G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
dipeptidyl-peptidase 6
G00000315 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000130226 (Ensembl human gene)
1804 (Entrez Gene)
651 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DPP6 (GeneCards)
126141 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3010 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P42658 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • DPPX

Literature (27)

Pubmed - other

  • No association of DPP6 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an Italian population.

    Fogh I, D'Alfonso S, Gellera C, Ratti A, Cereda C, Penco S, Corrado L, Sorarù G, Castellotti B, Tiloca C, Gagliardi S, Cozzi L, Lupton MK, Ticozzi N, Mazzini L, Shaw CE, Al-Chalabi A, Powell J and Silani V

    MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, UK. I.Fogh@iop.kcl.ac.uk

    We have attempted to replicate a recently reported association of polymorphism rs10260404, in the Dipeptidyl-peptidase 6 gene (DPP6), with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a large independent Italian cohort of 904 cases and 1036 controls. Minor allele frequency was 0.38 in cases and 0.39 in controls and no evidence of association with ALS was observed (P=0.638). Our negative results agree with those recently reported in additional Polish and Italian cohorts.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0500289, G0900688; Wellcome Trust: 089701

    Neurobiology of aging 2011;32;5;966-7

  • Analysis of DPP6 and FGGY as candidate genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Daoud H, Valdmanis PN, Dion PA and Rouleau GA

    Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    DPP6 and FGGY genes have been recently associated with an increased susceptibility for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we evaluated the role of these genes in ALS pathogenesis by undertaking a sequence analysis of a cohort of 190 ALS patients from France and Quebec. We did not observe any evidence that mutations in DPP6 and FGGY genes are involved in ALS. Our data indicate that mutations in these genes are unlikely to be a common cause of ALS in the French and French Canadian populations.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases 2010;11;4;389-91

  • A two-stage genome-wide association study of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Chiò A, Schymick JC, Restagno G, Scholz SW, Lombardo F, Lai SL, Mora G, Fung HC, Britton A, Arepalli S, Gibbs JR, Nalls M, Berger S, Kwee LC, Oddone EZ, Ding J, Crews C, Rafferty I, Washecka N, Hernandez D, Ferrucci L, Bandinelli S, Guralnik J, Macciardi F, Torri F, Lupoli S, Chanock SJ, Thomas G, Hunter DJ, Gieger C, Wichmann HE, Calvo A, Mutani R, Battistini S, Giannini F, Caponnetto C, Mancardi GL, La Bella V, Valentino F, Monsurrò MR, Tedeschi G, Marinou K, Sabatelli M, Conte A, Mandrioli J, Sola P, Salvi F, Bartolomei I, Siciliano G, Carlesi C, Orrell RW, Talbot K, Simmons Z, Connor J, Pioro EP, Dunkley T, Stephan DA, Kasperaviciute D, Fisher EM, Jabonka S, Sendtner M, Beck M, Bruijn L, Rothstein J, Schmidt S, Singleton A, Hardy J and Traynor BJ

    Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

    The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is largely unknown, but genetic factors are thought to play a significant role in determining susceptibility to motor neuron degeneration. To identify genetic variants altering risk of ALS, we undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): we followed our initial GWAS of 545 066 SNPs in 553 individuals with ALS and 2338 controls by testing the 7600 most associated SNPs from the first stage in three independent cohorts consisting of 2160 cases and 3008 controls. None of the SNPs selected for replication exceeded the Bonferroni threshold for significance. The two most significantly associated SNPs, rs2708909 and rs2708851 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 and 1.18, and P-values = 6.98 x 10(-7) and 1.16 x 10(-6)], were located on chromosome 7p13.3 within a 175 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing the SUNC1, HUS1 and C7orf57 genes. These associations did not achieve genome-wide significance in the original cohort and failed to replicate in an additional independent cohort of 989 US cases and 327 controls (OR = 1.18 and 1.19, P-values = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). Thus, we chose to cautiously interpret our data as hypothesis-generating requiring additional confirmation, especially as all previously reported loci for ALS have failed to replicate successfully. Indeed, the three loci (FGGY, ITPR2 and DPP6) identified in previous GWAS of sporadic ALS were not significantly associated with disease in our study. Our findings suggest that ALS is more genetically and clinically heterogeneous than previously recognized. Genotype data from our study have been made available online to facilitate such future endeavors.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0400149, G0701075; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES013244

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;8;1524-32

  • Haplotype-sharing analysis implicates chromosome 7q36 harboring DPP6 in familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.

    Alders M, Koopmann TT, Christiaans I, Postema PG, Beekman L, Tanck MW, Zeppenfeld K, Loh P, Koch KT, Demolombe S, Mannens MM, Bezzina CR and Wilde AA

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation (IVF) is defined as spontaneous VF without any known structural or electrical heart disease. A family history is present in up to 20% of probands with the disorder, suggesting that at least a subset of IVF is hereditary. A genome-wide haplotype-sharing analysis was performed for identification of the responsible gene in three distantly related families in which multiple individuals died suddenly or were successfully resuscitated at young age. We identified a haplotype, on chromosome 7q36, that was conserved in these three families and was also shared by 7 of 42 independent IVF patients. The shared chromosomal segment harbors part of the DPP6 gene, which encodes a putative component of the transient outward current in the heart. We demonstrated a 20-fold increase in DPP6 mRNA levels in the myocardium of carriers as compared to controls. Clinical evaluation of 84 risk-haplotype carriers and 71 noncarriers revealed no ECG or structural parameters indicative of cardiac disease. Penetrance of IVF was high; 50% of risk-haplotype carriers experienced (aborted) sudden cardiac death before the age of 58 years. We propose DPP6 as a gene for IVF and increased DPP6 expression as the likely pathogenetic mechanism.

    American journal of human genetics 2009;84;4;468-76

  • Dpp6 is associated with susceptibility to progressive spinal muscular atrophy.

    van Es MA, van Vught PW, van Kempen G, Blauw HM, Veldink JH and van den Berg LH

    University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Neurology 2009;72;13;1184-5

  • Screening for replication of genome-wide SNP associations in sporadic ALS.

    Cronin S, Tomik B, Bradley DG, Slowik A and Hardiman O

    Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland. scronin@rcsi.ie

    We recently reported a joint analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data on 958 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases and 932 controls from Ireland and the publicly available data sets from the United States and the Netherlands. The strongest pooled association was rs10260404 in the dipeptidyl-peptidase 6 (DPP6) gene. Here, we sought confirmation of joint analysis signals in both an expanded Irish and a Polish ALS cohort. Among 287 522 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 27 were commonly associated on joint analysis of the Irish, US and Dutch GWAs. These 27 SNPs were genotyped in an expanded Irish cohort (312 patients with SALS; 259 controls) and an additional Polish cohort (218 patients; 356 controls). Eleven SNPs, including rs10260404, reached a final P-value below 0.05 in the Irish cohort. In the Polish cohort, only one SNP, rs6299711, showed nominal association with ALS. Pooling of data for 1267 patients with ALS and 1336 control subjects did not identify any association reaching Bonferroni significance (P<1.74 x 10(-7)). The present strategy did not reveal any consistently associated SNP across four populations. The result for DPP6 is surprising, as it has been replicated elsewhere. We discuss the possible interpretations and implications of these findings for future ALS GWA studies both within and between populations.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;2;213-8

  • Dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) 6 and DP10: novel brain proteins implicated in human health and disease.

    McNicholas K, Chen T and Abbott CA

    School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) 6 and DP10 are non-enzyme members of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV family, which includes fibroblast activation protein, DP8, and DP9. DP6 and DP10 proteins have been shown to be critical components of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels important in determining cellular excitability. The aim of this paper was to review the research to date on DP6 and DP10 structure, expression, and functions. To date, the protein region responsible for modulating Kv4 channels has not been conclusively identified and the significance of the splice variants has not been resolved. Resolution of these issues will improve our overall knowledge of DP6 and DP10 and lead to a better understanding of their role in diseases, such as asthma and Alzheimer's disease.

    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine 2009;47;3;262-7

  • Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results.

    Uhl GR, Liu QR, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Rose JE, David SP, Niaura R and Lerman C

    Molecular Neurobiology Research Branch, National Institutes of Health-Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 333 Cassell Dr, Ste 3510, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. guhl@intra.nida.nih.gov

    Context: Smoking remains a major public health problem. Twin studies indicate that the ability to quit smoking is substantially heritable, with genetics that overlap modestly with the genetics of vulnerability to dependence on addictive substances.

    Objectives: To identify replicated genes that facilitate smokers' abilities to achieve and sustain abstinence from smoking (herein after referred to as quit-success genes) found in more than 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of successful vs unsuccessful abstainers, and, secondarily, to nominate genes for selective involvement in smoking cessation success with bupropion hydrochloride vs nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

    Design: The GWA results in subjects from 3 centers, with secondary analyses of NRT vs bupropion responders.

    Setting: Outpatient smoking cessation trial participants from 3 centers.

    Participants: European American smokers who successfully vs unsuccessfully abstain from smoking with biochemical confirmation in a smoking cessation trial using NRT, bupropion, or placebo (N = 550).

    Quit-success genes, reproducibly identified by clustered nominally positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2 independent samples with significant P values based on Monte Carlo simulation trials. The NRT-selective genes were nominated by clustered SNPs that display much larger t values for NRT vs placebo comparisons. The bupropion-selective genes were nominated by bupropion-selective results.

    Results: Variants in quit-success genes are likely to alter cell adhesion, enzymatic, transcriptional, structural, and DNA, RNA, and/or protein-handling functions. Quit-success genes are identified by clustered nominally positive SNPs from more than 2 samples and are unlikely to represent chance observations (Monte Carlo P< .0003). These genes display modest overlap with genes identified in GWA studies of dependence on addictive substances and memory.

    Conclusions: These results support polygenic genetics for success in abstaining from smoking, overlap with genetics of substance dependence and memory, and nominate gene variants for selective influences on therapeutic responses to bupropion vs NRT. Molecular genetics should help match the types and/or intensity of antismoking treatments with the smokers most likely to benefit from them.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA084719, P50CA/DA84718, P50CA84719, R01 CA063562, R01CA 63562; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL32318; NIDA NIH HHS: 1K08 DA14276-05, DA08511, K08 DA014276, K08 DA014276-01A2, K08 DA014276-02, K08 DA014276-03, K08 DA014276-04, K08 DA014276-05

    Archives of general psychiatry 2008;65;6;683-93

  • I SA channel complexes include four subunits each of DPP6 and Kv4.2.

    Soh H and Goldstein SA

    Department of Pediatrics and Institute for Molecular Pediatric Sciences, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

    Kv4 potassium channels produce rapidly inactivating currents that regulate excitability of muscles and nerves. To reconstitute the neuronal A-type current I(SA), Kv4 subunits assemble with DPP6, a single transmembrane domain accessory subunit. DPP6 alters function-accelerating activation, inactivation, and recovery from inactivation-and increases surface expression. We sought here to determine the stoichiometry of Kv4 and DPP6 in complexes using functional and biochemical methods. First, wild type channels formed from subunit monomers were compared with channels carrying subunits linked in tandem to enforce 4:4 and 4:2 assemblies (Kv4.2-DPP6 and Kv4.2-Kv4.2-DPP6). Next, channels were overexpressed and purified so that the molar ratio of subunits in complexes could be assessed by direct amino acid analysis. Both biophysical and biochemical methods indicate that I(SA) channels carry four subunits each of Kv4.2 and DPP6.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL061657; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 051851; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS058505

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;22;15072-7

  • A genome-wide association study of sporadic ALS in a homogenous Irish population.

    Cronin S, Berger S, Ding J, Schymick JC, Washecka N, Hernandez DG, Greenway MJ, Bradley DG, Traynor BJ and Hardiman O

    Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland. scronin@rcsi.ie

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive limb or bulbar weakness. Efforts to elucidate the disease-associated loci have to date produced conflicting results. One strategy to improve power in genome-wide studies is to genotype a genetically homogenous population. Such a population exhibits extended linkage disequilibrium (LD) and lower allelic heterogeneity to facilitate disease gene mapping. We sought to identify associated variants for ALS in the Irish, a stable population of relatively homogenous genetic background, and to replicate these findings in larger genetically out-bred populations. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 432 Irish individuals using Illumina HumanHap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism chips. We demonstrated extended LD and increased homogeneity in the Irish sample when compared to an out-bred population of mixed European ancestry. The Irish scan identified 35 loci associated with P-values below 0.0001. For replication, we identified seven chromosomal regions commonly associated in a joint analysis of genome-wide data on 958 ALS cases and 932 controls from Ireland and the previously published datasets from the US and The Netherlands. When pooled, the strongest association was a variant in the gene encoding DPP6, a component of type A neuronal transmembrane potassium channels. Further confirmation of the candidate loci is warranted in additional genome-wide datasets. We have made our individual genotyping data publicly available, contributing to a powerful world-wide resource to refine our understanding of the genetics of sporadic ALS.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Human molecular genetics 2008;17;5;768-74

  • Genetic variation in DPP6 is associated with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    van Es MA, van Vught PW, Blauw HM, Franke L, Saris CG, Van den Bosch L, de Jong SW, de Jong V, Baas F, van't Slot R, Lemmens R, Schelhaas HJ, Birve A, Sleegers K, Van Broeckhoven C, Schymick JC, Traynor BJ, Wokke JH, Wijmenga C, Robberecht W, Andersen PM, Veldink JH, Ophoff RA and van den Berg LH

    Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht 3584 CX, The Netherlands.

    We identified a SNP in the DPP6 gene that is consistently strongly associated with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in different populations of European ancestry, with an overall P value of 5.04 x 10(-8) in 1,767 cases and 1,916 healthy controls and with an odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.18-1.43). Our finding is the first report of a genome-wide significant association with sporadic ALS and may be a target for future functional studies.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM68875; NIMH NIH HHS: MH078075

    Nature genetics 2008;40;1;29-31

  • Differential characterization of three alternative spliced isoforms of DPPX.

    Nadal MS, Amarillo Y, Vega-Saenz de Miera E and Rudy B

    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

    Transient subthreshold-activating somato-dendritic A-type K(+) currents (I(SA)s) have fundamental roles in neuronal function. They cause delayed excitation, influence spike repolarization, modulate the frequency of repetitive firing, and have important roles in signal processing in dendrites. We previously reported that DPPX proteins are key components of the channels mediating these currents (Kv4 channels) (Nadal, M.S., Ozaita, A., Amarillo, Y., Vega-Saenz, E., Ma, Y., Mo, W., Goldberg, E.M., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y., Neubert, T.A., Rudy, B., 2003. The CD26-related dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein DPPX is a critical component of neuronal A-type K+ channels. Neuron 37, 449-461). The DPPX gene encodes alternatively spliced transcripts that generate single-spanning transmembrane proteins with a short, divergent intracellular domain and a large extracellular domain. We characterized the modulatory effects on Kv4.2-mediated currents and the rat brain distribution of three splice variants of the DPPX subfamily of proteins. These three splice isoforms--DPPX-S, DPPX-L, and DPPX-K--are expressed in adult rat brain and modify the voltage dependence and kinetic properties of Kv4.2 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Analysis of a deletion mutant that lacks the variable N-terminus showed that the N-terminus is not necessary for the modulation of Kv4 channels. Using in situ hybridization analysis, we found that the three splice variants are prominently expressed in brain regions where Kv4 subunits are also expressed. DPPX-K and DPPX-S mRNAs have a widespread distribution, whereas DPPX-L transcripts are concentrated in few specific areas of the rat brain. The emerging diversity of DPPX splice variants, differing only in the N-terminus of the protein, opens up intriguing possibilities for the modulation of Kv4 channels.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS045217, NS30989

    Brain research 2006;1094;1;1-12

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Multiprotein assembly of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPP10 produces ternary channel complexes with ISA-like properties.

    Jerng HH, Kunjilwar K and Pfaffinger PJ

    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, S630, Houston, TX 77030, USA. hjerng@cns.bcm.tmc.edu

    Kv4 pore-forming subunits are the principal constituents of the voltage-gated K+ channel underlying somatodendritic subthreshold A-type currents (I(SA)) in neurones. Two structurally distinct types of Kv4 channel modulators, Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like proteins (DPLs: DPP6 or DPPX, DPP10 or DPPY), enhance surface expression and modify functional properties. Since KChIP and DPL distributions overlap in the brain, we investigated the potential coassembly of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPL proteins, and the contribution of DPLs to ternary complex properties. Immunoprecipitation results show that KChIP3 and DPP10 associate simultaneously with Kv4.2 proteins in rat brain as well as heterologously expressing Xenopus oocytes, indicating Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 multiprotein complexes. Consistent with ternary complex formation, coexpression of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPP10 in oocytes and CHO cells results in current waveforms distinct from the arithmetic sum of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 and Kv4.2 + DPP10 currents. Furthermore, the Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 channels recover from inactivation very rapidly (tau(rec) approximately 18-26 ms), closely matching that of native I(SA) and significantly faster than the recovery of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 or Kv4.2 + DPP10 channels. For comparison, identical triple coexpression experiments were performed using DPP6 variants. While most results are similar, the Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP6 channels exhibit inactivation that slows with increasing membrane potential, resulting in inactivation slower than that of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 channels at positive voltages. In conclusion, the native neuronal subthreshold A-type channel is probably a macromolecular complex formed from Kv4 and a combination of both KChIP and DPL proteins, with the precise composition of channel alpha and auxiliary subunits underlying tissue and regional variability in I(SA) properties.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS037444, P01 NS37444, R01 NS031583, R01 NS31583

    The Journal of physiology 2005;568;Pt 3;767-88

  • Expression and function of dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 as a putative beta-subunit of human cardiac transient outward current encoded by Kv4.3.

    Radicke S, Cotella D, Graf EM, Ravens U and Wettwer E

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstr. 74, Dresden, 01307 Germany.

    Dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX) was recently shown in the brain to modulate the kinetics of transient A-type currents by accelerating inactivation and recovery from inactivation. Since the kinetics of human cardiac transient outward current (I(to)) are not mimicked by coexpression of the alpha-subunit Kv4.3 with its known beta-subunit KChIP2, we have tested the hypothesis that DPPX may serve as an additional beta-subunit in the human heart. With quantitative real-time RT-PCR strong mRNA expression of DPPX was detected in human ventricles and was verified at the protein level in human but not in rat heart by a DPPX-specific antibody. Co-expression of DPPX with Kv4.3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells produced I(to)-like currents, but compared with expression of KChIP2a and Kv4.3, the time constant of inactivation was faster, the potential of half-maximum steady-state inactivation was more negative and recovery from inactivation was delayed. Co-expression of DPPX in addition to Kv4.3 and KChIP2a produced similar current kinetics as in human ventricular myocytes. We therefore propose that DPPX is an essential component of the native cardiac I(to) channel complex in human heart.

    The Journal of physiology 2005;565;Pt 3;751-6

  • Transmembrane interaction mediates complex formation between peptidase homologues and Kv4 channels.

    Ren X, Hayashi Y, Yoshimura N and Takimoto K

    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 3343 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

    An asthma-related peptidase homologue (DPP10) may act as an auxiliary subunit of Kv4 channels, similar to DPPX. Here we show that DPP10 preferentially binds to Kv4 channel proteins to increase current density and alter channel gating. DPP10 also forms complexes by themselves and with DPPX in the absence of Kv4 channels. DPP10 mRNA is abundantly expressed in nodose and dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that DPP10 participates in controlling airway reactivity and mechanosensation. The region from the N-terminus to the end of the transmembrane of DPP10 mediates its association with the channel, whereas the S1-S2 portion of the channel is sufficient for complex formation. This N-terminal portion of DPP10 also confers all the gating effects produced by the peptidase homologue. Thus, interaction between transmembranes of DPP10/DPPX and Kv4 channel mediates functional complex formation. We call this protein DPPY, instead of DPP10, because of its revealed role as a Kv4 channel regulator.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL074111-02

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2005;29;2;320-32

  • DPP10 modulates Kv4-mediated A-type potassium channels.

    Zagha E, Ozaita A, Chang SY, Nadal MS, Lin U, Saganich MJ, McCormack T, Akinsanya KO, Qi SY and Rudy B

    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016.

    A new member of a family of proteins characterized by structural similarity to dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV known as DPP10 was recently identified and linked to asthma susceptibility; however, the cellular functions of DPP10 are thus far unknown. DPP10 is highly homologous to subfamily member DPPX, which we previously reported as a modulator of Kv4-mediated A-type potassium channels (Nadal, M. S., Ozaita, A., Amarillo, Y., Vega-Saenz de Miera, E., Ma, Y., Mo, W., Goldberg, E. M., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y., Neubert, T. A., and Rudy, B. (2003) Neuron. 37, 449-461). We studied the ability of DPP10 protein to modulate the properties of Kv4.2 channels in heterologous expression systems. We found DPP10 activity to be nearly identical to DPPX activity and significantly different from DPPIV activity. DPPX and DPP10 facilitated Kv4.2 protein trafficking to the cell membrane, increased A-type current magnitude, and modified the voltage dependence and kinetic properties of the current such that they resembled the properties of A-type currents recorded in neurons in the central nervous system. Using in situ hybridization, we found DPP10 to be prominently expressed in brain neuronal populations that also express Kv4 subunits. Furthermore, DPP10 was detected in immunoprecipitated Kv4.2 channel complexes from rat brain membranes, confirming the association of DPP10 proteins with native Kv4.2 channels. These experiments suggest that DPP10 contributes to the molecular composition of A-type currents in the central nervous system. To dissect the structural determinants of these integral accessory proteins, we constructed chimeras of DPPX, DPP10, and DPPIV lacking the extracellular domain. Chimeras of DPPX and DPP10, but not DPPIV, were able to modulate the properties of Kv4.2 channels, highlighting the importance of the intracellular and transmembrane domains in this activity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS045217, NS30989

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;19;18853-61

  • Structure of a human A-type potassium channel interacting protein DPPX, a member of the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family.

    Strop P, Bankovich AJ, Hansen KC, Garcia KC and Brunger AT

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford University, James H. Clark Center E300, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    It has recently been reported that dipeptidyl aminopeptidase X (DPPX) interacts with the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4 and that co-expression of DPPX together with Kv4 pore forming alpha-subunits, and potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIPs), reconstitutes properties of native A-type potassium channels in vitro. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human DPPX determined at 3.0A resolution. This structure reveals the potential for a surface electrostatic change based on the protonation state of histidine. Subtle changes in extracellular pH might modulate the interaction of DPPX with Kv4.2 and possibly with other proteins. We propose models of DPPX interaction with the voltage-gated potassium channel complex. The dimeric structure of DPPX is highly homologous to the related protein DPP-IV. Comparison of the active sites of DPPX and DPP-IV reveals loss of the catalytic serine residue but the presence of an additional serine near the "active" site. However, the arrangement of residues is inconsistent with that of canonical serine proteases and DPPX is unlikely to function as a protease (dipeptidyl aminopeptidase).

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: T32 AI007290

    Journal of molecular biology 2004;343;4;1055-65

  • Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues.

    Schmitt-Ulms G, Hansen K, Liu J, Cowdrey C, Yang J, DeArmond SJ, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB and Baldwin MA

    Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

    Because of their sensitivity to solubilizing detergents, membrane protein assemblies are difficult to study. We describe a protocol that covalently conserves protein interactions through time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking (tcTPC) before disruption of tissue integrity. To validate tcTPC for identifying protein-protein interactions, we established that tcTPC allowed stringent immunoaffinity purification of the gamma-secretase complex in high salt concentrations and detergents and was compatible with mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked aph-1, presenilin-1 and nicastrin. We then applied tcTPC to identify more than 20 proteins residing in the vicinity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), suggesting that PrP is embedded in specialized membrane regions with a subset of molecules that, like PrP, use a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor for membrane attachment. Many of these proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion/neuritic outgrowth, and harbor immunoglobulin C2 and fibronectin type III-like motifs.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: NCRR RR01614; NIA NIH HHS: AG010770, AG02132

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;724-31

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • The CD26-related dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein DPPX is a critical component of neuronal A-type K+ channels.

    Nadal MS, Ozaita A, Amarillo Y, Vega-Saenz de Miera E, Ma Y, Mo W, Goldberg EM, Misumi Y, Ikehara Y, Neubert TA and Rudy B

    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience and Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

    Subthreshold-activating somatodendritic A-type potassium channels have fundamental roles in neuronal signaling and plasticity which depend on their unique cellular localization, voltage dependence, and kinetic properties. Some of the components of A-type K(+) channels have been identified; however, these do not reproduce the properties of the native channels, indicating that key molecular factors have yet to be unveiled. We purified A-type K(+) channel complexes from rat brain membranes and found that DPPX, a protein of unknown function that is structurally related to the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and cell adhesion protein CD26, is a novel component of A-type K(+) channels. DPPX associates with the channels' pore-forming subunits, facilitates their trafficking and membrane targeting, reconstitutes the properties of the native channels in heterologous expression systems, and is coexpressed with the pore-forming subunits in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 1R21NS44184

    Neuron 2003;37;3;449-61

  • Biosynthesis and characterization of the brain-specific membrane protein DPPX, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV-related protein.

    Kin Y, Misumi Y and Ikehara Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV-related protein (DPPX) was found to be preferentially expressed in the brain tissue. We isolated two rat cDNA clones encoding DPPX-S and DPPX-L from a brain cDNA library, of which DPPX-L had a longer sequence at the NH2 terminus. The biosynthesis of DPPXs was examined in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In the cell-free translation system, DPPX-S and DPPX-L were synthesized as 93-kDa and 97-kDa forms, respectively, which are in good agreement with the molecular masses estimated from their primary structure. In COS-1 cells transfected with the cDNAs, DPPX-S and DPPX-L were initially synthesized as 113-kDa and 117-kDa forms, respectively, with high-mannose type oligosaccharides, which were then converted to 115-kDa and 120-kDa forms, mostly with the complex-type sugar chains. Immunofluorescence-microscopic observations confirmed that both DPPXs were expressed on the cell surface. DPPXs were found to have no enzyme activity of DPPIV, even when they were mutated to have the consensus active-site sequence Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly for serine proteases. Immunoblot analysis of samples prepared from various rat tissues demonstrated that DPPX-S, but not DPPX-L, was detectable only in the brain tissue. These results indicate that, of the two isoforms, DPPX-S is preferentially expressed in the brain tissue as the surface glycoprotein without protease activity, although its function remains unknown at present.

    Journal of biochemistry 2001;129;2;289-95

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence.

    Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD, Fuldner RA, Bult CJ, Lee NH, Kirkness EF, Weinstock KG, Gocayne JD, White O et al.

    Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA.

    In an effort to identify new genes and analyse their expression patterns, 174,472 partial complementary DNA sequences (expressed sequence tags (ESTs)), totalling more than 52 million nucleotides of human DNA sequence, have been generated from 300 cDNA libraries constructed from 37 distinct organs and tissues. These ESTs have been combined with an additional 118,406 ESTs from the database dbEST, for a total of 83 million nucleotides, and treated as a shotgun sequence assembly project. The assembly process yielded 29,599 distinct tentative human consensus (THC) sequences and 58,384 non-overlapping ESTs. Of these 87,983 distinct sequences, 10,214 further characterize previously known genes based on statistically significant similarity to sequences in the available databases; the remainder identify previously unknown genes. Thirty tissues were sampled by over 1,000 ESTs each; only eight genes were matched by ESTs from all 30 tissues, and 227 genes were represented in 20 or more of the tissues sampled with more than 1,000 ESTs. Approximately 40% of identified human genes appear to be associated with basic energy metabolism, cell structure, homeostasis and cell division, 22% with RNA and protein synthesis and processing, and 12% with cell signalling and communication.

    Nature 1995;377;6547 Suppl;3-174

  • Non-conservation of a catalytic residue in a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV-related protein encoded by a gene on human chromosome 7.

    Yokotani N, Doi K, Wenthold RJ and Wada K

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Human molecular genetics 1993;2;7;1037-9

  • Differential expression of two distinct forms of mRNA encoding members of a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family.

    Wada K, Yokotani N, Hunter C, Doi K, Wenthold RJ and Shimasaki S

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    We have identified two cDNAs encoding dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like proteins (DPPXs) in both bovine and rat brains that have different N-terminal cytoplasmic domains but share an identical transmembrane domain and a long C-terminal extracellular domain. In both species, one of the cDNAs encodes a protein (designated DPPX-S) of 803 amino acid residues with a short cytoplasmic domain of 32 amino acids, and the other cDNA encodes a protein (designated DPPX-L) with a longer cytoplasmic domain--the bovine cDNA encodes 92 amino acids and the rat cDNA encodes 88 amino acids. The membrane topology of DPPX-S and -L is similar to that of other transmembrane peptidases, and DPPX-S share approximately 30% identity and 50% similarity with reported yeast and rat liver dipeptidyl aminopeptidase amino acid sequences, suggesting that DPPX is a member of the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family. DPPX-S mRNA is expressed in brain and some peripheral tissues including kidney, ovary, and testis; in contrast, DPPX-L mRNA is expressed almost exclusively in brain. No transcripts for either form are found in heart, liver, or spleen. In situ hybridization studies show that the two transcripts have different distributions in the brain. DPPX-L mRNA is expressed in limited regions of brain with the highest level of expression in the medial habenula. More widespread expression is seen for DPPX-S mRNA. The differential distribution of mRNAs for the DPPX-S and -L suggests that these proteins are involved in the metabolism of certain localized peptides and that the cytoplasmic domain may play a key role in determining the physiological specificity of DPPX.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;1;197-201

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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