G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1
G00000250 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000133293 (Vega human gene)
116987 (Entrez Gene)
564 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CENTG2 (GeneCards)
608651 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:16922 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UPQ3 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • GGAP1
  • KIAA1099

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • Substrate specificities and activities of AZAP family Arf GAPs in vivo.

    Cuthbert EJ, Davis KK and Casanova JE

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0732, USA.

    The ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are important regulators of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Like other GTPases, the Arfs require guanine nucleotide exchange factors to facilitate GTP loading and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) to promote GTP hydrolysis. Whereas there are only six mammalian Arfs, the human genome encodes over 20 proteins containing Arf GAP domains. A subset of these, referred to as AZAPs (Randazzo PA, Hirsch DS. Cell Signal 16: 401-413, 2004), are characterized by the presence of at least one NH(2)-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and two or more ankyrin repeats following the GAP domain. The substrate specificities of these proteins have been previously characterized by using in vitro assay systems. However, a limitation of such assays is that they may not accurately represent intracellular conditions, including posttranslational modifications, or subcellular compartmentalization. Here we present a systematic analysis of the GAP activity of seven AZAPs in vivo, using an assay for measurement of cellular Arf-GTP (Santy LC, Casanova JE. J Cell Biol 154: 599-610, 2001). In agreement with previous in vitro results, we found that ACAP1 and ACAP2 have robust, constitutive Arf6 GAP activity in vivo, with little activity toward Arf1. In contrast, although ARAP1 was initially reported to be an Arf1 GAP, we found that it acts primarily on Arf6 in vivo. Moreover, this activity appears to be regulated through a mechanism involving the NH(2)-terminal sterile-alpha motif. AGAP1 is unique among the AZAPs in its specificity for Arf1, and this activity is dependent on its NH(2)-terminal GTPase-like domain. Finally, we found that expression of AGAP1 induces a surprising reciprocal activation of Arf6, which suggests that regulatory cross talk exists among Arf isoforms.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-066251, GM-078585

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2008;294;1;C263-70

  • Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.

    Oh JH, Yang JO, Hahn Y, Kim MR, Byun SS, Jeon YJ, Kim JM, Song KS, Noh SM, Kim S, Yoo HS, Kim YS and Kim NS

    Laboratory of Human Genomics, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon , 305-333, Korea.

    To elucidate the genetic events associated with gastric cancer, 124,704 cDNA clones were collected from 37 human gastric cDNA libraries, including 20 full-length enriched cDNA libraries of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues from Korean patients. An analysis of the collected ESTs revealed that 97,930 high-quality ESTs coalesced into 13,001 clusters, of which 11,135 clusters (85.6%) were annotated to known ESTs. The analysis of the full-length cDNAs also revealed that 4862 clusters (51.7%) contained at least one putative full-length cDNA clone with an initiation codon, with the average length of the 5' UTR of 140 bp. A large number appear to have a diverse transcription start site (TSS). An examination of the TSS of some genes, such as TEGT and GAPD, using 5' RACE revealed that the predicted TSSs are actually found in human gastric cancer cells and that several TSSs differ depending on the specific gastric cell line. Furthermore, of the human gastric ESTs, 766 genes (9.5%) were present as putative alternatively spliced variants. Confirmation of the predicted spliced isoforms using RT-PCR showed that the predicted isoforms exist in gastric cancer cells and some isoforms coexist in gastric cell lines. These results provide potentially useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with gastric oncogenesis.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;12;942-54

  • The Arf GAPs AGAP1 and AGAP2 distinguish between the adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3.

    Nie Z, Fei J, Premont RT and Randazzo PA

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf) regulate membrane trafficking at multiple intracellular sites by recruiting coat proteins to membranes. The site-specific regulation of Arf is thought to be mediated by regulatory proteins including the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the site of action of the Arf GAP AGAP2 to the closely related AGAP1. AGAP1 has previously been found to associate with the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and regulate the function of AP-3 endosomes. We found that AGAP2 directly interacted with AP-1. AGAP2 colocalized with AP-1, transferrin receptor and Rab4 on endosomes. Overexpression of AGAP2 changed the intracellular distribution of AP-1 and promoted Rab4-dependent fast recycling of transferrin. Based on these results, we concluded that the closely related Arf GAPs, AGAP1 and AGAP2, distinguish between these related heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes to specifically regulate AP-3 endosomes and AP-1 recycling endosomes.

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 15;3555-66

  • Evaluation of the chromosome 2q37.3 gene CENTG2 as an autism susceptibility gene.

    Wassink TH, Piven J, Vieland VJ, Jenkins L, Frantz R, Bartlett CW, Goedken R, Childress D, Spence MA, Smith M and Sheffield VC

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, 52242, USA. thomas-wassink@uiowa.edu

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology for which no disease genes have yet been definitively identified. We ascertained three subjects with autism spectrum disorders and chromosome 2q37.3 terminal deletions, and refined the deletion breakpoint regions using polymorphism mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. We then genotyped polymorphic markers downstream from the breakpoint region in a sample of autism affected sibling pair families. Both the chromosomal breakpoints and linkage analyses focused our attention on the gene centaurin gamma-2 (CENTG2), an attractive candidate gene based also on its function and pattern of expression. We therefore assessed CENTG2 for its involvement in autism by (1) screening its exons for variants in 199 autistic and 160 non-autistic individuals, and (2) genotyping and assessing intra-genic polymorphisms for linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD). The exon screen revealed a Ser --> Gly substitution in one proband, an Arg --> Gly substitution in another, and a number of additional variants unique to the autism families. No unique variants were found in the control subjects. The genotyping produced strong evidence for linkage from two intronic polymorphisms, with a maximum two-point HLOD value of 3.96 and a posterior probability of linkage (PPL) of 51%. These results were contradicted, however, by substantially weaker evidence for linkage from multi-point analyses and by no evidence of LD. We conclude, therefore, that 2q37.3 continues to be a region of interest for autism susceptibility, and that CENTG2 is an intriguing candidate gene that merits further scrutiny for its role in autism.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: 5K21-MH01338, K02-MH01432, K02-MH01568, K08-MH62123-01, MH52841, MH55284, U54 MH066418; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS43550

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;136B;1;36-44

  • AGAP1, a novel binding partner of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase.

    Meurer S, Pioch S, Wagner K, Müller-Esterl W and Gross S

    Institute for Biochemistry II, University of Frankfurt Medical School, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Building 75, D-60590 Frankfurt, Germany.

    Nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the major cytosolic receptor for NO, catalyzing the conversion of GTP to cGMP. In a search for proteins specifically interacting with human sGC, we have identified the multidomain protein AGAP1, the prototype of an ArfGAP protein with a GTPase-like domain, Ankyrin repeats, and a pleckstrin homology domain. AGAP1 binds through its carboxyl terminal portion to both the alpha1 and beta1 subunits of sGC. We demonstrate that AGAP1 mRNA and protein are co-expressed with sGC in human, murine, and rat cells and tissues and that the two proteins interact in vitro and in vivo. We also show that AGAP1 is prone to tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-like kinases and that tyrosine phosphorylation potently increases the interaction between AGAP1 and sGC, indicating that complex formation is modulated by reversible phosphorylation. Our findings may hint to a potential role of AGAP1 in integrating signals from Arf, NO/cGMP, and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;47;49346-54

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1.

    Nie Z, Boehm M, Boja ES, Vass WC, Bonifacino JS, Fales HM and Randazzo PA

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Building 37, Room 4118, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Arf1 regulates membrane trafficking at several membrane sites by interacting with at least seven different vesicle coat proteins. Here, we test the hypothesis that Arf1-dependent coats are independently regulated by specific interaction with Arf GAPs. We find that the Arf GAP AGAP1 directly associates with and colocalizes with AP-3, a coat protein complex involved in trafficking in the endosomal-lysosomal system. Binding is mediated by the PH domain of AGAP1 and the delta and sigma3 subunits of AP-3. Overexpression of AGAP1 changes the cellular distribution of AP-3, and reduced expression of AGAP1 renders AP-3 resistant to brefeldin A. AGAP1 overexpression does not affect the distribution of other coat proteins, and AP-3 distribution is not affected by overexpression of other Arf GAPs. Cells overexpressing AGAP1 also exhibit increased LAMP1 trafficking via the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that AGAP1 directly and specifically regulates AP-3-dependent trafficking.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;3;513-21

  • GGAPs, a new family of bifunctional GTP-binding and GTPase-activating proteins.

    Xia C, Ma W, Stafford LJ, Liu C, Gong L, Martin JF and Liu M

    Center for Cancer Biology and Nutrition, Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    G proteins are molecular switches that control a wide variety of physiological functions, including neurotransmission, transcriptional activation, cell migration, cell growth. and proliferation. The ability of GTPases to participate in signaling events is determined by the ratio of GTP-bound to GDP-bound forms in the cell. All known GTPases exist in an inactive (GDP-bound) and an active (GTP-bound) conformation, which are catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized a new family of bifunctional GTP-binding and GTPase-activating proteins, named GGAP. GGAPs contain an N-terminal Ras homology domain, called the G domain, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a C-terminal GAP domain, and a tandem ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain. Expression analysis indicates that this new family of proteins has distinct cell localization, tissue distribution, and even message sizes. GTPase assays demonstrate that GGAPs have high GTPase activity through direct intramolecular interaction of the N-terminal G domain and the C-terminal GAP domain. In the absence of the GAP domain, the N-terminal G domain has very low activity, suggesting a new model of GGAP protein regulation via intramolecular interaction like the multidomain protein kinases. Overexpression of GGAPs leads to changes in cell morphology and activation of gene transcription.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 5R01 HL64792, R01 HL064792

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;7;2476-88

  • AGAP1, an endosome-associated, phosphoinositide-dependent ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein that affects actin cytoskeleton.

    Nie Z, Stanley KT, Stauffer S, Jacques KM, Hirsch DS, Takei J and Randazzo PA

    Laboratories of Cellular Oncology and Biochemistry, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    We have identified three members of the AGAP subfamily of ASAP family ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating proteins (Arf GAPs). In addition to the Arf GAP domain, these proteins contain GTP-binding protein-like, ankyrin repeat and pleckstrin homology domains. Here, we have characterized the ubiquitously expressed AGAP1/KIAA1099. AGAP1 had Arf GAP activity toward Arf1>Arf5>Arf6. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidic acid synergistically stimulated GAP activity. As found for other ASAP family Arf GAPs, the pleckstrin homology domain was necessary for activity. Deletion of the GTP-binding protein-like domain affected lipid dependence of Arf GAP activity. In vivo effects of AGAP1 were distinct from other ASAP family Arf GAPs. Overexpressed AGAP1 induced the formation of and was associated with punctate structures containing the endocytic markers transferrin and Rab4. AP1 was redistributed from the trans-Golgi to the punctate structures. Like other ASAP family members, AGAP1 overexpression inhibited the formation of PDGF-induced ruffles. However, distinct from other ASAP family members, AGAP1 also induced the loss of actin stress fibers. Thus, AGAP1 is a phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GAP that impacts both the endocytic compartment and actin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48965-75

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Kikuno R, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 5.0 kb and 2.6 kb (880 amino acid residues), respectively. Database search of the predicted amino acid sequences classified 58 predicted gene products into the five functional categories, such as cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and cell division. It was also found that, for 34 gene products, homologues were detected in the databases, which were similar in sequence through almost the entire regions. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;3;197-205

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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