment of precursor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: K02 AR052411, K02 AR052411-02, R01 AR051189, R01 AR051189-04, R01 AR054465, R01 AR054465-01

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;181;6;959-72

  • CHIP deficiency decreases longevity, with accelerated aging phenotypes accompanied by altered protein quality control.

    Min JN, Whaley RA, Sharpless NE, Lockyer P, Portbury AL and Patterson C

    Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7126, USA.

    During the course of biological aging, there is a gradual accumulation of damaged proteins and a concomitant functional decline in the protein degradation system. Protein quality control is normally ensured by the coordinated actions of molecular chaperones and the protein degradation system that collectively help to maintain protein homeostasis. The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), a ubiquitin ligase/cochaperone, participates in protein quality control by targeting a broad range of chaperone substrates for proteasome degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system, demonstrating a broad involvement of CHIP in maintaining cytoplasmic protein quality control. In the present study, we have investigated the influence that protein quality control exerts on the aging process by using CHIP-/- mice. CHIP deficiency in mice leads to a markedly reduced life span, along with accelerated age-related pathophysiological phenotypes. These features were accompanied by indications of accelerated cellular senescence and increased indices of oxidative stress. In addition, CHIP-/- mice exhibit a deregulation of protein quality control, as indicated by elevated levels of toxic oligomer proteins and a decline in proteasome activity. Taken together, these data reveal that impaired protein quality control contributes to cellular senescence and implicates CHIP-dependent quality control mechanisms in the regulation of mammalian longevity in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL65619, R01 HL065619, R37 HL065619; NIA NIH HHS: AG024282, P01 AG024282; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61728, R01 GM061728

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;12;4018-25

  • Chaperone-dependent stabilization and degradation of p53 mutants.

    Muller P, Hrstka R, Coomber D, Lane DP and Vojtesek B

    Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

    p53 missense mutant proteins commonly show increased stability compared to wild-type p53, which is thought to depend largely on the inability of mutant p53 to induce the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. However, recent work using mouse models has shown that the accumulation of mutant p53 occurs only in tumour cells, indicating that stabilization requires additional factors. To clarify the stabilization of p53 mutants in tumours, we analysed factors that affect their folding and degradation. Although all missense mutants that we studied are more stable than wild-type p53, the levels correlate with individual structural characteristics, which may be reflected in different gain-of-function properties. In the absence of Hsp90 activity, the less stable unfolded p53 mutants preferentially associate in a complex with Hsp70 and CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein), and we show that CHIP is responsible for ubiquitination and degradation of these mutants. The demonstration of a complex interplay between Hsp90, Hsp70 and CHIP that regulate the stability of different p53 mutant proteins improves our understanding of the pro-tumorigenic effects of increased Hsp90 activity during multi-stage carcinogenesis. Understanding the roles of Hsp90, Hsp70 and CHIP in cancers may also provide an important avenue through which to target p53 to enhance treatment of human cancers.

    Oncogene 2008;27;24;3371-83

  • Interactions between the quality control ubiquitin ligase CHIP and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes.

    Xu Z, Kohli E, Devlin KI, Bold M, Nix JC and Misra S

    Department of Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. xuz1@ccf.org

    Background: Ubiquitin (E3) ligases interact with specific ubiquitin conjugating (E2) enzymes to ubiquitinate particular substrate proteins. As the combination of E2 and E3 dictates the type and biological consequence of ubiquitination, it is important to understand the basis of specificity in E2:E3 interactions. The E3 ligase CHIP interacts with Hsp70 and Hsp90 and ubiquitinates client proteins that are chaperoned by these heat shock proteins. CHIP interacts with two types of E2 enzymes, UbcH5 and Ubc13-Uev1a. It is unclear, however, why CHIP binds these E2 enzymes rather than others, and whether CHIP interacts preferentially with UbcH5 or Ubc13-Uev1a, which form different types of polyubiquitin chains.

    Results: The 2.9 A crystal structure of the CHIP U-box domain complexed with UbcH5a shows that CHIP binds to UbcH5 and Ubc13 through similar specificity determinants, including a key S-P-A motif on the E2 enzymes. The determinants make different relative contributions to the overall interactions between CHIP and the two E2 enzymes. CHIP undergoes auto-ubiquitination by UbcH5 but not by Ubc13-Uev1a. Instead, CHIP drives the formation of unanchored polyubiquitin by Ubc13-Uev1a. CHIP also interacts productively with the class III E2 enzyme Ube2e2, in which the UbcH5- and Ubc13-binding specificity determinants are highly conserved.

    Conclusion: The CHIP:UbcH5a structure emphasizes the importance of specificity determinants located on the long loops and central helix of the CHIP U-box, and on the N-terminal helix and loops L4 and L7 of its cognate E2 enzymes. The S-P-A motif and other specificity determinants define the set of cognate E2 enzymes for CHIP, which likely includes several Class III E2 enzymes. CHIP's interactions with UbcH5, Ube2e2 and Ubc13-Uev1a are consistent with the notion that Ubc13-Uev1a may work sequentially with other E2 enzymes to carry out K63-linked polyubiquitination of CHIP substrates.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM080271, R01 GM080271-01A1

    BMC structural biology 2008;8;26

  • Akt and CHIP coregulate tau degradation through coordinated interactions.

    Dickey CA, Koren J, Zhang YJ, Xu YF, Jinwal UK, Birnbaum MJ, Monks B, Sun M, Cheng JQ, Patterson C, Bailey RM, Dunmore J, Soresh S, Leon C, Morgan D and Petrucelli L

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. cdickey1@health.usf.edu

    A hallmark of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein tau into fibrillar aggregates. Recent studies suggest that they accumulate because cytosolic chaperones fail to clear abnormally phosphorylated tau, preserving a pool of toxic tau intermediates within the neuron. We describe a mechanism for tau clearance involving a major cellular kinase, Akt. During stress, Akt is ubiquitinated and degraded by the tau ubiquitin ligase CHIP, and this largely depends on the Hsp90 complex. Akt also prevents CHIP-induced tau ubiquitination and its subsequent degradation, either by regulating the Hsp90/CHIP complex directly or by competing as a client protein with tau for binding. Akt levels tightly regulate the expression of CHIP, such that, as Akt levels are suppressed, CHIP levels also decrease, suggesting a potential stress response feedback mechanism between ligase and kinase activity. We also show that Akt and the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (PAR1/MARK2), a known tau kinase, interact directly. Akt enhances the activity of PAR1 to promote tau hyperphosphorylation at S262/S356, a tau species that is not recognized by the CHIP/Hsp90 complex. Moreover, Akt1 knockout mice have reduced levels of tau phosphorylated at PAR1/MARK2 consensus sites. Hence, Akt serves as a major regulator of tau biology by manipulating both tau kinases and protein quality control, providing a link to several common pathways that have demonstrated dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: K99 AG031291, K99 AG031291-01, K99-AG31291, P01 AG017216, R00 AG031291, R00 AG031291-02, R00 AG031291-02S1, R01-AG17216-08; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK056886, R01-DK56886

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;9;3622-7

  • MKKS is a centrosome-shuttling protein degraded by disease-causing mutations via CHIP-mediated ubiquitination.

    Hirayama S, Yamazaki Y, Kitamura A, Oda Y, Morito D, Okawa K, Kimura H, Cyr DM, Kubota H and Nagata K

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biolog, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8397, Japan.

    McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKKS) is a recessively inherited human genetic disease characterized by several developmental anomalies. Mutations in the MKKS gene also cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a genetically heterogeneous disorder with pleiotropic symptoms. However, little is known about how MKKS mutations lead to disease. Here, we show that disease-causing mutants of MKKS are rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in a manner dependent on HSC70 interacting protein (CHIP), a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin ligase. Although wild-type MKKS quickly shuttles between the centrosome and cytosol in living cells, the rapidly degraded mutants often fail to localize to the centrosome. Inhibition of proteasome functions causes MKKS mutants to form insoluble structures at the centrosome. CHIP and partner chaperones, including heat-shock protein (HSP)70/heat-shock cognate 70 and HSP90, strongly recognize MKKS mutants. Modest knockdown of CHIP by RNA interference moderately inhibited the degradation of MKKS mutants. These results indicate that the MKKS mutants have an abnormal conformation and that chaperone-dependent degradation mediated by CHIP is a key feature of MKKS/BBS diseases.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;3;899-911

  • CHIP-mediated degradation and DNA damage-dependent stabilization regulate base excision repair proteins.

    Parsons JL, Tait PS, Finch D, Dianova II, Allinson SL and Dianov GL

    Medical Research Council Radiation Oncology and Biology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3QU, UK.

    Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for processing of simple lesions in DNA, including single-strand breaks, base damage, and base loss. The scaffold protein XRCC1, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase IIIalpha play pivotal roles in BER. Although all these enzymes are essential for development, their cellular levels must be tightly regulated because increased amounts of BER enzymes lead to elevated mutagenesis and genetic instability and are frequently found in cancer cells. Here we report that BER enzyme levels are linked to and controlled by the level of DNA lesions. We demonstrate that stability of BER enzymes increases after formation of a repair complex on damaged DNA and that proteins not involved in a repair complex are ubiquitylated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and subsequently rapidly degraded. These data identify a molecular mechanism controlling cellular levels of BER enzymes and correspondingly the efficiency and capacity of BER.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0700730

    Molecular cell 2008;29;4;477-87

  • Ubiquitination and degradation of Tal1/SCL are induced by notch signaling and depend on Skp2 and CHIP.

    Nie L, Wu H and Sun XH

    Immunobiology and Cancer Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.

    Notch signaling controls diverse eukaryotic differentiation processes in multiple cell types, thus demanding versatile tools with which Notch triggers downstream events. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has previously been shown to be one such tool with which Notch regulates the turnover of the basic helix-loophelix transcription factor, E47. Here, we show that Notch signaling also accelerated the degradation of Tal1/SCL (T cell acute leukemia 1/stem cell leukemia) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix protein involved in the development of hematopoietic, vascular, and neuronal tissues. Notch-induced Tal1/SCL degradation was mediated by ubiquitination and proteasomes. The sequence responsible for Tal1 degradation was localized to a region in the C terminus of Tal1, which is evolutionarily conserved, thus suggesting a functional significance. Analogous to the situation for E47, Notch-induced Tal1/SCL degradation not only required Skp2, a substrate-binding subunit of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes, but also relied on CHIP, a chaperone-binding protein with a ubiquitin ligase activity. In contrast to the fact that the N-terminal tetratricopeptide region (TPR) domain of CHIP is necessary and sufficient for E47 ubiquitination and degradation, CHIP promoted Tal1 degradation with both chaperone binding and ubiquitin ligase activities, which are mediated by its TPR domain and U box, respectively. Although the TPR domain was not involved in Tal1/SCL binding, it was required for enhancing its degradation. Likewise, the ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP was dispensable for Tal1/SCL binding but essential for degradation. These findings provide both novel mechanistic insights into the operation of cullin-based ubiquitin ligase complexes and potential means by which Notch and Tal1/SCL regulate eukaryotic development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77553, R01 CA077553; NIAID NIH HHS: AI056129, R01 AI056129

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;2;684-92

  • Differential ubiquitination of Smad1 mediated by CHIP: implications in the regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway.

    Li RF, Shang Y, Liu D, Ren ZS, Chang Z and Sui SF

    Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, State-Key Lab of Biomembranes and Membrane Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    Smad1, a downstream regulator of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors, is tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation system. To dissect the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Smad1, it is important to investigate the specific ubiquitination site(s) in Smad1. Here we report that the alpha-NH(2) group of the N terminus and the epsilon-NH(2) groups of internal lysine residues 116, 118 and 269 (K116, K118 and K269) of Smad1 are ubiquitin acceptor sites mediated by the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). The in vitro degradation assay indicates that ubiquitination at the N terminus partially contributes to the degradation of Smad1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ubiquitination level of pseudo-phosphorylated Smad1 by CHIP is stronger than that of wild-type Smad1 and can be strongly inhibited by a phosphorylated tail of Smad1, PIS(pS)V(pS). Third, our results indicate that Hsp70 facilitates CHIP-mediated poly-ubiquitination of Smad1 whereas it attenuates CHIP-meditated mono-ubiquitination of Smad1. Finally, consistent with the in vitro observation, we show that CHIP preferentially mediates the degradation of phospho-Smad1/5 in vivo. Taken together, these results provide us a hint that CHIP might preferentially regulate phosphorylated Smad1 and thus the BMP signaling.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;374;3;777-90

  • Chaperone-dependent E3 ligase CHIP ubiquitinates and mediates proteasomal degradation of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Xia T, Dimitropoulou C, Zeng J, Antonova GN, Snead C, Venema RC, Fulton D, Qian S, Patterson C, Papapetropoulos A and Catravas JD

    Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2500, USA.

    The nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) exists in multimeric protein complexes, including heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin causes proteasomal degradation of sGC protein. In this study, we have investigated whether COOH terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP), a co-chaperone molecule that is involved in protein folding but is also a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase, could play a role in the process of degradation of sGC. Transient overexpression of CHIP in COS-7 cells degraded heterologous sGC in a concentration-related manner; this downregulation of sGC was abrogated by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Transfection of tetratricopeptide repeats and U-box domain CHIP mutants attenuated sGC degradation, suggesting that both domains are indispensable for CHIP function. Results from immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that CHIP is associated with sGC, HSP90, and HSP70 in COS-7 cells. Furthermore, CHIP increased the association of HSP70 with sGC. In in vitro ubiquitination assays using purified proteins and ubiquitin enzymes, E3 ligase CHIP directly ubiquitinated sGC; this ubiquitination was potentiated by geldanamycin in COS-7 cells, followed by proteasomal degradation. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, endogenous sGC was also degraded by adenovirus-infected wild-type CHIP but not by the chaperone interaction-deficient K30A CHIP, whereas CHIP, but not K30A, attenuated sGC expression in, and nitric oxide donor-induced relaxation of, rat aortic rings, suggesting that CHIP plays a regulatory role under physiological conditions. This study reveals a new mechanism for the regulation of sGC, an important mediator of cellular and vascular function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-66993, HL-70214

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2007;293;5;H3080-7

  • Regulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 degradation by G alpha13.

    Kutuzov MA, Andreeva AV and Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois, 909 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that transduces apoptotic signals from a variety of stresses. We have shown previously that alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G12 and G13 proteins stimulate ASK1 kinase activity and ASK1-dependent apoptosis. Here, we report a novel mechanism of G-protein-dependent regulation of ASK1. We demonstrated that G alpha13 forms a complex with ASK1 in an activation-independent manner. Both N- and C-terminal regulatory domains of ASK1 were essential for the efficient interaction, while its kinase domain was not required. Formation of the G alpha13-ASK1 complex was enhanced by JNK-interacting leucine zipper protein, JLP. Constitutively activated G alpha13Q226L increased ASK1 expression. Short-term activation of a serotonin 5-HT4 receptor that is coupled to G alpha13 also increased ASK1 expression. Importantly, prolonged activation of 5-HT4 receptor in COS-7 cells or prolonged treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with thrombin concomitantly down-regulated both G alpha13 and ASK1. Data showed that G alpha13Q226L reduced the rate of ASK1 degradation, decreased ASK1 ubiquitination, and reduced association of ASK1 with an E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP, previously shown to mediate ASK1 degradation. Our findings indicate that ASK1 expression levels can be regulated by G alpha13, at least in part via control of ASK1 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-06078; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-56159, GM-65160

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2007;21;13;3727-36

  • CHIP chaperones wild type p53 tumor suppressor protein.

    Tripathi V, Ali A, Bhat R and Pati U

    School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.

    Wild type p53 exists in a constant state of equilibrium between wild type and mutant conformation and undergoes conformational changes at elevated temperature. We have demonstrated that the co-chaperone CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein), which suppressed aggregation of several misfolded substrates and induced the proteasomal degradation of both wild type and mutant p53, physically interacts with the amino terminus of WT53 and prevented it from irreversible thermal inactivation. CHIP preferentially binds to the p53 mutant phenotype and restored the DNA binding activity of heat-denatured p53 in an ATP-independent manner. In cells under elevated temperatures that contained a higher level of p53 mutant phenotype, CHIP restored the native-like conformation of p53 in the presence of geldanamycin, whereas CHIP-small interfering RNA considerably increased the mutant form. Further, under elevated temperatures, the levels of CHIP and p53 were higher in nucleus, and chromatin immunoprecipitation shows the presence of p53 and CHIP together upon the DNA binding site in the p21 and p53 promoters. We propose that CHIP might be a direct chaperone of wild type p53 that helps p53 in maintaining wild type conformation under physiological condition as well as help resurrect p53 mutant phenotype into a folded native state under stress condition.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;39;28441-54

  • Chaperone functions of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    Rosser MF, Washburn E, Muchowski PJ, Patterson C and Cyr DM

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    The carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an Hsp70 co-chaperone as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that protects cells from proteotoxic stress. The abilities of CHIP to interact with Hsp70 and function as a ubiquitin ligase place CHIP at a pivotal position in the protein quality control system, where its entrance into Hsp70-substrate complexes partitions nonnative proteins toward degradation. However, the manner by which Hsp70 substrates are selected for ubiquitination by CHIP is not well understood. We discovered that CHIP possesses an intrinsic chaperone activity that enables it to selectively recognize and bind nonnative proteins. Interestingly, the chaperone function of CHIP is temperature-sensitive and is dramatically enhanced by heat stress. The ability of CHIP to recognize nonnative protein structure may aid in selection of slow folding or misfolded polypeptides for ubiquitination.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 000678-08, GM 056981, GM 061728; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 047237, NS 054753

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;31;22267-77

  • Parkin interacts with LIM Kinase 1 and reduces its cofilin-phosphorylation activity via ubiquitination.

    Lim MK, Kawamura T, Ohsawa Y, Ohtsubo M, Asakawa S, Takayanagi A and Shimizu N

    Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo, Japan.

    Mutations in the PARKIN (PARK2) gene have been found in the majority of early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). Parkin protein functions as an ubiquitin (E3) ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation in the 26S proteasome. Here, based on a mass spectrometry analysis of the human dopaminergic neuroblastoma-derived cell line SH-SY5Y that over-expresses parkin, we found that parkin may suppress cofilin phosphorylation. LIM Kinase 1 (LIMK1) is the upstream protein that phosphorylates cofilin, an actin depolymerizing protein. Thus, we postulated a possible connection between parkin and LIMK1. Our studies in other cell lines, using co-transfection assays, demonstrated that LIMK1 and parkin bind each other. LIMK1 also interacted with previously known parkin interactors Hsp70 and CHIP. Parkin enhanced LIMK1-ubiquitination in the human neuroblastoma-derived BE(2)-M17 cell line, but not in the human embryonic kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. In fact, parkin-over-expression reduced the level of LIMK1-induced phosphocofilin in the BE(2)-M17 cells but not in the HEK293 cells. Additionally, in simian kidney-derived COS-7 cells, parkin-over-expression reduced LIMK1-induced actin filament accumulation. LIMK1 in cultured cells regulates parkin reversibly: LIMK1 did not phosphorylate parkin but LIMK1 overexpression reduced parkin self-ubiquitination in vitro and in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, in the cells co-transfected with parkin and p38, LIMK1 significantly decreased p38-ubiquitination by parkin. These findings demonstrate a cell-type dependent functional interaction between parkin and LIMK1 and provide new evidence that links parkin and LIMK1 in the pathogenesis of familial PD.

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;13;2858-74

  • Regulation of death-associated protein kinase. Stabilization by HSP90 heterocomplexes.

    Zhang L, Nephew KP and Gallagher PJ

    Department of Cellular and Integrated Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) has been found associated with HSP90, and inhibition of HSP90 with 17-alkylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin reduced expression of DAPK. These results were extended to determine whether the degradation of DAPK in the absence of HSP90 activity is dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our results show that treatment of cells with geldanamycin (GA) leads to degradation of DAPK, and this degradation is attenuated by the proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin. GA-induced DAPK degradation is also dependent on phosphorylation of DAPK at Ser(308), and the cellular levels of phospho(Ser(308))-DAPK dramatically increase in response to GA treatment. Expression of two distinct ubiquitin E3 ligases, carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) or DIP1/Mib1, enhanced DAPK degradation, and conversely, short interfering RNA depletion of either CHIP or DIP1/Mib1 attenuated DAPK degradation. In vitro ubiquitination assays confirmed that DAPK is targeted for ubiquitination by both CHIP and DIP. Consistent with these results, DAPK is found in two distinct immune complexes, one containing HSP90 and CHIP and a second complex containing only DIP1/Mib. Collectively, these results indicate that strict modulation of DAPK activities is critical for regulation of apoptosis and cellular homeostasis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA085289, R01 CA085289; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL54118, R01 HL054118, R01 HL054118-08; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK062810, R01 DK062810, R01 DK062810-03

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;16;11795-804

  • The high-affinity HSP90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively degrades phosphorylated tau client proteins.

    Dickey CA, Kamal A, Lundgren K, Klosak N, Bailey RM, Dunmore J, Ash P, Shoraka S, Zlatkovic J, Eckman CB, Patterson C, Dickson DW, Nahman NS, Hutton M, Burrows F and Petrucelli L

    Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    A primary pathologic component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Expediting the removal of these p-tau species may be a relevant therapeutic strategy. Here we report that inhibition of Hsp90 led to decreases in p-tau levels independent of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation. A critical mediator of this mechanism was carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), a tau ubiquitin ligase. Cochaperones were also involved in Hsp90-mediated removal of p-tau, while those of the mature Hsp90 refolding complex prevented this effect. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that blockade of the refolding pathway promotes p-tau turnover through degradation. We also show that peripheral administration of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor promoted selective decreases in p-tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy, further suggesting a central role for the Hsp90 complex in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. When taken in the context of known high-affinity Hsp90 complexes in affected regions of the AD brain, these data implicate a central role for Hsp90 in the development of AD and other tauopathies and may provide a rationale for the development of novel Hsp90-based therapeutic strategies.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01 AG017216, P01-AG17216; NINDS NIH HHS: P50 NS040256, P50-NS40256

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2007;117;3;648-58

  • Regulation of proto-oncogenic dbl by chaperone-controlled, ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    Kamynina E, Kauppinen K, Duan F, Muakkassa N and Manor D

    Case School of Medicine, WG-48, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. danny.manor@case.edu

    The dbl proto-oncogene product is a prototype of a growing family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that stimulate the activation of small GTP-binding proteins from the Rho family. Mutations that result in the loss of proto-Dbl's amino terminus produce a variant with constitutive GEF activity and high oncogenic potential. Here, we show that proto-Dbl is a short-lived protein that is kept at low levels in cells by efficient ubiquitination and degradation. The cellular fate of proto-Dbl is regulated by interactions with the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90 and the protein-ubiquitin ligase CHIP, and these interactions are mediated by the spectrin domain of proto-Dbl. We show that CHIP is the E3 ligase responsible for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of proto-Dbl, while Hsp90 functions to stabilize the protein. Onco-Dbl, lacking the spectrin homology domain, cannot bind these regulators and therefore accumulates in cells at high levels, leading to persistent stimulation of its downstream signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA82391, R01 CA082391, R24 CA088336, R55 CA082391; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32 DK007158, T32DK-007158-30

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;5;1809-22

  • Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins potently ubiquitylate and degrade familial ALS-related mutant SOD1 proteins and reduce their cellular toxicity.

    Ishigaki S, Niwa J, Yamada S, Takahashi M, Ito T, Sone J, Doyu M, Urano F and Sobue G

    Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8500, Japan.

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dorfin is a ubiquitin ligase (E3) that degrades mutant SOD1 proteins, which are responsible for familial ALS. Although Dorfin has potential as an anti-ALS molecule, its life in cells is short. To improve its stability and enhance its E3 activity, we developed chimeric proteins containing the substrate-binding hydrophobic portion of Dorfin and the U-box domain of the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which has strong E3 activity through the U-box domain. All the Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins were more stable in cells than was wild-type Dorfin (Dorfin(WT)). One of the Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins, Dorfin-CHIP(L), ubiquitylated mutant SOD1 more effectively than did Dorfin(WT) and CHIP in vivo, and degraded mutant SOD1 protein more rapidly than Dorfin(WT) does. Furthermore, Dorfin-CHIP(L) rescued neuronal cells from mutant SOD1-associated toxicity and reduced the aggresome formation induced by mutant SOD1 more effectively than did Dorfin(WT).

    Neurobiology of disease 2007;25;2;331-41

  • Carboxyl terminus of hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) can remodel mature aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) complexes and mediate ubiquitination of both the AhR and the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp90) in vitro.

    Morales JL and Perdew GH

    Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

    The regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein levels has been an area of keen interest, given its important role in mediating the cellular adaptation and toxic response to several environmental pollutants. The carboxyl terminus of hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) ubiquitin ligase was previously associated with the regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, although the mechanisms were not directly demonstrated. In this study, we established that CHIP could associate with the AhR at cellular levels of these two proteins, suggesting a potential role for CHIP in the regulation of the AhR complex. The analysis of the sucrose-gradient-fractionated in vitro translated AhR complexes revealed that CHIP can mediate hsp90 ubiquitination while cooperating with unidentified factors to promote the ubiquitination of mature unliganded AhR complexes. In addition, the immunophilin-like protein XAP2 was able to partially protect the AhR from CHIP-mediated ubiquitination in vitro. This protection required the direct interaction of the XAP2 with the AhR complex. Surprisingly, CHIP silencing in Hepa-1c1c7 cells by siRNA methods did not reveal the function of CHIP in the AhR complex, because it did not affect well-characterized activities of the AhR nor affect its steady-state protein levels. However, the presence of potential compensatory mechanisms may be confounding this particular observation. Our results suggest a model where the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP cooperates with other ubiquitination factors to remodel native AhR-hsp90 complexes and where co-chaperones such as the XAP2 may affect the ability of CHIP to target AhR complexes for ubiquitination.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES011834, ES04869, R01 ES004869, R01 ES004869-18, R01 ES004869-19A2, R01 ES011834, R01 ES011834-04

    Biochemistry 2007;46;2;610-21

  • Co-chaperone CHIP promotes aggregation of ataxin-1.

    Choi JY, Ryu JH, Kim HS, Park SG, Bae KH, Kang S, Myung PK, Cho S, Park BC and Lee DH

    Protein Therapeutics Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333, South Korea.

    Recent studies demonstrated that co-chaperone/E3 ligase CHIP (C-terminus of hsp70-interacting protein) mediates the ubiquitylation and suppresses the aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as huntingtin or ataxin-3. In this study, we investigated the effects of CHIP on the degradation of another polyQ protein ataxin-1. Interestingly CHIP associates not only with the polyQ-expanded ataxin-1 but also with the normal ataxin-1. Moreover, by enhancing ataxin-1 ubiquitylation, CHIP over-expression leads to a reduction in the solubility of ataxin-1 and thus increases the aggregate formation, especially that of polyQ-expanded ataxin-1. Domain analysis revealed that the TPR domain is required for the promotion of aggregation. By contrast, other co-chaperones or E3 ligases, such as BAG-1 or parkin, did not show similar effects on the aggregation of ataxin-1. Importantly, the effect of CHIP is impaired by the mutation of Ser776 of ataxin-1 whose phosphorylation is crucial for ataxin-1 aggregation. Our findings suggest that the role of CHIP in aggregation of polyQ proteins greatly varies depending on the context of full-length polyQ proteins.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2007;34;1;69-79

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • CHIP protects from the neurotoxicity of expanded and wild-type ataxin-1 and promotes their ubiquitination and degradation.

    Al-Ramahi I, Lam YC, Chen HK, de Gouyon B, Zhang M, Pérez AM, Branco J, de Haro M, Patterson C, Zoghbi HY and Botas J

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    CHIP (C terminus of Hsc-70 interacting protein) is an E3 ligase that links the protein folding machinery with the ubiquitin-proteasome system and has been implicated in disorders characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Here we investigate the role of CHIP in protecting from ataxin-1-induced neurodegeneration. Ataxin-1 is a polyglutamine protein whose expansion causes spinocerebellar ataxia type-1 (SCA1) and triggers the formation of nuclear inclusions (NIs). We find that CHIP and ataxin-1 proteins directly interact and co-localize in NIs both in cell culture and SCA1 postmortem neurons. CHIP promotes ubiquitination of expanded ataxin-1 both in vitro and in cell culture. The Hsp70 chaperone increases CHIP-mediated ubiquitination of ataxin-1 in vitro, and the tetratricopeptide repeat domain, which mediates CHIP interactions with chaperones, is required for ataxin-1 ubitiquination in cell culture. Interestingly, CHIP also interacts with and ubiquitinates unexpanded ataxin-1. Overexpression of CHIP in a Drosophila model of SCA1 decreases the protein steady-state levels of both expanded and unexpanded ataxin-1 and suppresses their toxicity. Finally we investigate the ability of CHIP to protect against toxicity caused by expanded polyglutamine tracts in different protein contexts. We find that CHIP is not effective in suppressing the toxicity caused by a bare 127Q tract with only a short hemagglutinin tag, but it is very efficient in suppressing toxicity caused by a 128Q tract in the context of an N-terminal huntingtin backbone. These data underscore the importance of the protein framework for modulating the effects of polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24062; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699, NS42179

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;36;26714-24

  • Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E.

    Murata T and Shimotohno K

    Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Japan.

    Translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a cytoplasmic cap-binding protein that is required for cap-dependent translation initiation. Here, we have shown that eIF4E is ubiquitinated primarily at Lys-159 and incubation of cells with a proteasome inhibitor leads to increased eIF4E levels, suggesting the proteasome-dependent proteolysis of ubiquitinated eIF4E. Ubiquitinated eIF4E retained its cap binding ability, whereas eIF4E phosphorylation and eIF4G binding were reduced by ubiquitination. The W73A mutant of eIF4E exhibited enhanced ubiquitination/degradation, and 4E-BP overexpression protected eIF4E from ubiquitination/degradation. Because heat shock or the expression of the carboxyl terminus of heat shock cognate protein 70-interacting protein (Chip) dramatically increased eIF4E ubiquitination, Chip may be at least one ubiquitin E3 ligase responsible for eIF4E ubiquitination.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;30;20788-800

  • The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP binds the androgen receptor in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

    Rees I, Lee S, Kim H and Tsai FT

    Program in Structural and Computational Biology and Molecular Biophysics, One Baylor Plaza, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    In Eukarya, the 26S proteasome is primarily responsible for intracellular protein degradation. To be degraded, proteins must be ubiquitinated. The latter requires a multi-enzyme cascade consisting of an E1, an E2, and an E3 enzyme. While there is only a single E1 and a few E2s, there are many different E3s that target substrates by recognizing specific sequence motifs, known as degrons. Here, we have used the peptide array technology to identify binding motifs in the human androgen receptor (AR), which are recognized by the Carboxyl-terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein (CHIP), a U-box E3 and Hsp70/Hsp90 co-chaperone. We show that CHIP recognizes AR in a highly specific, phosphorylation- and sequence-dependent manner, and propose that this interaction could provide a mechanism that regulates the degradation of CHIP substrates.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM67672

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2006;1764;6;1073-9

  • Identification of VCP/p97, carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), and amphiphysin II interaction partners using membrane-based human proteome arrays.

    Grelle G, Kostka S, Otto A, Kersten B, Genser KF, Müller EC, Wälter S, Böddrich A, Stelzl U, Hänig C, Volkmer-Engert R, Landgraf C, Alberti S, Höhfeld J, Strödicke M and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, D-13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Proteins mediate their biological function through interactions with other proteins. Therefore, the systematic identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions have become a powerful proteomic strategy to understand protein function and comprehensive cellular regulatory networks. For the screening of valosin-containing protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), and amphiphysin II interaction partners, we utilized a membrane-based array technology that allows the identification of human protein-protein interactions with crude bacterial cell extracts. Many novel interaction pairs such as valosin-containing protein/autocrine motility factor receptor, CHIP/caytaxin, or amphiphysin II/DLP4 were identified and subsequently confirmed by pull-down, two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In addition, assays were performed to validate the interactions functionally. CHIP e.g. was found to efficiently polyubiquitinate caytaxin in vitro, suggesting that it might influence caytaxin degradation in vivo. Using peptide arrays, we also identified the binding motifs in the proteins DLP4, XRCC4, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, which are crucial for the association with the Src homology 3 domain of amphiphysin II. Together these studies indicate that our human proteome array technology permits the identification of protein-protein interactions that are functionally involved in neurodegenerative disease processes, the degradation of protein substrates, and the transport of membrane vesicles.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;2;234-44

  • DPM1, the catalytic subunit of dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase, is tethered to and stabilized on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by DPM3.

    Ashida H, Maeda Y and Kinoshita T

    Department of Immunoregulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan.

    Dolichol-phosphate mannose (DPM) synthase is required for synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, N-glycan precursor, protein O-mannose, and C-mannose. We previously identified DPM3, the third component of this enzyme, which was co-purified with DPM1 and DPM2. Here, we have established mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) 2.38 cells that were defective in DPM3. CHO2.38 cells were negative for GPI-anchored proteins, and microsomes from these cells showed no detectable DPM synthase activity, indicating that DPM3 is an essential component of this enzyme. A coiled-coil domain near the C terminus of DPM3 was important for tethering DPM1, the catalytic subunit of the enzyme, to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and, therefore, was critical for enzyme activity. On the other hand, two transmembrane regions in the N-terminal portion of DPM3 showed no specific functions. DPM1 was rapidly degraded by the proteasome in the absence of DPM3. Free DPM1 was strongly associated with the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), a chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, suggesting that DPM1 is ubiquitinated, at least in part, by CHIP.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;2;896-904

  • CHIP interacts with heat shock factor 1 during heat stress.

    Kim SA, Yoon JH, Kim DK, Kim SG and Ahn SG

    Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University College of Dentistry, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, Republic of Korea.

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a major transactivator of heat shock genes in response to stress and mediates cell protection against various harmful conditions. In this study, we identified the interaction of CHIP (carboxyl terminus of the heat shock cognate protein 70-interacting protein) with the N-terminus of HSF1. Using GST full-down assay, we found that CHIP directly interacts with C-terminal deleted HSF1 (a.a. 1-290) but not with full-length HSF1 under non-stressed conditions. Interestingly, interaction of CHIP with full-length HSF1 was induced by heat shock treatment. The structural change of HSF1 was observed under heat stressed conditions by CD spectra. These observations demonstrate the direct interaction between HSF1 and CHIP and this interaction requires conformational change of HSF1 by heat stress.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;29;6559-63

  • BAG-2 acts as an inhibitor of the chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    Arndt V, Daniel C, Nastainczyk W, Alberti S and Höhfeld J

    Institute for Cell Biology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.

    Cellular protein quality control involves a close interplay between molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We recently identified a degradation pathway, on which the chaperone Hsc70 delivers chaperone clients, such as misfolded forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), to the proteasome. The cochaperone CHIP is of central importance on this pathway, because it acts as a chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase. CHIP mediates the attachment of a ubiquitin chain to a chaperone-presented client protein and thereby stimulates its proteasomal degradation. To gain further insight into the function of CHIP we isolated CHIP-containing protein complexes from human HeLa cells and analyzed their composition by peptide mass fingerprinting. We identified the Hsc70 cochaperone BAG-2 as a main component of CHIP complexes. BAG-2 inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP by abrogating the CHIP/E2 cooperation and stimulates the chaperone-assisted maturation of CFTR. The activity of BAG-2 resembles that of the previously characterized Hsc70 cochaperone and CHIP inhibitor HspBP1. The presented data therefore establish multiple mechanisms to control the destructive activity of the CHIP ubiquitin ligase in human cells.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;12;5891-900

  • CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) promotes basal and geldanamycin-induced degradation of estrogen receptor-alpha.

    Fan M, Park A and Nephew KP

    Medical Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 302 Jordan Hall, 1001 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-4401, USA.

    In estrogen target cells, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) protein levels are strictly regulated. Although receptor turnover is a continuous process, dynamic fluctuations in receptor levels, mediated primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, occur in response to changing cellular conditions. In the absence of ligand, ERalpha is sequestered within a stable chaperone protein complex consisting of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and cochaperones. However, the molecular mechanism(s) regulating ERalpha stability and turnover remain undefined. One potential mechanism involves CHIP, the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein, previously shown to target Hsp90-interacting proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In the present study, a role for CHIP in ERalpha protein degradation was investigated. In ER-negative HeLa cells transfected with ERalpha and CHIP, ERalpha proteasomal degradation increased, whereas ERalpha-mediated gene transcription decreased. In contrast, CHIP depletion by small interference RNA resulted in increased ERalpha accumulation and reporter gene transactivation. Transfection of mutant CHIP constructs demonstrated that both the U-box (containing ubiquitin ligase activity) and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR, essential for chaperone binding) domains within CHIP are required for CHIP-mediated ERalpha down-regulation. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ERalpha and CHIP associate through the CHIP TPR domain. In ERalpha-positive breast cancer MCF7 cells, CHIP overexpression resulted in decreased levels of endogenous ERalpha protein and attenuation of ERalpha-mediated gene expression. Furthermore, the ERalpha-CHIP interaction was stimulated by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA), resulting in enhanced ERalpha degradation; this GA effect was further augmented by CHIP overexpression but was abolished by CHIP depletion. Finally, ERalpha dissociation from CHIP by various ERalpha ligands, including 17beta-estradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and ICI 182,780, interrupted CHIP-mediated ERalpha degradation. These results demonstrate a role for CHIP in both basal and GA-induced ERalpha degradation. Furthermore, based on our observations that CHIP promotes ERalpha degradation and attenuates receptor-mediated gene transcription, we suggest that CHIP, by modulating ERalpha stability, contributes to the regulation of functional receptor levels, and thus hormone responsiveness, in estrogen target cells.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2005;19;12;2901-14

  • Chaperoned ubiquitylation--crystal structures of the CHIP U box E3 ubiquitin ligase and a CHIP-Ubc13-Uev1a complex.

    Zhang M, Windheim M, Roe SM, Peggie M, Cohen P, Prodromou C and Pearl LH

    Section of Structural Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, United Kingdom.

    CHIP is a dimeric U box E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 via its TPR-domain, facilitating ubiquitylation of chaperone bound client proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of CHIP bound to an Hsp90 C-terminal decapeptide. The structure explains how CHIP associates with either chaperone type and reveals an unusual asymmetric homodimer in which the protomers adopt radically different conformations. Additionally, we identified CHIP as a functional partner of Ubc13-Uev1a in formation of Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains, extending CHIP's roles into ubiquitin regulation as well as targeted destruction. The structure of Ubc13-Uev1a bound to the CHIP U box domain defines the basis for selective cooperation of CHIP with specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Remarkably, the asymmetric arrangement of the TPR domains in the CHIP dimer occludes one Ubc binding site, so that CHIP operates with half-of-sites activity, providing an elegant means for coupling a dimeric chaperone to a single ubiquitylation system.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Molecular cell 2005;20;4;525-38

  • Regulation of the cytoplasmic quality control protein degradation pathway by BAG2.

    Dai Q, Qian SB, Li HH, McDonough H, Borchers C, Huang D, Takayama S, Younger JM, Ren HY, Cyr DM and Patterson C

    Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center and the Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7126, USA.

    The cytoplasm is protected against the perils of protein misfolding by two mechanisms: molecular chaperones (which facilitate proper folding) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which regulates degradation of misfolded proteins. CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is an Hsp70-associated ubiquitin ligase that participates in this process by ubiquitylating misfolded proteins associated with cytoplasmic chaperones. Mechanisms that regulate the activity of CHIP are, at present, poorly understood. Using a proteomics approach, we have identified BAG2, a previously uncharacterized BAG domain-containing protein, as a common component of CHIP holocomplexes in vivo. Binding assays indicate that BAG2 associates with CHIP as part of a ternary complex with Hsc70, and BAG2 colocalizes with CHIP under both quiescent conditions and after heat shock. In vitro and in vivo ubiquitylation assays indicate that BAG2 is an efficient and specific inhibitor of CHIP-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity. This activity is due, in part, to inhibition of interactions between CHIP and its cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcH5a, which may in turn be facilitated by ATP-dependent remodeling of the BAG2-Hsc70-CHIP heterocomplex. The association of BAG2 with CHIP provides a cochaperone-dependent regulatory mechanism for preventing unregulated ubiquitylation of misfolded proteins by CHIP.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61728

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;46;38673-81

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • In vivo evidence of CHIP up-regulation attenuating tau aggregation.

    Sahara N, Murayama M, Mizoroki T, Urushitani M, Imai Y, Takahashi R, Murata S, Tanaka K and Takashima A

    Laboratory for Alzheimer's Disease, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan.

    The carboxyl terminus of heat-shock cognate (Hsc)70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that can collaborate with molecular chaperones to facilitate protein folding and prevent protein aggregation. Previous studies showed that, together with heat-shock protein (Hsp)70, CHIP can regulate tau ubiquitination and degradation in a cell culture system. Ubiquitinated tau is one component in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are a major histopathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise sequence of events leading to NFT formation and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. To confirm CHIP's role in suppressing NFT formation in vivo, we performed a quantitative analysis of CHIP in human and mouse brains. We found increased levels of CHIP and Hsp70 in AD compared with normal controls. CHIP levels in both AD and controls corresponded directly to Hsp90 levels, but not to Hsp70 or Hsc70 levels. In AD samples, CHIP was inversely proportional to sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulation. In a JNPL3 mouse brain tauopathy model, CHIP was widely distributed but weakly expressed in spinal cord, which was the most prominent region for tau inclusions and neuronal loss. Protein levels of CHIP in cerebellar regions of JNPL3 mice were significantly higher than in non-transgenic littermates. Human tau was more highly expressed in this region of mouse brains, but only moderate levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau were detected. This was confirmed when increased insoluble tau accumulation was found in mice lacking CHIP. These findings suggest that increases in CHIP may protect against NFT formation in the early stages of AD. If confirmed, this would indicate that the quality-control machinery in a neuron might play an important role in retarding the pathogenesis of tauopathies.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;94;5;1254-63

  • The chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase CHIP is able to target p53 for proteasomal degradation.

    Esser C, Scheffner M and Höhfeld J

    Institute for Cell Biology and Bonner Forum Biomedizin, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland-Str. 61a, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.

    The cellular level of the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through induced degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome system. The ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 plays a pivotal role in stimulating p53 turnover. However, recently additional ubiquitin ligases have been identified that participate in the degradation of the tumor suppressor. Apparently, multiple degradation pathways are employed to ensure proper destruction of p53. Here we show that the chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase CHIP is able to induce the proteasomal degradation of p53. CHIP-induced degradation was observed for mutant p53, which was previously shown to associate with the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90, and for the wild-type form of the tumor suppressor. Our data reveal that mutant and wild-type p53 transiently associate with molecular chaperones and can be diverted onto a degradation pathway through this association.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;29;27443-8

  • Alternative effects of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway on glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation and transactivation are mediated by CHIP, an E3 ligase.

    Wang X and DeFranco DB

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

    The ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent protein degradation pathway (UPP) is responsible for the accelerated down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in cells subjected to chronic glucocorticoid exposure. Whereas hormone-dependent down-regulation of GR operates in most cells, the receptor is not down-regulated after long-term glucocorticoid treatment of either cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons or the HT22 hippocampal cell line. In this report, we show that stable overexpression of the carboxy terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ligase can restore hormone-dependent down-regulation of GR in HT22 cells. Proteasome inhibitor studies establish that ubiquitylated GR can be efficiently engaged with the proteasome upon CHIP overexpression, unlike the case in parental HT22 cells. In addition to its impact on GR down-regulation, CHIP overexpression alters the coupling between the UPP and GR transactivation. Unlike other steroid receptors whose transactivation properties are typically reduced upon proteasome inhibition, GR transactivation in HT22 cells and other cell lines is enhanced upon proteasome inhibition. However, in HT22 cells overexpressing CHIP, proteasome inhibition leads to a reduction in GR transactivation activity. Thus, the divergent response of a single transactivator (i.e. GR) to the UPP can be dictated by CHIP, an E3 ligase that also functions as a proteasome-targeting factor.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA43037

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2005;19;6;1474-82

  • CHIP controls the sensitivity of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by modulating the basal level of Smad3 through ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    Xin H, Xu X, Li L, Ning H, Rong Y, Shang Y, Wang Y, Fu XY and Chang Z

    Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, and Institute of Biomedicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is critical in a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is mediated by a group of proteins including TGF-beta receptors and Smads. It is known that different cells can exhibit different sensitivities to TGF-beta. Several molecular mechanisms, such as the differential expression of the receptor levels, have been suggested as contributing to these differences. Here, we report evidence for a novel mechanism of regulating TGF-beta sensitivity that depends on the role of CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) in regulating the basal level of Smad3 via the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway. First, using a luciferase assay we found that overexpression of CHIP inhibited TGF-beta signaling, whereas silencing CHIP expression by small interfering RNAs led to increased TGF-beta signaling sensitivity. Second, based on the results of cell proliferation assays and JunB expression, we found that TGF-beta signaling could be abolished by stably overexpressing CHIP. Third, in those cell lines with stably expressed CHIP, we observed that the Smad3 protein level was dramatically decreased. Finally, we demonstrated that CHIP served as a U-box dependent E3 ligase that can directly mediate ubiquitination and degradation of Smad3 and that this action of CHIP was independent of TGF-beta signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that CHIP can modulate the sensitivity of the TGF-beta signaling by controlling the basal level of Smad3 through ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;21;20842-50

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • Specific interaction between Smad1 and CHIP: a surface plasmon resonance study.

    Li RF, Zhang F, Lu YJ and Sui SF

    Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, State-Key Laboratory of Biomembrane, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.

    The TGF-beta superfamily signaling pathway regulates many important biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation and embryonic pattern formation. Smad1, a member of this signaling pathway that functions downstream of serine/threonine kinase receptors, has ability to interact with carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase in other cases. It has been reported that Smurf1, a member of the Hect family E3 ubiquitin ligases, can target Smad1 to 26S proteasome for degradation. In this paper, we studied the interaction of Smad1 and CHIP by combination of surface plasmon resonance and supported monolayer approach. The specific binding of Smad1 to CHIP indicates that the degradation of Smad1 may also be mediated by CHIP, and CHIP may play an essential role in the TGF-beta signaling pathway.

    Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces 2005;40;3-4;133-6

  • Ubiquitylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by CHIP, a chaperone-dependent E3 ligase.

    Peng HM, Morishima Y, Jenkins GJ, Dunbar AY, Lau M, Patterson C, Pratt WB and Osawa Y

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    It is established that neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) is ubiquitylated and proteasomally degraded. The proteasomal degradation of nNOS is enhanced by suicide inactivation of nNOS or by the inhibition of hsp90, which is a chaperone found in a native complex with nNOS. In the current study, we have examined whether CHIP, a chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase that is known to ubiquitylate other hsp90-chaperoned proteins, could act as an ubiquitin ligase for nNOS. We found with the use of HEK293T or COS-7 cells and transient transfection methods that CHIP overexpression causes a decrease in immunodetectable levels of nNOS. The extent of the loss of nNOS is dependent on the amount of CHIP cDNA used for transfection. Lactacystin (10 microM), a selective proteasome inhibitor, attenuates the loss of nNOS in part by causing the nNOS to be found in a detergent-insoluble form. Immunoprecipitation of the nNOS and subsequent Western blotting with an anti-ubiquitin IgG shows an increase in nNOS-ubiquitin conjugates because of CHIP. Moreover, incubation of nNOS with a purified system containing an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, an E2 ubiquitin carrier protein conjugating enzyme (UbcH5a), CHIP, glutathione S-transferase-tagged ubiquitin, and an ATP-generating system leads to the ubiquitylation of nNOS. The addition of purified hsp70 and hsp40 to this in vitro system greatly enhances the amount of nNOS-ubiquitin conjugates, suggesting that CHIP is an E3 ligase for nNOS whose action is facilitated by (and possibly requires) its interaction with nNOS-bound hsp70.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL65619; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK31573; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES08365; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61728

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;51;52970-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The cochaperone HspBP1 inhibits the CHIP ubiquitin ligase and stimulates the maturation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Alberti S, Böhse K, Arndt V, Schmitz A and Höhfeld J

    Institut für Zellbiologie and Bonner Forum Biomedizin, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.

    The CHIP ubiquitin ligase turns molecular chaperones into protein degradation factors. CHIP associates with the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90 during the regulation of signaling pathways and during protein quality control, and directs chaperone-bound clients to the proteasome for degradation. Obviously, this destructive activity should be carefully controlled. Here, we identify the cochaperone HspBP1 as an inhibitor of CHIP. HspBP1 attenuates the ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP when complexed with Hsc70. As a consequence, HspBP1 interferes with the CHIP-induced degradation of immature forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and stimulates CFTR maturation. Our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism that determines folding and degradation activities of molecular chaperones.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2004;15;9;4003-10

  • Co-chaperone CHIP associates with mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase proteins linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and promotes their degradation by proteasomes.

    Choi JS, Cho S, Park SG, Park BC and Lee DH

    Systemic Proteomics Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon, Republic of Korea.

    Although the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the molecular chaperones are implicated to play an important role in pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) caused by mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), the mechanism underlying the causes of this fatal disease is still poorly understood. Here we found that co-chaperone CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein), together with molecular chaperones Hsc70/Hsp70 and Hsp90, associates with FALS-linked mutant SOD1 proteins in cultured human cells. S5a subunit of 26S proteasomes, which recognizes polyubiquitylated proteins, also interacts with mutant SOD1 proteins. Over-expression of CHIP leads to the reduction in cellular levels of mutant SOD1 as well as the suppression of cytotoxicity induced by mutant SOD1. Unusually, rather than increasing the level of poly-ubiquitylated SOD1, over-expressed CHIP alters the ubiquitylation pattern of mutant SOD1 proteins. Both down-regulation and ubiquitylation of mutant SOD1 are greatly reduced by a mutant CHIP protein lacking U-box domain. Taken together, these results suggest that co-chaperone CHIP, possibly with another E3 ligase(s), modulates the ubiquitylation of mutant SOD1 and renders them more susceptible for proteasomal degradation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;321;3;574-83

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • An androgen receptor NH2-terminal conserved motif interacts with the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP).

    He B, Bai S, Hnat AT, Kalman RI, Minges JT, Patterson C and Wilson EM

    Laboratories for Reproductive Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    The NH2-terminal sequence of steroid receptors is highly variable between different receptors and in the same receptor from different species. In this study, a primary sequence homology comparison identified a 14-amino acid NH2-terminal motif of the human androgen receptor (AR) that is common to AR from all species reported, including the lower vertebrates. The evolutionarily conserved motif is unique to AR, with the exception of a partial sequence in the glucocorticoid receptor of higher species. The presence of the conserved motif in AR and the glucocorticoid receptor and its absence in other steroid receptors suggests convergent evolution. The function of the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif was suggested from a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) as a binding partner. We found that CHIP functions as a negative regulator of AR transcriptional activity by promoting AR degradation. In support of this, two mutations in the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif previously identified in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model reduced the interaction between CHIP and AR. Our results suggest that the AR NH2-terminal domain contains an evolutionarily conserved motif that functions to limit AR transcriptional activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combination of comparative sequence alignment and yeast two-hybrid screening using short conserved peptides as bait provides an effective strategy to probe the structure-function relationships of steroid receptor NH2-terminal domains and other intrinsically unstructured transcriptional regulatory proteins.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R30TW001234; NCI NIH HHS: P01-CA77739; NICHD NIH HHS: HD16910, U54-HD35041

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;29;30643-53

  • Interaction of U-box-type ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) with molecular chaperones.

    Hatakeyama S, Matsumoto M, Yada M and Nakayama KI

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

    Members of the U-box family of proteins constitute a class of ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) distinct from the HECT-type and RING finger-containing E3 families. Two representative mammalian U-box proteins, UFD2a and CHIP, interact with the molecular chaperones VCP and either Hsp90 or Hsc70, respectively, and are implicated in the degradation of damaged proteins. We have now investigated the roles of mammalian U-box proteins by performing a comprehensive screen for molecules that interact with these proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. All mammalian U-box proteins tested were found to interact with molecular chaperones or cochaperones, including Hsp90, Hsp70, DnaJc7, EKN1, CRN, and VCP. These observations suggest that the function of U box-type E3s is to mediate the degradation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in conjunction with molecular chaperones as receptors that recognize such abnormal proteins.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2004;9;6;533-48

  • Retrograde transport of the glucocorticoid receptor in neurites requires dynamic assembly of complexes with the protein chaperone hsp90 and is linked to the CHIP component of the machinery for proteasomal degradation.

    Galigniana MD, Harrell JM, Housley PR, Patterson C, Fisher SK and Pratt WB

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 1301 Medical Science Research Building III, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0632, USA.

    Here, we have used a chimera of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to study retrograde movement of a model soluble (i.e., non-vesicle-associated) protein in axons and dendrites of cultured NT2-N neurons. It is known that in non-neuronal cells, the GFP-GR moves from cytoplasm to the nucleus in a steroid-dependent manner by a rapid, hsp90-dependent mechanism. When rapid movement is inhibited by geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of the protein chaperone hsp90, the GFP-GR translocates slowly to the nucleus by diffusion. Here we show that GFP-GR expressed in hormone-free neurons is localized in both cytoplasm and neurites, and upon treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), it moves to the nucleus. In neurites, movement by diffusion is not possible, and we show that movement of the GFP-GR from neurites is blocked by geldanamycin, suggesting that the hsp90-dependent movement machinery is required for retrograde movement. In cells treated with both dexamethasone and geldanamycin, the GFP-GR becomes concentrated in fluorescent globules located periodically along the neurites. Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), the E3 ubiquitin ligase for the GR, also concentrates in the same loci in a steroid-dependent and geldanamycin-dependent manner. If geldanamycin is removed, the GFP-GR exits the globules and continues its retrograde movement. However, in the continued presence of geldanamycin, the GFP-GR in the globules undergoes proteasomal degradation, suggesting that the globules function as degradasomes. This is the first evidence for a linkage between receptor trafficking along neurites and receptor degradation by the proteasome.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 28010; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 65619; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 47951, P60 DK 20572; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 61728; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 23831

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2004;123;1-2;27-36

  • CHIP and Hsp70 regulate tau ubiquitination, degradation and aggregation.

    Petrucelli L, Dickson D, Kehoe K, Taylor J, Snyder H, Grover A, De Lucia M, McGowan E, Lewis J, Prihar G, Kim J, Dillmann WH, Browne SE, Hall A, Voellmy R, Tsuboi Y, Dawson TM, Wolozin B, Hardy J and Hutton M

    Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

    Molecular chaperones, ubiquitin ligases and proteasome impairment have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates (e.g. tau and alpha-synuclein respectively). Here we report that CHIP, an ubiquitin ligase that interacts directly with Hsp70/90, induces ubiquitination of the microtubule associated protein, tau. CHIP also increases tau aggregation. Consistent with this observation, diverse of tau lesions in human postmortem tissue were found to be immunopositive for CHIP. Conversely, induction of Hsp70 through treatment with either geldanamycin or heat shock factor 1 leads to a decrease in tau steady-state levels and a selective reduction in detergent insoluble tau. Furthermore, 30-month-old mice overexpressing inducible Hsp70 show a significant reduction in tau levels. Together these data demonstrate that the Hsp70/CHIP chaperone system plays an important role in the regulation of tau turnover and the selective elimination of abnormal tau species. Hsp70/CHIP may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of tauopathies and also represents a potential therapeutic target.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS41816-01

    Human molecular genetics 2004;13;7;703-14

  • CHIP-Hsc70 complex ubiquitinates phosphorylated tau and enhances cell survival.

    Shimura H, Schwartz D, Gygi SP and Kosik KS

    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The microtubule-binding protein tau has been implicated in the neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Within affected cells, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated tau assembles into massive filamentous polymers. Eventually these tangle-bearing neurons die. The formation of neurofibrillary tangles closely parallels the progression and anatomic distribution of neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that these lesions play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Mutations in the human tau gene cause autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders. These and other neurodegenerative conditions are also characterized by extensive neurofibrillary pathology. The mechanisms underlying tau-mediated neurotoxicity remain unclear; however, phosphorylated tau is a strong candidate for a toxic molecule, particularly those isoforms phosphorylated by the kinases glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and Cdk5. Here we show that Alzheimer tau binds to Hsc70, and its phosphorylation is a recognition requirement for the addition of ubiquitin (Ub) by the E3 Ub ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein) and the E2 conjugating enzyme UbcH5B. Other E3 Ub ligases including parkin and Cbl failed to ubiquitinate phosphorylated tau. CHIP could rescue phosphorylated tau-induced cell death, and therefore the CHIP-Hsc70 complex may provide a new therapeutic target for the tauopathies.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;6;4869-76

  • CHIP mediates degradation of Smad proteins and potentially regulates Smad-induced transcription.

    Li L, Xin H, Xu X, Huang M, Zhang X, Chen Y, Zhang S, Fu XY and Chang Z

    Tsinghua Institute of Genome Research, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family ligands interact with specific membrane receptor complexes that have serine/threonine kinase activities. The receptor phosphorylation and activation induced by the ligands leads to phosphorylation of the Smad proteins, which translocate to the nucleus, controlling gene expression. Thus, regulation of Smad proteins is a key step in TGF-beta/BMP-induced signal transduction. Here we report a novel mechanism of the regulation of SMAD-mediated signaling, by which the Smad1 protein level is controlled through expression of the CHIP protein. CHIP is a U-box-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, previously identified as a cochaperon protein. However, we have isolated CHIP as a Smad-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad1 as bait. Furthermore we have shown CHIP-Smad interaction using the (35)S-labeled CHIP protein, which can interact with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Smad1 and GST-Smad4 in an in vitro protein-binding assay. The CHIP-Smad interaction has been confirmed in vivo in mammalian cells through coimmunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the coexpression of Smad1 and Smad4 with the CHIP protein results in the degradation of the Smad proteins through a ubiquitin-mediated process. Consistent with the observation that CHIP induces Smad1 degradation, we further show that the expression of CHIP can inhibit the transcriptional activities of the Smad1/Smad4 complex induced by BMP signals. Intriguingly, pBS/U6/CHIPi, which diminishes CHIP expression, significantly enhanced Smad1/Smad4- or BMPRIB(QD)-induced gene transcription. These results suggest that CHIP can interact with the Smad1/Smad4 proteins and block BMP signal transduction through the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Smad proteins.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;2;856-64

  • ErbB2 degradation mediated by the co-chaperone protein CHIP.

    Zhou P, Fernandes N, Dodge IL, Reddi AL, Rao N, Safran H, DiPetrillo TA, Wazer DE, Band V and Band H

    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    ErbB2 overexpression contributes to the evolution of a substantial group of human cancers and signifies a poor clinical prognosis. Thus, down-regulation of ErbB2 signaling has emerged as a new anti-cancer strategy. Ubiquitinylation, mediated by the Cbl family of ubiquitin ligases, has emerged as a physiological mechanism of ErbB receptor down-regulation, and this mechanism appears to contribute to ErbB2 down-regulation induced by therapeutic anti-ErbB2 antibodies. Hsp90 inhibitory ansamycin antibiotics such as geldanamycin (GA) induce rapid ubiquitinylation and down-regulation of ErbB2. However, the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved has not been identified. Here, we show that ErbB2 serves as an in vitro substrate for the Hsp70/Hsp90-associated U-box ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Overexpression of wild type CHIP, but not its U-box mutant H260Q, induced ubiquitinylation and reduction in both cell surface and total levels of ectopically expressed or endogenous ErbB2 in vivo, and this effect was additive with that of 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). The CHIP U-box mutant H260Q reduced 17-AAG-induced ErbB2 ubiquitinylation. Wild type ErbB2 and a mutant incapable of association with Cbl (ErbB2 Y1112F) were equally sensitive to CHIP and 17-AAG, implying that Cbl does not play a major role in geldanamycin-induced ErbB2 down-regulation. Both endogenous and ectopically expressed CHIP and ErbB2 coimmunoprecipitated with each other, and this association was enhanced by 17-AAG. Notably, CHIP H260Q induced a dramatic elevation of ErbB2 association with Hsp70 and prevented the 17-AAG-induced dissociation of Hsp90. Our results demonstrate that ErbB2 is a target of CHIP ubiquitin ligase activity and suggest a role for CHIP E3 activity in controlling both the association of Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperones with ErbB2 and the down-regulation of ErbB2 induced by inhibitors of Hsp90.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 75075, CA 76118, CA 81076, CA 87986, CA70195; NIAMS NIH HHS: T32AR07530

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;16;13829-37

  • C-terminal Hsp-interacting protein slows androgen receptor synthesis and reduces its rate of degradation.

    Cardozo CP, Michaud C, Ost MC, Fliss AE, Yang E, Patterson C, Hall SJ and Caplan AJ

    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1232, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. chris.cardozo@mssm.edu

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that requires the action of molecular chaperones for folding and hormone binding. C-terminal Hsp-interacting protein (Chip) is a cochaperone that interacts with Hsp70 and Hsp90 molecular chaperones via a tetratricopeptide domain and inhibits chaperone-dependent protein folding in vitro. Chip also stimulates protein degradation by acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase via a modified ring finger domain called a U box. We analyzed whether Chip affected AR levels using a transient transfection strategy. Chip overexpression led to a large decrease in AR steady state levels and increased levels of AR ubiquitinylation. However, Chip effects were not fully reversed by proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that mechanisms alternative to or in addition to proteasome-mediated degradation were involved. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that Chip overexpression reduced the rate of AR degradation, consistent with an effect on AR folding, perhaps leading to aggregation. The possibility that Chip affected AR folding was further supported by the finding that the effects of exogenous Chip were reproduced by a mutant lacking the U box. These results are discussed in terms of the role played by molecular chaperones in AR biogenesis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL65619; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01DK60598; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM61728

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2003;410;1;134-40

  • Identification of tumor-associated antigens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by SEREX.

    Krackhardt AM, Witzens M, Harig S, Hodi FS, Zauls AJ, Chessia M, Barrett P and Gribben JG

    Department of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with a variety of immunologic disturbances. Hypogammaglobulinemia and autoimmune phenomena are both often present in this disease. In contrast, humoral or cellular antitumor responses are rarely observed. It has been previously shown that antigens detected in patients with malignant diseases can provide information regarding intracellular molecules engaged in the transformation process and can identify tumor antigens that may be useful for development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Serologic identification by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) has been demonstrated to be a useful method to detect tumor and tumor-associated antigens in a variety of malignancies. Although this approach is complicated in CLL, we used a modified SEREX approach and identified 14 antigens (KW-1 to KW-14) using this methodology. Several clones showed a restricted expression pattern in normal tissues. Moreover, distinctive expression of splice variants and aberrant gene expression in malignant tissue were detected. In this study, 6 antigens were detected exclusively in patients with CLL. Eight antigens were detected also in lymphoma patients. Healthy donors showed antibody responses against only 3 of the identified antigens. T cells with specific cytotoxicity against peptides derived from the 2 antigens tested could be generated from healthy donors. These findings demonstrate that humoral and cellular immune responses against CLL-associated antigens can be detected. Ongoing experiments investigate their potential for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: U01 CA 81534

    Blood 2002;100;6;2123-31

  • CHIP is associated with Parkin, a gene responsible for familial Parkinson's disease, and enhances its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Imai Y, Soda M, Hatakeyama S, Akagi T, Hashikawa T, Nakayama KI and Takahashi R

    Laboratory for Motor System Neurodegeneration, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R) is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Accumulation of Pael-R in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dopaminergic neurons induces ER stress leading to neurodegeneration. Here, we show that CHIP, Hsp70, Parkin, and Pael-R formed a complex in vitro and in vivo. The amount of CHIP in the complex was increased during ER stress. CHIP promoted the dissociation of Hsp70 from Parkin and Pael-R, thus facilitating Parkin-mediated Pael-R ubiquitination. Moreover, CHIP enhanced Parkin-mediated in vitro ubiquitination of Pael-R in the absence of Hsp70. Furthermore, CHIP enhanced the ability of Parkin to inhibit cell death induced by Pael-R. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP is a mammalian E4-like molecule that positively regulates Parkin E3 activity.

    Molecular cell 2002;10;1;55-67

  • A new gun in town: the U box is a ubiquitin ligase domain.

    Patterson C

    Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7126, USA. cpatters@med.unc.edu

    Ubiquitin ligases determine protein stability in a highly regulated manner by coordinating the addition of polyubiquitin chains to proteins that are then targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Ubiquitin ligases have generally been separated into two groups--those containing HECT domains and those with RING finger domains. Recently, a third group of ubiquitin ligases has emerged: those containing a U-box domain. Patterson discusses what is known about the few U-box-containing proteins that have been characterized, although the general properties of U-box proteins that distinguish them from other ubiquitin ligases are still a matter of speculation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03658, HL61656, HL65619; NIA NIH HHS: AG10514; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61728

    Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment 2002;2002;116;pe4

  • CHIP is a U-box-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase: identification of Hsc70 as a target for ubiquitylation.

    Jiang J, Ballinger CA, Wu Y, Dai Q, Cyr DM, Höhfeld J and Patterson C

    Program in Molecular Cardiology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7075, USA.

    Proper folding of proteins (either newly synthesized or damaged in response to a stressful event) occurs in a highly regulated fashion. Cytosolic chaperones such as Hsc/Hsp70 are assisted by cofactors that modulate the folding machinery in a positive or negative manner. CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) is such a cofactor that interacts with Hsc70 and, in general, attenuates its most well characterized functions. In addition, CHIP accelerates ubiquitin-dependent degradation of chaperone substrates. Using an in vitro ubiquitylation assay with recombinant proteins, we demonstrate that CHIP possesses intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and promotes ubiquitylation. This activity is dependent on the carboxyl-terminal U-box. CHIP interacts functionally and physically with the stress-responsive ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family UBCH5. Surprisingly, a major target of the ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP is Hsc70 itself. CHIP ubiquitylates Hsc70, primarily with short, noncanonical multiubiquitin chains but has no appreciable effect on steady-state levels or half-life of this protein. This effect may have heretofore unanticipated consequences with regard to the chaperoning activities of Hsc70 or its ability to deliver substrates to the proteasome. These studies demonstrate that CHIP is a bona fide ubiquitin ligase and indicate that U-box-containing proteins may comprise a new family of E3s.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03658, HL65619; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56981, GM61728

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;46;42938-44

  • Cooperation of a ubiquitin domain protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase during chaperone/proteasome coupling.

    Demand J, Alberti S, Patterson C and Höhfeld J

    Abteilung für Molekulare Zellbiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

    Background: Molecular chaperones recognize nonnative proteins and orchestrate cellular folding processes in conjunction with regulatory cofactors. However, not every attempt to fold a protein is successful, and misfolded proteins can be directed to the cellular degradation machinery for destruction. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cooperation of molecular chaperones with the degradation machinery remain largely enigmatic so far.

    Results: By characterizing the chaperone cofactors BAG-1 and CHIP, we gained insight into the cooperation of the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp70 with the ubiquitin/proteasome system, a major system for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The cofactor CHIP acts as a ubiquitin ligase in the ubiquitination of chaperone substrates such as the raf-1 protein kinase and the glucocorticoid hormone receptor. During targeting of signaling molecules to the proteasome, CHIP may cooperate with BAG-1, a ubiquitin domain protein previously shown to act as a coupling factor between Hsc/Hsp70 and the proteasome. BAG-1 directly interacts with CHIP; it accepts substrates from Hsc/Hsp70 and presents associated proteins to the CHIP ubiquitin conjugation machinery. Consequently, BAG-1 promotes CHIP-induced degradation of the glucocorticoid hormone receptor in vivo.

    Conclusions: The ubiquitin domain protein BAG-1 and the CHIP ubiquitin ligase can cooperate to shift the activity of the Hsc/Hsp70 chaperone system from protein folding to degradation. The chaperone cofactors thus act as key regulators to influence protein quality control.

    Current biology : CB 2001;11;20;1569-77

  • Sequence, structure and pathology of the fully annotated terminal 2 Mb of the short arm of human chromosome 16.

    Daniels RJ, Peden JF, Lloyd C, Horsley SW, Clark K, Tufarelli C, Kearney L, Buckle VJ, Doggett NA, Flint J and Higgs DR

    MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute for Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK.

    We have sequenced 1949 kb from the terminal Giemsa light band of human chromosome 16p, enabling us to fully annotate the region extending from the telomeric repeats to the previously published tuberous sclerosis disease 2 (TSC2) and polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) genes. This region can be subdivided into two GC-rich, Alu-rich domains and one GC-rich, Alu-poor domain. The entire region is extremely gene rich, containing 100 confirmed genes and 20 predicted genes. Many of the genes encode widely expressed proteins orchestrating basic cellular processes (e.g. DNA recombination, repair, transcription, RNA processing, signal transduction, intracellular signalling and mRNA translation). Others, such as the alpha globin genes (HBA1 and HBA2), PDIP and BAIAP3, are specialized tissue-restricted genes. Some of the genes have been previously implicated in the pathophysiology of important human genetic diseases (e.g. asthma, cataracts and the ATR-16 syndrome). Others are known disease genes for alpha thalassaemia, adult polycystic kidney disease and tuberous sclerosis. There is also linkage evidence for bipolar affective disorder, epilepsy and autism in this region. Sixty-three chromosomal deletions reported here and elsewhere allow us to interpret the results of removing progressively larger numbers of genes from this well defined human telomeric region.

    Human molecular genetics 2001;10;4;339-52

  • The co-chaperone CHIP regulates protein triage decisions mediated by heat-shock proteins.

    Connell P, Ballinger CA, Jiang J, Wu Y, Thompson LJ, Höhfeld J and Patterson C

    Division of Cardiology, Galveston, Texas, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

    To maintain quality control in cells, mechanisms distinguish among improperly folded peptides, mature and functional proteins, and proteins to be targeted for degradation. The molecular chaperones, including heat-shock protein Hsp90, have the ability to recognize misfolded proteins and assist in their conversion to a functional conformation. Disruption of Hsp90 heterocomplexes by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin leads to substrate degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, implicating this system in protein triage decisions. We previously identified CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) to be an interaction partner of Hsc70 (ref. 4). CHIP also interacts directly with a tetratricopeptide repeat acceptor site of Hsp90, incorporating into Hsp90 heterocomplexes and eliciting release of the regulatory cofactor p23. Here we show that CHIP abolishes the steroid-binding activity and transactivation potential of the glucocorticoid receptor, a well-characterized Hsp90 substrate, even though it has little effect on its synthesis. Instead, CHIP induces ubiquitylation of the glucocorticoid receptor and degradation through the proteasome. By remodelling Hsp90 heterocomplexes to favour substrate degradation, CHIP modulates protein triage decisions that regulate the balance between protein folding and degradation for chaperone substrates.

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;1;93-6

  • Identification of CHIP, a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and negatively regulates chaperone functions.

    Ballinger CA, Connell P, Wu Y, Hu Z, Thompson LJ, Yin LY and Patterson C

    University of Texas Medical Branch, Division of Cardiology and Sealy Center for Molecular Cardiology, Galveston, Texas, USA.

    The chaperone function of the mammalian 70-kDa heat shock proteins Hsc70 and Hsp70 is modulated by physical interactions with four previously identified chaperone cofactors: Hsp40, BAG-1, the Hsc70-interacting protein Hip, and the Hsc70-Hsp90-organizing protein Hop. Hip and Hop interact with Hsc70 via a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. In a search for additional tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, we have identified a novel 35-kDa cytoplasmic protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). CHIP is highly expressed in adult striated muscle in vivo and is expressed broadly in vitro in tissue culture. Hsc70 and Hsp70 were identified as potential interaction partners for this protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro binding assays demonstrated direct interactions between CHIP and both Hsc70 and Hsp70, and complexes containing CHIP and Hsc70 were identified in immunoprecipitates of human skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Using glutathione S-transferase fusions, we found that CHIP interacted with the carboxy-terminal residues 540 to 650 of Hsc70, whereas Hsc70 interacted with the amino-terminal residues 1 to 197 (containing the tetratricopeptide domain and an adjacent charged domain) of CHIP. Recombinant CHIP inhibited Hsp40-stimulated ATPase activity of Hsc70 and Hsp70, suggesting that CHIP blocks the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle. Consistent with this observation, both luciferase refolding and substrate binding in the presence of Hsp40 and Hsp70 were inhibited by CHIP. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP decreases net ATPase activity and reduces chaperone efficiency, and they implicate CHIP in the negative regulation of the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03658; NIA NIH HHS: AG15234

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;6;4535-45

  • Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies.

    Scanlan MJ, Chen YT, Williamson B, Gure AO, Stockert E, Gordan JD, Türeci O, Sahin U, Pfreundschuh M and Old LJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York Branch at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10021, USA. scanlanm@mskcc.org

    The screening of cDNA expression libraries derived from human tumors with autologous antibody (SEREX) has proven to be a powerful method for defining the structure of tumor antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. In the present study, 48 distinct antigens (NY-CO-1-NY-CO-48) reactive with autologous IgG were identified by SEREX analysis in 4 patients with colon cancer. Sequencing analysis showed that 17 of the cDNA clones were previously uncharacterized molecules and 31 represented known gene products. The individual cDNA clones were analyzed in the following manner: a search for mutations or other structural changes; an analysis of mRNA expression in a panel of normal tissues; and a frequency analysis of the antibody response to the expressed product in the sera of colon cancer patients and normal individuals. The initial analysis showed NY-CO-13 to be a mutated version of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Three of the 48 antigens showed a differential pattern of mRNA expression, with NY-CO-27 (galectin-4) expressed primarily in gastrointestinal tract, and NY-CO-37 and -38 showing a pattern of tissue-specific isoforms. With regard to immunogenicity, 20 of the 48 antigens were detected by allogeneic sera; 14 of these were reactive with sera from both normal donors and cancer patients, and 6 other clones (NY-CO-8, -9, -13, -16, -20 and -38) reacted exclusively with sera from colon cancer patients (ranging from 14% to 27%). Our results on colon cancer illustrate both the complexity and the potential of the SEREX approach for analysis of the humoral immune response against human cancer.

    International journal of cancer 1998;76;5;652-8

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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