G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6
G00000286 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000143870 (Ensembl human gene)
10130 (Entrez Gene)
621 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PDIA6 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:30168 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q15084 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • ERp5
  • P5

Literature (29)

Pubmed - other

  • Protein disulphide isomerase family members show distinct substrate specificity: P5 is targeted to BiP client proteins.

    Jessop CE, Watkins RH, Simmons JJ, Tasab M and Bulleid NJ

    Faculty of Life Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

    At least 17 members of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family of oxidoreductases are present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells. They are thought to catalyse disulphide formation to aid folding or to regulate protein function; however, little is known about their individual functions. Here, we show that some proteins that enter the ER are clients for single oxidoreductases, whereas others are clients for several PDI-like enzymes. We previously identified potential substrates for ERp57, and here identify substrates for ERp18 and ERp46. In addition, we analysed the specificity of substrates towards PDI, ERp72, ERp57, ERp46, ERp18 and P5. Strikingly, ERp18 shows specificity towards a component of the complement cascade, pentraxin-related protein PTX3, whereas ERp46 has specificity towards peroxiredoxin-4, a thioredoxin peroxidase. By contrast, most PDI family members react with Ero1alpha. Moreover, P5 forms a non-covalent complex with immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and shows specificity towards BiP client proteins. These findings highlight cooperation between BiP and P5, and demonstrate that individual PDI family members recognise specific substrate proteins.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB_BB/D00764X/1, D00764; Wellcome Trust: 074081

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 23;4287-95

  • Disulphide-isomerase-enabled shedding of tumour-associated NKG2D ligands.

    Kaiser BK, Yim D, Chow IT, Gonzalez S, Dai Z, Mann HH, Strong RK, Groh V and Spies T

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

    Tumour-associated ligands of the activating NKG2D (natural killer group 2, member D; also called KLRK1) receptor-which are induced by genotoxic or cellular stress-trigger activation of natural killer cells and co-stimulation of effector T cells, and may thus promote resistance to cancer. However, many progressing tumours in humans counter this anti-tumour activity by shedding the soluble major histocompatibility complex class-I-related ligand MICA, which induces internalization and degradation of NKG2D and stimulates population expansions of normally rare NKG2D+CD4+ T cells with negative regulatory functions. Here we show that on the surface of tumour cells, MICA associates with endoplasmic reticulum protein 5 (ERp5; also called PDIA6 or P5), which, similar to protein disulphide isomerase, usually assists in the folding of nascent proteins inside cells. Pharmacological inhibition of thioreductase activity and ERp5 gene silencing revealed that cell-surface ERp5 function is required for MICA shedding. ERp5 and membrane-anchored MICA form transitory mixed disulphide complexes from which soluble MICA is released after proteolytic cleavage near the cell membrane. Reduction of the seemingly inaccessible disulphide bond in the membrane-proximal alpha3 domain of MICA must involve a large conformational change that enables proteolytic cleavage. These results uncover a molecular mechanism whereby domain-specific deconstruction regulates MICA protein shedding, thereby promoting tumour immune evasion, and identify surface ERp5 as a strategic target for therapeutic intervention.

    Nature 2007;447;7143;482-6

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Insulin-dependent interactions of proteins with GLUT4 revealed through stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC).

    Foster LJ, Rudich A, Talior I, Patel N, Huang X, Furtado LM, Bilan PJ, Mann M and Klip A

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics (CEBI), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin in order to facilitate the postprandial uptake of glucose into fat and muscle cells. While early insulin receptor signaling steps leading to this translocation are well defined, the integration of signaling and regulation of GLUT4 traffic remains elusive. Several lines of evidence suggest an important role for the actin cytoskeleton and for protein-protein interactions in regulating GLUT4 localization by insulin. Here, we applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to identify proteins that interact with GLUT4 in an insulin-regulated manner. Myc-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4myc) stably expressed in L6 myotubes was immunoprecipitated via the myc epitope from total membranes isolated from basal and insulin-stimulated cells grown in medium containing normal isotopic abundance leucine or deuterated leucine, respectively. Proteins coprecipitating with GLUT4myc were analyzed by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. Of 603 proteins quantified, 36 displayed an insulin-dependent change of their interaction with GLUT4myc of more than 1.5-fold in either direction. Several cytoskeleton-related proteins were elevated in immunoprecipates from insulin-treated cells, whereas components of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system were generally reduced. Proteins participating in vesicle traffic also displayed insulin-regulated association. Of cytoskeleton-related proteins, alpha-actinin-4 recovery in GLUT4 immunoprecipitates rose in response to insulin 2.1 +/- 0.5-fold by SILAC and 2.9 +/- 0.8-fold by immunoblotting. Insulin caused GLUT4 and alpha-actinin-4 co-localization as revealed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. We conclude that insulin elicits changes in interactions between diverse proteins and GLUT4, and that cytoskeletal proteins, notably alpha-actinin-4, associate with the transporter, potentially to facilitate its routing to the plasma membrane.

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;1;64-75

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, Sharma S, Royer N, Vinh J, Pernet P, Vaubourdolle M and Baudin B

    Service de Biochimie A, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France. arnaud.bruneel@sat.ap-hop-paris.fr

    We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at http://www.huvec.com.

    Proteomics 2005;5;15;3876-84

  • Progress in targeting HIV-1 entry.

    Ryser HJ and Flückiger R

    Departments of Pathology and Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA. hryser@bu.edu

    Current HIV entry inhibitors target the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to cellular CD4 and co-receptors, or block a late stage of the fusogenic activation of adjacent gp41. New targets are suggested by the role of cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which attaches to the primary receptor CD4 close to the gp120-binding site. This could enable PDI to reduce gp120 disulfide bonds, which triggers the major conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 required for virus entry. Inhibiting cell surface PDI prevents HIV-1 entry. The new potential targets outlined are PDI activity as well as the sites of PDI-CD4 and PDI-gp120 interaction.

    Drug discovery today 2005;10;16;1085-94

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Glycosaminoglycans and protein disulfide isomerase-mediated reduction of HIV Env.

    Barbouche R, Lortat-Jacob H, Jones IM and Fenouillet E

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Faculte de Medecine Nord, Boulevard Pierre Dramard, F-13015 Marseille, France.

    Conformational changes within the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) surface glycoprotein gp120 result from binding to the lymphocyte surface receptors and trigger gp41-mediated virus/cell membrane fusion. The triggering of fusion requires cleavage of two of the nine disulfide bonds of gp120 by a cell-surface protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI). Soluble glycosaminoglycans such as heparin and heparan sulfate bind gp120 via V3 and, possibly, a CD4-induced domain. They exert anti-HIV activity by interfering with the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env)/cell-surface interaction. Env also binds cell-surface glycosaminoglycans. Here, using surface plasmon resonance, we observed an inverse relationship between heparin binding by gp120 and its thiol content. In vitro, and in conditions in which gp120 could bind CD4, heparin and heparan sulfate reduced PDI-mediated gp120 reduction by approximately 80%. Interaction of Env with the surface of lymphocytes treated using sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan synthesis, led to gp120 reduction. We conclude that besides their capacity to block Env/cell interaction, soluble glycosaminoglycans can effect anti-HIV activity via interference with PDI-mediated gp120 reduction. In contrast, their presence at the cell surface is dispensable for Env reduction during the course of interaction with the lymphocyte surface. This work suggests that the reduction of exofacial proteins in various diseases can be inhibited by compounds targeting the substrates (not by targeting PDI, as is usually done), and that glycosaminoglycans that primarily protect proteins by preserving them from proteolysis also have a role in preventing reduction.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0200000

    Molecular pharmacology 2005;67;4;1111-8

  • A role for the thiol isomerase protein ERP5 in platelet function.

    Jordan PA, Stevens JM, Hubbard GP, Barrett NE, Sage T, Authi KS and Gibbins JM

    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK.

    Formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during the correct folding of nascent proteins is modulated by a family of enzymes known as thiol isomerases, which include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), endoplasmic reticulum protein 5 (ERP5), and ERP57. Recent evidence supports an alternative role for this family of proteins on the surface of cells, where they are involved in receptor remodeling and recognition. In platelets, blocking PDI with inhibitory antibodies inhibits a number of platelet activation pathways, including aggregation, secretion, and fibrinogen binding. Analysis of human platelet membrane fractions identified the presence of the thiol isomerase protein ERP5. Further study showed that ERP5 is resident mainly on platelet intracellular membranes, although it is rapidly recruited to the cell surface in response to a range of platelet agonists. Blocking cell-surface ERP5 using inhibitory antibodies leads to a decrease in platelet aggregation in response to agonists, and a decrease in fibrinogen binding and P-selectin exposure. It is possible that this is based on the disruption of integrin function, as we observed that ERP5 becomes physically associated with the integrin beta(3) subunit during platelet stimulation. These results provide new insights into the involvement of thiol isomerases and regulation of platelet activation.

    Blood 2005;105;4;1500-7

  • Proteomics of endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes from brefeldin A-treated HepG2 cells identifies ERGIC-32, a new cycling protein that interacts with human Erv46.

    Breuza L, Halbeisen R, Jenö P, Otte S, Barlowe C, Hong W and Hauri HP

    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

    Cycling proteins play important roles in the organization and function of the early secretory pathway by participating in membrane traffic and selective transport of cargo between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and the Golgi. To identify new cycling proteins, we have developed a novel procedure for the purification of ERGIC membranes from HepG2 cells treated with brefeldin A, a drug known to accumulate cycling proteins in the ERGIC. Membranes enriched 110-fold over the homogenate for ERGIC-53 were obtained and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Major proteins corresponded to established and putative cargo receptors and components mediating protein maturation and membrane traffic. Among the uncharacterized proteins, a 32-kDa protein termed ERGIC-32 is a novel cycling membrane protein with sequence homology to Erv41p and Erv46p, two proteins enriched in COPII vesicles of yeast. ERGIC-32 localizes to the ERGIC and partially colocalizes with the human homologs of Erv41p and Erv46p, which mainly localize to the cis-Golgi. ERGIC-32 interacts with human Erv46 (hErv46) as revealed by covalent cross-linking and mistargeting experiments, and silencing of ERGIC-32 by small interfering RNAs increases the turnover of hErv46. We propose that ERGIC-32 functions as a modulator of the hErv41-hErv46 complex by stabilizing hErv46. Our novel approach for the isolation of the ERGIC from BFA-treated cells may ultimately lead to the identification of all proteins rapidly cycling early in the secretory pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;45;47242-53

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Protein-disulfide isomerase-mediated reduction of two disulfide bonds of HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 occurs post-CXCR4 binding and is required for fusion.

    Barbouche R, Miquelis R, Jones IM and Fenouillet E

    CNRS, Faculté de Médecine Nord, Boulevard Pierre Dramard, Marseille, 13015 France.

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) glycoprotein (gp) 120 is a highly disulfide-bonded molecule that attaches HIV to the lymphocyte surface receptors CD4 and CXCR4. Conformation changes within gp120 result from binding and trigger HIV/cell fusion. Inhibition of lymphocyte surface-associated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) blocks HIV/cell fusion, suggesting that redox changes within Env are required. Using a sensitive assay based on a thiol reagent, we show that (i) the thiol content of gp120, either secreted by mammalian cells or bound to a lymphocyte surface enabling CD4 but not CXCR4 binding, was 0.5-1 pmol SH/pmol gp120 (SH/gp120), whereas that of gp120 after its interaction with a surface enabling both CD4 and CXCR4 binding was raised to 4 SH/gp120; (ii) PDI inhibitors prevented this change; and (iii) gp120 displaying 2 SH/gp120 exhibited CD4 but not CXCR4 binding capacity. In addition, PDI inhibition did not impair gp120 binding to receptors. We conclude that on average two of the nine disulfides of gp120 are reduced during interaction with the lymphocyte surface after CXCR4 binding prior to fusion and that cell surface PDI catalyzes this process. Disulfide bond restructuring within Env may constitute the molecular basis of the post-receptor binding conformational changes that induce fusion competence.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;5;3131-6

  • Proteomic analysis of early melanosomes: identification of novel melanosomal proteins.

    Basrur V, Yang F, Kushimoto T, Higashimoto Y, Yasumoto K, Valencia J, Muller J, Vieira WD, Watabe H, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Hunt DF and Appella E

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Melanin is a heterogeneous biopolymer produced only by specific cells termed melanocytes, which synthesize and deposit the pigment in specialized membrane-bound organelles known as melanosomes. Although melanosomes have been suspected of being closely related to lysosomes and platelets, the total number of melanosomal proteins is still unknown. Thus far, six melanosome-specific proteins have been identified, and the challenge is to characterize the complete proteome of the melanosome to further understand its mechanism of biogenesis. In this report, we used mass spectrometry and subcellular fractionation to identify protein components of early melanosomes. Using this approach, we have identified all 6 of the known melanosome-specific proteins, 56 proteins that are shared with other organelles, and confirmed the presence of 6 novel melanosomal proteins using western blotting and by immunohistochemistry.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2003;2;1;69-79

  • Inhibitors of protein-disulfide isomerase prevent cleavage of disulfide bonds in receptor-bound glycoprotein 120 and prevent HIV-1 entry.

    Gallina A, Hanley TM, Mandel R, Trahey M, Broder CC, Viglianti GA and Ryser HJ

    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    We previously reported that monoclonal antibodies to protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and other membrane-impermeant PDI inhibitors prevented HIV-1 infection. PDI is present at the surface of HIV-1 target cells and reduces disulfide bonds in a model peptide attached to the cell membrane. Here we show that soluble PDI cleaves disulfide bonds in recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120 and that gp120 bound to the surface receptor CD4 undergoes a disulfide reduction that is prevented by PDI inhibitors. Concentrations of inhibitors that prevent this reduction and inhibit the cleavage of surface-bound disulfide conjugate prevent infection at the level of HIV-1 entry. The entry of HIV-1 strains differing in their coreceptor specificities is similarly inhibited, and so is the reduction of gp120 bound to CD4 of coreceptor-negative cells. PDI inhibitors also prevent HIV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion but have no effect on the entry of HIV-1 pseudo-typed with murine leukemia virus envelope. Importantly, PDI coprecipitates with both soluble and cellular CD4. We propose that a PDI.CD4 association at the cell surface enables PDI to reach CD4-bound virus and to reduce disulfide bonds present in the domain of gp120 that binds to CD4. Conformational changes resulting from the opening of gp120-disulfide loops may drive the processes of virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. The biochemical events described identify new potential targets for anti-HIV agents.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA14551; NHLBI NIH HHS: HLB57882; NIAID NIH HHS: AI41758, AI43885, AI44312, AI44669

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;52;50579-88

  • Functional analysis of human P5, a protein disulfide isomerase homologue.

    Kikuchi M, Doi E, Tsujimoto I, Horibe T and Tsujimoto Y

    Department of Bioscience & Technology, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. kikuchi@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

    Human P5 (hP5) was expressed in the Escherichia coli pET system and purified by sequential Ni(2+)-chelating resin column chromatography. Characterization of purified hP5 indicated that it has both isomerase and chaperone activities, but both activities are lower than those of human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Moreover, hP5 was observed to have peptide-binding ability, and its chaperone activity was confirmed with rhodanese and citrate synthase as substrates, but not with D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, showing that hP5 has substrate specificity with respect to chaperone activity. Mutation of two thioredoxin-related motifs in hP5 revealed that the first motif is more important than the second for isomerase activity and that the first cysteine in each motif is necessary for isomerase activity. Since thioredoxin motif mutants lacking isomerase activity retain chaperone activity with the substrate citrate synthase, the isomerase and chaperone activities of hP5 are probably independent, as was shown for PDI.

    Journal of biochemistry 2002;132;3;451-5

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding human P5.

    Hayano T and Kikuchi M

    Protein Engineering Research Institute, Osaka, Japan.

    The cDNA encoding human P5 was cloned and sequenced. The predicted 440-amino-acid (aa) sequence of human P5 contains two thioredoxin-like domains, which are also found in members of the protein disulfide isomerase superfamily. The human and hamster P5 genes reveal 87 and 93% similarity in their nucleotide and deduced aa sequences, respectively.

    Gene 1995;164;2;377-8

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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