G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
formin-like 1
G00000252 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000184922 (Ensembl human gene)
752 (Entrez Gene)
570 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
FMNL1 (GeneCards)
604656 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1212 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O95466 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • C17orf1

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Formin-like 1 (FMNL1) is regulated by N-terminal myristoylation and induces polarized membrane blebbing.

    Han Y, Eppinger E, Schuster IG, Weigand LU, Liang X, Kremmer E, Peschel C and Krackhardt AM

    Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Immunology, Marchioninistrasse 25, 81377 Munich, Germany.

    The formin protein formin-like 1 (FMNL1) is highly restrictedly expressed in hematopoietic lineage-derived cells and has been previously identified as a tumor-associated antigen. However, function and regulation of FMNL1 are not well defined. We have identified a novel splice variant (FMNL1gamma) containing an intron retention at the C terminus affecting the diaphanous autoinhibitory domain (DAD). FMNL1gamma is specifically located at the cell membrane and cortex in diverse cell lines. Similar localization of FMNL1 was observed for a mutant lacking the DAD domain (FMNL1DeltaDAD), indicating that deregulation of autoinhibition is effective in FMNL1gamma. Expression of both FMNL1gamma and FMNL1DeltaDAD induces polarized nonapoptotic blebbing that is dependent on N-terminal myristoylation of FMNL1 but independent of Src and ROCK activity. Thus, our results describe N-myristoylation as a regulative mechanism of FMNL1 responsible for membrane trafficking potentially involved in a diversity of polarized processes of hematopoietic lineage-derived cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;48;33409-17

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Human leukocyte formin: a novel protein expressed in lymphoid malignancies and associated with Akt.

    Favaro PM, de Souza Medina S, Traina F, Bassères DS, Costa FF and Saad ST

    Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil.

    The very large family of Formin proteins is involved in processes such as morphogenesis, embryonic differentiation, cell polarity, and cytokinesis. A novel human gene from the Formin family, denominated human leukocyte formin gene, was cloned. The cDNA of the gene was determined to be 3959bp long with an open reading frame of 3302bp and computational analysis located this gene on chromosome 17, suggesting that it is composed of 27 exons. Northern blot analysis revealed a restricted expression of mRNA in the thymus, spleen, and peripheral blood leukocytes in normal human tissues. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein encoded by this gene is overexpressed in lymphoid malignancies; cancer cell lines and peripheral blood leukocyte from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Furthermore, the human leukocyte formin protein was observed to associate with Akt, a critical survival regulator in many different cell types.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;311;2;365-71

  • Identification and characterization of human FMNL1, FMNL2 and FMNL3 genes in silico.

    Katoh M and Katoh M

    M&M Medical BioInformatics, Narashino 275-0022, Japan.

    FMNL (NM_005892.2) is a 5'-truncated partial cDNA encoding a Formin-homology protein related to DAAM1, DAAM2, DIAPH1 and DIAPH2. Here, we identified three members of FMNL gene family in the human genome by using bioinformatics. FMNL1 gene, corresponding to 5'-truncated KW-13 and FMNL cDNAs, was located within reference genomic contig NT_010748.9 (nucleotide position 100576-125849, forward orientation). FMNL2 gene, corresponding to KIAA1902 and FHOD2 cDNAs, was located within NT_005151.10 (nucleotide position 122465-436828, forward orientation). FMNL3 gene, corresponding to 5'-truncated DKFZp762B245 and KIAA2014 cDNAs, was located within NT_026397.10 (nucleotide position 209769-279037, reverse orientation). FMNL1, FMNL2 and FMNL3 genes encode A and B isoforms with the C-terminal divergence due to alternative splicing (cassette splicing of exon 26). FMNL1A (1100 aa), FMNL1B (1114 aa), FMNL2A (1087 aa), FMNL2B (1093 aa), FMNL3A (1028 aa) and FMNL3B (1027 aa) consist of FDD, FH1 and FH2 domains. Total amino-acid identity were as follows: FMNL1A vs. FMNL2A, 59.3%; FMNL1A vs. FMNL3A, 56.1%; FMNL2A vs. FMNL3A, 68.6%. FMNL1 gene was mapped to human chromosome 17q21. FMNL2 gene was linked to FNBP3/HYPA gene on chromosome 2q23.3, while FMNL3 gene was linked to FNBP3L/HYPC gene on chromosome 12q13. FMNL1 mRNA was expressed in natural killer cells, Burkitt lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, and lung large cell carcinoma, FMNL2 mRNA in several normal tissues, diffuse-type gastric cancer, breast cancer, chondrosarcoma, melanoma, and glioblastoma, and FMNL3 mRNA in gastric cancer. FMNL1, FMNL2 and FMNL3 might be implicated in polarity control, invasion, migration, or metastasis through regulation of the Rho-related signaling pathway.

    International journal of oncology 2003;22;5;1161-8

  • Identification and characterization of human DAAM2 gene in silico.

    Katoh M and Katoh M

    M&M Medical BioInformatics, Narashino 275-0022, Japan. mkatoh@ncc.go.jp

    WNT signals play key roles in carcinogenesis and embryogenesis through the specification of cell fate and polarity. Dishevelled proteins are implicated in the WNT - beta-catenin pathway and the WNT-PCP pathway. DAAM1/KIAA0666 is a Dishevelled-binding protein transducing WNT signals to the PCP pathway. Here, we identified and characterized DAAM2 gene by using bioinformatics. Uncharacterized FLJ34430 and KIAA0381 cDNAs were homologous to DAAM1. FLJ34430 was recombined with URB (XM_087331) in the 3'-region, and KIAA0381 was truncated in the 5'-region. Nucleotide sequence of DAAM2 cDNA was determined in silico by adding nucleotide position 1-793 of FLJ34430 onto the 5'-end of KIAA0381. DAAM2 gene consists of 27 exons, and gives rise to four splicing variants due to alternative splicing of alternative promoter type as well as of cassette exon type. DAAM2 gene was linked to the MOCS1 gene on human chromosome 6p21.3 with an interval less than 1 kb. DAAM2 mRNA was expressed in fetal heart, adult hypothalamus, eye, spinal cord, lung, prostate, kidney, and also in glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, melanoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. DAAM2 was a 1077-amino-acid protein with Formin-homology FH1 and FH2 domains, which showed 68.9% total-amino-acid identity with DAAM1. Among Formin-homology proteins, FDD (Formin-like, Diaphanous, Daam) domain was conserved in FMNL1/FMNL/KW-13, FMNL2/KIAA1902/FHOD2, DIAPH1, DIAPH2, DAAM1 and DAAM2, but not in Fmn1, Fmn2, FHOD1 and Grid2ip. Therefore, it was concluded that FMNL1, FMNL2, DIAPH1, DIAPH2, DAAM1 and DAAM2 proteins constitute the Formin-homology FDD subfamily.

    International journal of oncology 2003;22;4;915-20

  • FRL, a novel formin-related protein, binds to Rac and regulates cell motility and survival of macrophages.

    Yayoshi-Yamamoto S, Taniuchi I and Watanabe T

    Department of Molecular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    We have isolated a cDNA, frl (formin-related gene in leukocytes), a novel mammalian member of the formin gene family. The frl cDNA encodes a 160-kDa protein, FRL, that possesses FH1, FH2, and FH3 domains that are well conserved among other Formin-related proteins. An FRL protein is mainly localized in the cytosol and is highly expressed in spleen, lymph node, and bone marrow cells. Formin-related genes and proteins have been reported to play crucial roles in morphogenesis, cell polarity, and cytokinesis through interaction with Rho family small GTPases. FRL binds to Rac at its N-terminal region including the FH3 domain and associates with profilin at the FH1 domain. In a macrophage cell line, P388D1, overexpression of a truncated form of FRL containing only the FH3 domain (FH3-FRL) strongly inhibited cell adhesion to fibronectin and migration upon stimulation with a chemokine. Moreover, expression of the truncated FH3-FRL protein resulted in apoptotic cell death of P388D1 cells, suggesting that the truncated FH3-FRL protein may interfere with signals of FRL. Overexpression in the P388D1 cells of full-length FRL or of the truncated protein containing the FH3 and FH1 domains, with simultaneous expression of the truncated FH3-FRL protein, blocked apoptotic cell death and inhibition of cell adhesion and migration. These results suggest that FRL may play a role in the control of reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in association with Rac and also in the regulation of the signal for cell survival.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;18;6872-81

  • Genomic structure and physical mapping of C17orf1: a gene associated with the proximal element of the CMT1A-REP binary repeat.

    Kennerson ML, Nassif NT and Nicholson GA

    Molecular Medicine Laboratory, University of Sydney, Clinical Sciences Building, Sydney, New South Wales, 2139, Australia. marinak@med.usyd.edu.au

    C17orf1, a gene expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, was initially isolated from a fetal brain cDNA library and localized centromeric to and partially within the proximal CMT1A-REP element. A second gene, COX10, spans the distal CMT1A-REP element, and a duplicated exon of this gene is present in the proximal CMT1A-REP element. C17orf1 includes this duplicated COX10 exon within its sequence; however, the DNA strand opposite to that of the COX10 gene is utilized. We have determined the genomic organization of C17orf1 and found it to be oriented in the direction opposite to COX10. Analysis of the genomic structure of C17orf1 has revealed that it contains at least six exons and spans a length of at least 17 kb. All but one of the splice sites conform to the GT/AG rule, and in this case the splice acceptor site within intron 1 is GA instead of the expected AG. Sequencing and mapping analyses have shown that the centromeric boundary of the proximal CMT1A-REP element lies within intron 5. A 7-bp insertion, identified from genomic sequencing of cosmid clones and verified in the original cDNA clone and RT-PCR products, has extended the previously reported open reading frame from 591 to 756 bp. C17orf1 therefore encodes a 252-amino-acid protein.

    Genomics 1998;53;1;110-2

  • The NIK protein kinase and C17orf1 genes: chromosomal mapping, gene structures and mutational screening in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17.

    Aronsson FC, Magnusson P, Andersson B, Karsten SL, Shibasaki Y, Lendon CL, Goate AM and Brookes AJ

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden.

    Full exon-intron structures are presented for the NIK serine/threonine protein kinase gene and a novel gene termed C17orf1. By in situ hybridisation and radiation hybrid mapping, a cosmid (cDD-Z) that contains regions of both of these genes has been localised between markers D17S800 and D17S791 at chromosome 17q21. The two genes are thus positional candidates for the mutant locus underlying frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), a disease for which NIK is also a good biological candidate. Using exon-intron maps, a genomic DNA sequencing based mutation screen has been performed for the NIK and C17orf1 genes in a chromosome 17-linked FTDP-17 pedigree. Two silent single-base variations were detected in C17orf1. No alterations were restricted to DNA samples from patients, thus excluding the C17orf1 and NIK genes as likely sites of mutation FTDP-17.

    Human genetics 1998;103;3;340-5

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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