G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1
G00000301 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000059320 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000131100 (Ensembl human gene)
529 (Entrez Gene)
637 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP6V1E1 (GeneCards)
108746 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P36543 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • ATP6E2
  • P31
  • Vma4

Literature (27)

Pubmed - other

  • HuR stabilizes vacuolar H+-translocating ATPase mRNA during cellular energy depletion.

    Jeyaraj S, Dakhlallah D, Hill SR and Lee BS

    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA.

    V-ATPases are multisubunit membrane proteins that use ATP binding and hydrolysis to transport protons across membranes against a concentration gradient. Although some cell types express plasma membrane forms of these transporters, all eukaryotes require V-ATPases to maintain an acidic pH in membrane-bound compartments of endocytic and secretory networks to facilitate protein trafficking and processing. Mammalian cells that completely lack V-ATPases are not viable; yet, the abundance of V-ATPases can differ among cell types by an order of magnitude or more, requiring precise control of their expression. We previously showed that mRNA stability appears to play a major role in regulating overall abundance of V-ATPases. In this report, we demonstrate that the stability of V-ATPase mRNA is regulated through AU-rich elements in 3'-untranslated regions. Unlike some mRNAs that are short-lived due to the presence of these elements, V-ATPase mRNAs have half-lives of hours to days. However, during stress induced by ATP depletion, AU-rich elements are necessary to maintain stability of these transcripts and their presence in the cytoplasm. HuR, an RNA-binding protein that interacts with and stabilizes AU-rich mRNAs, shows increased binding to some V-ATPase mRNAs during ATP depletion. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HuR results in diminished V-ATPase expression. These results indicate that AU-rich elements and associated proteins can play a role in regulation of even very stable mRNAs by protecting against loss during cellular stress.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52131, R01 DK052131, R01 DK052131-07A1, R01 DK052131-08, R01 DK052131-09, R01 DK052131-10

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;45;37957-64

  • Proteomic identification of the TRAF6 regulation of vacuolar ATPase for osteoclast function.

    Ryu J, Kim H, Lee SK, Chang EJ, Kim HJ and Kim HH

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

    Osteoclasts are cells specialized for bone resorption. For osteoclast activation, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a pivotal role. To find new molecules that bind TRAF6 and have a function in osteoclast activation, we employed a proteomic approach. TRAF6-binding proteins were purified from osteoclast cell lysates by affinity chromatography and their identity was disclosed by MS. The identified proteins included several heat shock proteins, actin and actin-binding proteins, and vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPase, documented for a great increase in expression during osteoclast differentiation, is an important enzyme for osteoclast function; it transports proton to resorption lacunae for hydroxyapatite dissolution. The binding of V-ATPase with TRAF6 was confirmed both in vitro by GST pull-down assays and in osteoclasts by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy experiments. In addition, the V-ATPase activity associated with TRAF6 increased in osteoclasts stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL). Furthermore, a dominant-negative form of TRAF6 abrogated the RANKL stimulation of V-ATPase activity. Our study identified V-ATPase as a TRAF6-binding protein using a proteomics strategy and proved a direct link between these two important molecules for osteoclast function.

    Proteomics 2005;5;16;4152-60

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase.

    Morel N

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France. nicolas.morel@nbcm.cnrs-gif.fr

    Vacuolar-H+ATPase (V-ATPase) is a complex enzyme with numerous subunits organized in two domains. The membrane domain V0 contains a proteolipid hexameric ring that translocates protons when ATP is hydrolysed by the catalytic cytoplasmic sector (V1). In nerve terminals, V-ATPase generates an electrochemical proton gradient that is acid and positive inside synaptic vesicles. It is used by specific neurotransmitter-proton antiporters to accumulate neurotransmitters inside their storage organelles. During synaptic activity, neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles docked at specialized portions of the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zones. A fusion pore opens that allows the neurotransmitter to be released from the synaptic vesicle lumen into the synaptic cleft. We briefly review experimental data suggesting that the membrane domain of V-ATPase could be such a fusion pore. We also discuss the functional implications for quantal neurotransmitter release of the sequential use of the same V-ATPase membrane domain in two different events, neurotransmitter accumulation in synaptic vesicles first, and then release from these organelles during synaptic activity.

    Biology of the cell 2003;95;7;453-7

  • Revised nomenclature for mammalian vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase subunit genes.

    Smith AN, Lovering RC, Futai M, Takeda J, Brown D and Karet FE

    To date, the nomenclature of mammalian genes encoding the numerous subunits and their many isoforms that comprise the family of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases has not been systematic, resulting in confusion both in the literature and among investigators. We present the official new system for these genes, approved by both Human and Mouse Gene Nomenclature Committees.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;801-3

  • Proton translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis in V-ATPases.

    Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments and, in certain cases, proton transport across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They are multisubunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V(1)) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral domain (V(0)) responsible for proton translocation. Based upon their structural similarity to the F(1)F(0) ATP synthases, the V-ATPases are thought to operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis in V(1) drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits in V(0). This review is focused on the current structural knowledge of the V-ATPases as it relates to the mechanism of ATP-driven proton translocation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    FEBS letters 2003;545;1;76-85

  • The amino-terminal domain of the E subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) interacts with the H subunit and is required for V-ATPase function.

    Lu M, Vergara S, Zhang L, Holliday LS, Aris J and Gluck SL

    Department of Medicine University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. luming@medicine.ufl.edu

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved proton pumps that couple hydrolysis of cytosolic ATP to proton transport out of the cytosol. Although it is generally believed that V-ATPases transport protons by a rotary catalytic mechanism analogous to that used by F(1)F(0)-ATPases, the structure and subunit composition of the central or peripheral stalk of the multisubunit complex are not well understood. We searched for proteins that bind to the E subunit of V-ATPase using the yeast two-hybrid assay and identified the H subunit as an interacting partner. Physical association between the E and H subunits of V-ATPase was confirmed in vitro by precipitation assays. Deletion mapping analysis revealed that a 78-amino acid fragment at the amino terminus of the E subunit was sufficient for binding to the H subunit. Expression of the amino-terminal fragments of the E subunits from human and yeast as dominant-negative mutants resulted in dramatic decreases in bafilomycin A(1)-sensitive ATP hydrolysis and proton transport activities of V-ATPase. Our data demonstrate the physiological significance of the interaction between the E and H subunits of V-ATPase and extend previous studies on the arrangement of subunits on the peripheral stalk of V-ATPase.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK38848, R01 DK54362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38409-15

  • A human gene, ATP6E1, encoding a testis-specific isoform of H(+)-ATPase subunit E.

    Imai-Senga Y, Sun-Wada GH, Wada Y and Futai M

    Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka 567-0047, Japan.

    We have identified a novel human gene, ATP6E, encoding an E subunit isoform of vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). ATP6E1 was mapped to approximately 2p16-p12 on chromosome 2, and has a simple genomic organization: a noncoding exon and a coding one for an E1 isoform separated by a 6.1 kb intron, with boundaries following the GT-AG rule. Transcription initiation sites were found at -375 and -158 bases upstream of the translation initiation codon. Northern blotting analysis demonstrated that ATP6E1 is specifically transcribed in testis as 1.1 kb and 2.2 kb mRNAs, whereas the previously reported ATP6E2 (E2) is expressed in all tissues tested. E1 exhibited 76.9% identity with ubiquitously expressed E2, and both isoforms functionally complemented null mutations of the yeast counterpart VMA4, indicating that they are bona fide subunits of the V-ATPase complex.

    Gene 2002;289;1-2;7-12

  • The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases--nature's most versatile proton pumps.

    Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The pH of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells is a carefully controlled parameter that affects many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane transport, prohormone processing and transport of neurotransmitters, as well as the entry of many viruses into cells. The transporters responsible for controlling this crucial parameter in many intracellular compartments are the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases). Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and regulation of the V-ATPases, together with the mapping of human genetic defects to genes that encode V-ATPase subunits, have led to tremendous excitement in this field.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2002;3;2;94-103

  • The Sos1-Rac1 signaling. Possible involvement of a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase E subunit.

    Miura K, Miyazawa S, Furuta S, Mitsushita J, Kamijo K, Ishida H, Miki T, Suzukawa K, Resau J, Copeland TD and Kamata T

    Science Applications International Corporation, SAIC Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.

    We have purified and identified a 32-kDa protein interacting with the Dbl oncogene homology domain of mSos1(Sos-DH) from rat brains by glutathione S-transferase-Sos-DH affinity chromatography. Peptide sequencing revealed that the protein is identical to a positive regulatory E subunit (V-ATPase E) of a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which is responsible for acidification of endosome and alkalinization of intracellular pH. The interaction between V-ATPase E and Sos-DH was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid assay. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that a V-ATPase E protein physiologically bound to mSos1, and the protein was colocalized with mSos1 in the cytoplasm, as determined by immunohistochemistry. mSos1 was found in the early endosome fraction together with V-ATPase E and Rac1, suggesting the functional involvement of mSos1/V-ATPase E complexes in the Rac1 activity at endosomes. Overexpression of V-ATPase E in COS cells enhanced the ability of mSos1 to promote the guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Rac1 and stimulated the kinase activity of Jun kinase, a downstream target of Rac1. Thus, the data indicate that V-ATPase E may participate in the regulation of the mSos1-dependent Rac1 signaling pathway involved in growth factor receptor-mediated cell growth control.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;49;46276-83

  • Interaction between aldolase and vacuolar H+-ATPase: evidence for direct coupling of glycolysis to the ATP-hydrolyzing proton pump.

    Lu M, Holliday LS, Zhang L, Dunn WA and Gluck SL

    Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. luming@medicine.ufl.edu

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are essential for acidification of intracellular compartments and for proton secretion from the plasma membrane in kidney epithelial cells and osteoclasts. The cellular proteins that regulate V-ATPases remain largely unknown. A screen for proteins that bind the V-ATPase E subunit using the yeast two-hybrid assay identified the cDNA clone coded for aldolase, an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. The interaction between E subunit and aldolase was confirmed in vitro by precipitation assays using E subunit-glutathione S-transferase chimeric fusion proteins and metabolically labeled aldolase. Aldolase was isolated associated with intact V-ATPase from bovine kidney microsomes and osteoclast-containing mouse marrow cultures in co-immunoprecipitation studies performed using an anti-E subunit monoclonal antibody. The interaction was not affected by incubation with aldolase substrates or products. In immunocytochemical assays, aldolase was found to colocalize with V-ATPase in the renal proximal tubule. In osteoclasts, the aldolase-V-ATPase complex appeared to undergo a subcellular redistribution from perinuclear compartments to the ruffled membranes following activation of resorption. In yeast cells deficient in aldolase, the peripheral V(1) domain of V-ATPase was found to dissociate from the integral membrane V(0) domain, indicating direct coupling of glycolysis to the proton pump. The direct binding interaction between V-ATPase and aldolase may be a new mechanism for the regulation of the V-ATPase and may underlie the proximal tubule acidification defect in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38848, R01 DK54362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;32;30407-13

  • Analysis of the cat eye syndrome critical region in humans and the region of conserved synteny in mice: a search for candidate genes at or near the human chromosome 22 pericentromere.

    Footz TK, Brinkman-Mills P, Banting GS, Maier SA, Riazi MA, Bridgland L, Hu S, Birren B, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Pan H, Nguyen T, Fang F, Fu Y, Ray L, Wu H, Shaull S, Phan S, Yao Z, Chen F, Huan A, Hu P, Wang Q, Loh P, Qi S, Roe BA and McDermid HE

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.

    We have sequenced a 1.1-Mb region of human chromosome 22q containing the dosage-sensitive gene(s) responsible for cat eye syndrome (CES) as well as the 450-kb homologous region on mouse chromosome 6. Fourteen putative genes were identified within or adjacent to the human CES critical region (CESCR), including three known genes (IL-17R, ATP6E, and BID) and nine novel genes, based on EST identity. Two putative genes (CECR3 and CECR9) were identified, in the absence of EST hits, by comparing segments of human and mouse genomic sequence around two solitary amplified exons, thus showing the utility of comparative genomic sequence analysis in identifying transcripts. Of the 14 genes, 10 were confirmed to be present in the mouse genomic sequence in the same order and orientation as in human. Absent from the mouse region of conserved synteny are CECR1, a promising CES candidate gene from the center of the contig, neighboring CECR4, and CECR7 and CECR8, which are located in the gene-poor proximal 400 kb of the contig. This latter proximal region, located approximately 1 Mb from the centromere, shows abundant duplicated gene fragments typical of pericentromeric DNA. The margin of this region also delineates the boundary of conserved synteny between the CESCR and mouse chromosome 6. Because the proximal CESCR appears abundant in duplicated segments and, therefore, is likely to be gene poor, we consider the putative genes identified in the distal CESCR to represent the majority of candidate genes for involvement in CES.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00313

    Genome research 2001;11;6;1053-70

  • The amino-terminal domain of the B subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase contains a filamentous actin binding site.

    Holliday LS, Lu M, Lee BS, Nelson RD, Solivan S, Zhang L and Gluck SL

    Departments of Medicine and Anatomy & Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. hollils@medicine.ufl.edu

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) binds actin filaments with high affinity (K(d) = 55 nm; Lee, B. S., Gluck, S. L., and Holliday, L. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 29164-29171). We have proposed that this interaction is an important mechanism controlling transport of V-ATPase from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. Here we show that both the B1 (kidney) and B2 (brain) isoforms of the B subunit of V-ATPase contain a microfilament binding site in their amino-terminal domain. In pelleting assays containing actin filaments and partially disrupted V-ATPase, B subunits were found in greater abundance in actin pellets than were other V-ATPase subunits, suggesting that the B subunit contained an F-actin binding site. In overlay assays, biotinylated actin filaments also bound to the B subunit. A fusion protein containing the amino-terminal half of B1 subunit bound actin filaments tightly, but fusion proteins containing the carboxyl-terminal half of B1 subunit, or the full-length E subunit, did not bind F-actin. Fusion proteins containing the amino-terminal 106 amino acids of the B1 isoform or the amino-terminal 112 amino acids of the B2 isoform bound filamentous actin with K(d) values of 130 and 190 nm, respectively, and approached saturation at 1 mol of fusion protein/mol of filamentous actin. The B1 and B2 amino-terminal fusion proteins competed with V-ATPase for binding to filamentous actin. In summary, binding sites for F-actin are present in the amino-terminal domains of both isoforms of the B subunit, and likely are responsible for the interaction between V-ATPase and actin filaments in vivo.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK38848, R01 DK52131

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;41;32331-7

  • The B1 subunit of the H+ATPase is a PDZ domain-binding protein. Colocalization with NHE-RF in renal B-intercalated cells.

    Breton S, Wiederhold T, Marshansky V, Nsumu NN, Ramesh V and Brown D

    Renal Unit and Program in Membrane Biology and the Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. sbreton@receptor.mgh.harvard.edu

    The 56-kDa B1 subunit of the vacuolar H(+)ATPase has a C-terminal DTAL amino acid motif typical of PDZ-binding proteins that associate with the PDZ protein, NHE-RF (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor). This B1 isoform is amplified in renal intercalated cells, which play a role in distal urinary acid-base transport. In contrast, proximal tubules express the B2 isoform that lacks the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. Both the B1 56-kDa subunit and the 31-kDa (E) subunit of the H(+)ATPase are pulled down by glutathione S-transferase NHE-RF bound to GSH-Sepharose beads. These subunits associate in vivo as part of the cytoplasmic V1 portion of the H(+)ATPase, and the E subunit was co-immunoprecipitated from rat kidney cytosol with NHE-RF antibodies. The interaction of H(+)ATPase subunits with NHE-RF was inhibited by a peptide derived from the C terminus of the B1 but not the B2 isoform. NHE-RF colocalized with H(+)ATPase in either the apical or the basolateral region of B-type intercalated cells, whereas NHE-RF staining was undetectable in A-intercalated cells. In proximal tubules, NHE-RF was located in the apical brush border. In contrast, H(+)ATPase was concentrated in a distinct membrane domain at the base of the brush border, from which NHE-RF was absent, consistent with the expression of the truncated B2 subunit isoform in this tubule segment. The colocalization of NHE-RF and H(+)ATPase in B- but not A-intercalated cells suggests a role in generating, maintaining, or modulating the variable H(+)ATPase polarity that characterizes the B-cell phenotype.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38452, DK42956; NINDS NIH HHS: NS24279

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;24;18219-24

  • Animal plasma membrane energization by proton-motive V-ATPases.

    Wieczorek H, Brown D, Grinstein S, Ehrenfeld J and Harvey WR

    Department of Biology/Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, D-49069, Osnabrück, Germany.

    Proton-translocating, vacuolar-type ATPases, well known energizers of eukaryotic, vacuolar membranes, now emerge as energizers of many plasma membranes. Just as Na(+) gradients, imposed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPases, energize basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia, so voltage gradients, imposed by H(+) V-ATPases, energize apical plasma membranes. The energized membranes acidify or alkalinize compartments, absorb or secrete ions and fluids, and underwrite cellular homeostasis. V-ATPases acidify extracellular spaces of single cells such as phagocytes and osteoclasts and of polarized epithelia, such as vertebrate kidney and epididymis. They alkalinize extracellular spaces of lepidopteran midgut. V-ATPases energize fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules and fluid absorption by insect oocytes. They hyperpolarize external plasma membranes for Na(+) uptake by amphibian skin and fish gills. Indeed, it is likely that ion uptake by osmotically active membranes of all fresh water organisms is energized by V-ATPases. Awareness of plasma membrane energization by V-ATPases provides new perspectives for basic science and presents new opportunities for medicine and agriculture.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22444; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC42956

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;8;637-48

  • Structure and properties of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases.

    Forgac M

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;19;12951-4

  • Vacuolar and plasma membrane proton-adenosinetriphosphatases.

    Nelson N and Harvey WR

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is one of the most fundamental enzymes in nature. It functions in almost every eukaryotic cell and energizes a wide variety of organelles and membranes. V-ATPases have similar structure and mechanism of action with F-ATPase and several of their subunits evolved from common ancestors. In eukaryotic cells, F-ATPases are confined to the semi-autonomous organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, which contain their own genes that encode some of the F-ATPase subunits. In contrast to F-ATPases, whose primary function in eukaryotic cells is to form ATP at the expense of the proton-motive force (pmf), V-ATPases function exclusively as ATP-dependent proton pumps. The pmf generated by V-ATPases in organelles and membranes of eukaryotic cells is utilized as a driving force for numerous secondary transport processes. The mechanistic and structural relations between the two enzymes prompted us to suggest similar functional units in V-ATPase as was proposed to F-ATPase and to assign some of the V-ATPase subunit to one of four parts of a mechanochemical machine: a catalytic unit, a shaft, a hook, and a proton turbine. It was the yeast genetics that allowed the identification of special properties of individual subunits and the discovery of factors that are involved in the enzyme biogenesis and assembly. The V-ATPases play a major role as energizers of animal plasma membranes, especially apical plasma membranes of epithelial cells. This role was first recognized in plasma membranes of lepidopteran midgut and vertebrate kidney. The list of animals with plasma membranes that are energized by V-ATPases now includes members of most, if not all, animal phyla. This includes the classical Na+ absorption by frog skin, male fertility through acidification of the sperm acrosome and the male reproductive tract, bone resorption by mammalian osteoclasts, and regulation of eye pressure. V-ATPase may function in Na+ uptake by trout gills and energizes water secretion by contractile vacuoles in Dictyostelium. V-ATPase was first detected in organelles connected with the vacuolar system. It is the main if not the only primary energy source for numerous transport systems in these organelles. The driving force for the accumulation of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles is pmf generated by V-ATPase. The acidification of lysosomes, which are required for the proper function of most of their enzymes, is provided by V-ATPase. The enzyme is also vital for the proper function of endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to yeast vacuoles that maintain an internal pH of approximately 5.5, it is believed that the vacuoles of lemon fruit may have a pH as low as 2. Similarly, some brown and red alga maintain internal pH as low as 0.1 in their vacuoles. One of the outstanding questions in the field is how such a conserved enzyme as the V-ATPase can fulfill such diverse functions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-22444

    Physiological reviews 1999;79;2;361-85

  • Introduction: V-ATPases 1992-1998.

    Kane PM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 1999;31;1;3-5

  • Comparative mapping of the human 22q11 chromosomal region and the orthologous region in mice reveals complex changes in gene organization.

    Puech A, Saint-Jore B, Funke B, Gilbert DJ, Sirotkin H, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Kucherlapati R, Morrow B and Skoultchi AI

    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    The region of human chromosome 22q11 is prone to rearrangements. The resulting chromosomal abnormalities are involved in Velo-cardio-facial and DiGeorge syndromes (VCFS and DGS) (deletions), "cat eye" syndrome (duplications), and certain types of tumors (translocations). As a prelude to the development of mouse models for VCFS/DGS by generating targeted deletions in the mouse genome, we examined the organization of genes from human chromosome 22q11 in the mouse. Using genetic linkage analysis and detailed physical mapping, we show that genes from a relatively small region of human 22q11 are distributed on three mouse chromosomes (MMU6, MMU10, and MMU16). Furthermore, although the region corresponding to about 2.5 megabases of the VCFS/DGS critical region is located on mouse chromosome 16, the relative organization of the region is quite different from that in humans. Our results show that the instability of the 22q11 region is not restricted to humans but may have been present throughout evolution. The results also underscore the importance of detailed comparative mapping of genes in mice and humans as a prerequisite for the development of mouse models of human diseases involving chromosomal rearrangements.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD34980-01

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;26;14608-13

  • The vacuolar H+-ATPase: a universal proton pump of eukaryotes.

    Finbow ME and Harrison MA

    CRC Beatson Laboratories, Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, U.K.

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a universal component of eukaryotic organisms. It is present in the membranes of many organelles, where its proton-pumping action creates the low intra-vacuolar pH found, for example, in lysosomes. In addition, there are a number of differentiated cell types that have V-ATPases on their surface that contribute to the physiological functions of these cells. The V-ATPase is a multi-subunit enzyme composed of a membrane sector and a cytosolic catalytic sector. It is related to the familiar FoF1 ATP synthase (F-ATPase), having the same basic architectural construction, and many of the subunits from the two display identity with one another. All the core subunits of the V-ATPase have now been identified and much is known about the assembly, regulation and pharmacology of the enzyme. Recent genetic analysis has shown the V-ATPase to be a vital component of higher eukaryotes. At least one of the subunits, i.e. subunit c (ductin), may have multifunctional roles in membrane transport, providing a possible pathway of communication between cells. The structure of the membrane sector is known in some detail, and it is possible to begin to suggest how proton pumping is coupled to ATP hydrolysis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1997;324 ( Pt 3);697-712

  • Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase.

    Stevens TH and Forgac M

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403-1229, USA. stevens@molbio.uoregon.edu

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) function in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The peripheral V1 domain, a 500-kDa complex responsible for ATP hydrolysis, contains at least eight different subunits of molecular weight 70-13 (subunits A-H). The integral V0 domain, a 250-kDa complex, functions in proton translocation and contains at least five different subunits of molecular weight 100-17 (subunits a-d). Biochemical and genetic analysis has been used to identify subunits and residues involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, proton translocation, and coupling of these activities. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar acidification in vivo, including control of pump density, regulation of assembly of V1 and V0 domains, disulfide bond formation, activator or inhibitor proteins, and regulation of counterion conductance. Recent information concerning targeting and regulation of V-ATPases has also been obtained.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;779-808

  • The E subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase localizes close to the centromere on human chromosome 22.

    Baud V, Mears AJ, Lamour V, Scamps C, Duncan AM, McDermid HE and Lipinski M

    Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs Humaines, CNRS URA 1156, Institut Gustave Roussy, Vilejuif, France.

    As part of a general effort to identify new genes mapping to disease-associated regions of human chromosome 22, we have isolated heterogeneous nuclear RNA from somatic cell hybrids selected for their chromosome 22 content. Inter-Alu PCR amplification yielded a series of human DNA fragments which all detected evolutionarily-conserved sequences. The centromere-most gene fragment candidate, XEN61, was shown to lie centromeric to the chromosome 22 breakpoint in the X/22-33-11TG somatic cell hybrid. This region, which is still devoid of characterized genes, overlaps with the critical region for the cat eye syndrome (CES), a developmental disorder associated with chromosomal duplication within 22pter-q11.2. Gene dosage analysis performed on DNA from six CES patients consistently revealed the presence of four copies of XEN61. A fetal brain cDNA clone, 61EW, was identified with XEN61 and entirely sequenced. The deduced protein is the E subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. This 31 KDa component of a proton pump is essential in eukaryotic cells as it both controls acidification of the vacuolar system and provides it with its main protonmotive force. RT-PCR experiments using oligonucleotides designed from the 61EW cDNA sequence indicated that the corresponding messenger is widely transcribed.

    Human molecular genetics 1994;3;2;335-9

  • Cloning and tissue distribution of subunits C, D, and E of the human vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    van Hille B, Vanek M, Richener H, Green JR and Bilbe G

    Pharma Research, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

    The vacuolar proton ATPase (V-ATPase) translocates protons into intracellular organelles or across the plasma membrane of specialised cells such as osteoclast and renal intercalated cells. The catalytic site of the V-ATPase consists of a hexamer of three A subunits and three B subunits which bind and hydrolyse ATP and are regulated by accessory subunits C, D and E. cDNAs encoding subunits C, D, and E were cloned from human osteoclastoma, a tissue highly enriched in osteoclasts, as a first step in the characterisation of the V-ATPase used by the osteoclast. By Northern blot analysis only one mRNA species were detected for each of these subunits, which is consistent the constant transcription level in all tissues irrespective of the presence of specialised cells highly enriched in V-ATPases.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;197;1;15-21

  • Immunologic evidence that vacuolar H+ ATPases with heterogeneous forms of Mr = 31,000 subunit have different membrane distributions in mammalian kidney.

    Hemken P, Guo XL, Wang ZQ, Zhang K and Gluck S

    Department of Medicine, Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    Vacuolar H+ ATPases reside in the plasma membrane of several segments of the mammalian nephron. In the proximal tubule, H+ ATPase is located in both the brush-border microvilli and in subvillar invaginations, while in the collecting duct intercalated cells, it is primarily in plasmalemma-associated membranes. H+ ATPase isolated from bovine kidney brush border has a cluster of polypeptides of Mr greater than 31,000 found associated with the Mr = 31,000 subunit, whereas H+ ATPase isolated from microsomes dose not have the additional associated polypeptides (Wang, Z.-Q., and Gluck, S. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21957-21965, 1990). In this study, we describe the production of several new monoclonal antibodies to the bovine vacuolar H+ ATPase Mr = 31,000 subunit. Two of the antibodies differed in reactivity to the cluster of Mr greater than 31,000 subunits found in purified bovine kidney brush-border H+ ATPase. Antibody E11 reacted with both the Mr = 31,000 and Mr greater than 31,000 subunits and stained renal brush border intensely. Antibody H8 did not react with the Mr greater than 31,000 polypeptides and did not stain brush border. The heterogeneity of the Mr greater than 31,000 subunits did not appear attributable to glycosylation or phosphorylation. These findings provide further evidence for heterogeneity of the Mr = 31,000 subunit in different renal membrane compartments and suggest a role for the Mr greater than 31,000 polypeptides specific to the brush-border microvilli.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2 PO1 DK09976, R01 DK38848

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;14;9948-57

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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