G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
dual specificity phosphatase 3
G00000201 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000108861 (Ensembl human gene)
1845 (Entrez Gene)
524 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DUSP3 (GeneCards)
600183 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3069 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P51452 (UniProt)

Literature (25)

Pubmed - other

  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase vaccinia H1-related protein inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and is overexpressed in prostate cancer.

    Arnoldussen YJ, Lorenzo PI, Pretorius ME, Waehre H, Risberg B, Maelandsmo GM, Danielsen HE and Saatcioglu F

    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Androgen ablation during the initial stages of prostate cancer causes regression of the tumor due to an increase in apoptosis and reduced cellular proliferation. However, prostate cancer invariably progresses to an androgen-independent state for poorly understood reasons. Previous studies showed that c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) is required for 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and thapsigargin (TG)-induced apoptosis in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Androgens protect LNCaP cells from TPA-induced or TG-induced apoptosis via down-regulation of JNK activation. However, the molecular mechanisms of this inhibition are not clear. Here, we systematically investigated the possible regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases/dual-specificity phosphatases during apoptosis of LNCaP cells and found that Vaccinia H1-related protein (VHR/DUSP3) is up-regulated by androgens during inhibition of apoptosis in LNCaP cells, but not in androgen-independent DU145 cells. Ectopic expression of wild-type VHR, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, interfered with TPA- and TG-induced apoptosis. Consistently, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous VHR increased apoptosis in response to TPA or TG in the presence of androgens. Furthermore, COS7 cells stably expressing wild-type VHR, but not a mutant, had a decrease in JNK phosphorylation. In vivo, VHR expression decreased in the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft CWR22 upon androgen withdrawal and was inversely correlated to JNK phosphorylation. Expression analysis in human prostate cancer specimens showed that VHR is increased in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. These data show that VHR has a direct role in the inhibition of JNK-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells and may therefore have a role in prostate cancer progression.

    Cancer research 2008;68;22;9255-64

  • Cervix carcinoma is associated with an up-regulation and nuclear localization of the dual-specificity protein phosphatase VHR.

    Henkens R, Delvenne P, Arafa M, Moutschen M, Zeddou M, Tautz L, Boniver J, Mustelin T and Rahmouni S

    Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit, GIGA-R, Liège University, Liège, Belgium. r.henkens@student.ulg.ac.be

    Background: The 21-kDa Vaccinia virus VH1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein phosphatase (encoded by the DUSP3 gene) plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and is itself regulated during the cell cycle. We have previously demonstrated using RNA interference that cells lacking VHR arrest in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle and show signs of beginning of cell senescence.

    Methods: In this report, we evaluated successfully the expression levels of VHR protein in 62 hysterectomy or conization specimens showing the various (pre) neoplastic cervical epithelial lesions and 35 additional cases of hysterectomy performed for non-cervical pathologies, from patients under 50 years of age. We used a tissue microarray and IHC technique to evaluate the expression of the VHR phosphatase. Immunofluorescence staining under confocal microscopy, Western blotting and RT-PCR methods were used to investigate the localization and expression levels of VHR.

    Results: We report that VHR is upregulated in (pre) neoplastic lesions (squamous intraepithelial lesions; SILs) of the uterine cervix mainly in high grade SIL (H-SIL) compared to normal exocervix. In the invasive cancer, VHR is also highly expressed with nuclear localization in the majority of cells compared to normal tissue where VHR is always in the cytoplasm. We also report that this phosphatase is highly expressed in several cervix cancer cell lines such as HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, C33 and HT3 compared to primary keratinocytes. The immunofluorescence technique under confocal microscopy shows that VHR has a cytoplasmic localization in primary keratinocytes, while it localizes in both cytoplasm and nucleus of the cancer cell lines investigated. We report that the up-regulation of this phosphatase is mainly due to its post-translational stabilization in the cancer cell lines compared to primary keratinocytes rather than increases in the transcription of DUSP3 locus.

    Conclusion: These results together suggest that VHR can be considered as a new marker for cancer progression in cervix carcinoma and potential new target for anticancer therapy.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603, R01 AI035603

    BMC cancer 2008;8;147

  • High intracellular Zn2+ ions modulate the VHR, ZAP-70 and ERK activities of LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Wong PF and Abubakar S

    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Malignant prostate tissues have markedly reduced zinc (Zn(2+)) contents in comparison to non-malignant tissues. In this study, we restored a high intracellular Zn(2+) level to LNCaP prostate cancer cells by culturing the cells in a growth medium supplemented with a supraphysiological concentration of Zn(2+) (10 microg/ml) over 5 weeks. The intracellular Zn(2+) level increased in the Zn(2+)-treated cells, and there was a marked increase in the presence of zincosomes, a Zn(2+)-specific intracellular organelle. The proliferation rate of the Zn(2+)-treated cells was markedly reduced. There was also a significant increase (36.6% +/- 6.4%) in the total tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase, zeta chain-associated protein-70 (ZAP-70) kinase and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK 1 and 2) were also present in higher abundance. Treatment with TPEN, which chelates Zn(2+), reduced the abundance of VHR phosphatase and ZAP-70 kinase, but increased the abundance of p-ERK 1. However, the TPEN treatment restored the Zn(2+)-treated LNCaP cell proliferation to a rate comparable to that of the non Zn(2+)-treated cells. These results highlight the importance of a high intracellular Zn(2+) content and the VHR/ZAP-70-associated pathways in the modulation of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth.

    Cellular & molecular biology letters 2008;13;3;375-90

  • Cutting edge: selective tyrosine dephosphorylation of interferon-activated nuclear STAT5 by the VHR phosphatase.

    Hoyt R, Zhu W, Cerignoli F, Alonso A, Mustelin T and David M

    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Cytokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5 is required for its transcriptional activity. In this article we show that the small dual-specificity phosphatase VHR selectively dephosphorylates IFN-alpha- and beta-activated, tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5, leading to the subsequent inhibition of STAT5 function. Phosphorylation of VHR at Tyr(138) was required for its phosphatase activity toward STAT5. In addition, the Src homology 2 domain of STAT5 was required for the effective dephosphorylation of STAT5 by VHR. The tyrosine kinase Tyk2, which mediates the phosphorylation of STAT5, was also responsible for the phosphorylation of VHR at Tyr(138).

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA080105, R01 CA080105-05, R01 CA080105-06, R01 CA080105-06S1, R01 CA080105-07, R01 CA080105-07S1, R01 CA080105-07S2, R01 CA080105-07S3, R01 CA80105

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2007;179;6;3402-6

  • BRCA1-IRIS activates cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells by downregulating the JNK phosphatase DUSP3/VHR.

    Hao L and ElShamy WM

    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Stritch School of Medicine and Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

    Cyclin D1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression. In breast cancer, Cyclin D1 expression is deregulated by several mechanisms. We previously showed that in breast cancer cells, overexpression of BRCA1-IRIS induces Cyclin D1 overexpression and increases cell proliferation. BRCA1-IRIS alone or in complex with steroid receptor co-activators was targeted to the cyclin D1 promoter pre-bound by the c-Jun/AP1 and activated its transcription, which could explain the co-overexpression of BRCA1-IRIS and Cyclin D1 in breast cancer cells coupled with their increased proliferation. We report here an alternate or a complementary pathway by which BRCA1-IRIS activates Cyclin D1 expression. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression decreases the expression of the dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP3/VHR, an endogenous inhibitor of several MAPKs, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Although, the mechanism by which BRCA1-IRIS overexpression accomplishes that is not yet known, it is sufficient to induce Cyclin D1 overexpression in a human mammary epithelial cell model. Cyclin D1 overexpression could be blocked by co-overexpression of VHR in those cells. Furthermore, in 2 breast cancer cell lines that overexpress both BRCA1-IRIS and Cyclin D1 (MCF-7 and SKBR3) depletion of BRCA1-IRIS by RNA interference attenuated the expression of Cyclin D1 by elevating the expression level of VHR. These data demonstrate a critical role for BRCA1-IRIS in human breast cancer cell-cycle control and suggest that deregulated expression of BRCA1-IRIS is likely to reduce dependence on normal physiological growth stimuli, thereby providing a growth advantage to tumor cells and a potential mechanism of resistance to endocrine therapy.

    International journal of cancer 2007;121;1;39-46

  • A module of negative feedback regulators defines growth factor signaling.

    Amit I, Citri A, Shay T, Lu Y, Katz M, Zhang F, Tarcic G, Siwak D, Lahad J, Jacob-Hirsch J, Amariglio N, Vaisman N, Segal E, Rechavi G, Alon U, Mills GB, Domany E and Yarden Y

    Department of Biological Regulation, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

    Signaling pathways invoke interplays between forward signaling and feedback to drive robust cellular response. In this study, we address the dynamics of growth factor signaling through profiling of protein phosphorylation and gene expression, demonstrating the presence of a kinetically defined cluster of delayed early genes that function to attenuate the early events of growth factor signaling. Using epidermal growth factor receptor signaling as the major model system and concentrating on regulation of transcription and mRNA stability, we demonstrate that a number of genes within the delayed early gene cluster function as feedback regulators of immediate early genes. Consistent with their role in negative regulation of cell signaling, genes within this cluster are downregulated in diverse tumor types, in correlation with clinical outcome. More generally, our study proposes a mechanistic description of the cellular response to growth factors by defining architectural motifs that underlie the function of signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA099031, CA102537, CA64602, CA65930, CA72981

    Nature genetics 2007;39;4;503-12

  • Loss of the VHR dual-specific phosphatase causes cell-cycle arrest and senescence.

    Rahmouni S, Cerignoli F, Alonso A, Tsutji T, Henkens R, Zhu C, Louis-dit-Sully C, Moutschen M, Jiang W and Mustelin T

    The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate important processes in eukaryotic cells and have critical functions in many human diseases including diabetes to cancer. Here, we report that the human Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates cell-cycle progression and is itself modulated during the cell cycle. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that cells lacking VHR arrest at the G1-S and G2-M transitions of the cell cycle and show the initial signs of senescence, such as flattening, spreading, appearance of autophagosomes, beta-galactosidase staining and decreased telomerase activity. In agreement with this notion, cells lacking VHR were found to upregulate p21(Cip-Waf1), whereas they downregulated the expression of genes for cell-cycle regulators, DNA replication, transcription and mRNA processing. Loss of VHR also caused a several-fold increase in serum-induced activation of its substrates, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Jnk and Erk. VHR-induced cell-cycle arrest was dependent on this hyperactivation of Jnk and Erk, and was reversed by Jnk and Erk inhibition or knock-down. We conclude that VHR is required for cell-cycle progression as it modulates MAP kinase activation in a cell-cycle phase-dependent manner.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;5;524-31

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Constitutive induction of p-Erk1/2 accompanied by reduced activities of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A and MKP3 due to reactive oxygen species during cellular senescence.

    Kim HS, Song MC, Kwak IH, Park TJ and Lim IK

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-721, Korea.

    The mechanism of senescence-associated cytoplasmic induction of p-Erk1/2 (SA-p-Erk1/2) proteins in human diploid fibroblasts was investigated. p-Erk1/2 proteins were efficiently dephosphorylated in vitro by protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/2A) and MAPK phosphatase 3 (MKP3). Specific activity of PP1/2A and MKP3 activity significantly decreased during cellular senescence, whereas their protein expression levels did not. To investigate possible mechanism of phosphatase inactivation, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and found it was much higher in mid-old cells than the young cells. Treating the young cells once with 1 mm H2O2 remarkably induced p-Erk1/2 expression; however, it was transient unless repeatedly treated until 72 h. Multiple treatment of the cells with 0.2 mm H2O2 significantly duplicated inactivation of PP1/2A; however, thiol-specific reagents could reverse the PP1/2A activities, suggesting the oxidation of cysteine molecule in PP1/2A by the increased ROS. When the cells were pretreated with 10 mm N-acetyl-l-cysteine for 1 h, Erk1/2 activation was completely blocked. To elucidate which cysteine residue and/or metal ion in PP1/2A was modified by H2O2, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses were performed with purified PP1C-alpha and found Cys62-SO3H and Cys105-SO3H, implicating the tertiary structure perturbation. H2O2 inhibited purified PP1C-alpha activity by both oxidation of Cys residues and metal ion(s), evidenced by dithiothreitol and ascorbate-restoration assay. In summary, SA-p-Erk1/2 was most likely due to the oxidation of PP1/2A, which resulted from the continuous exposure of the cells to vast amounts of ROS generated during cellular senescence by oxidation of Cys62 and Cys105 in PP1C-alpha and metal ion(s).

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;39;37497-510

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of VHR phosphatase by ZAP-70.

    Alonso A, Rahmouni S, Williams S, van Stipdonk M, Jaroszewski L, Godzik A, Abraham RT, Schoenberger SP and Mustelin T

    Program of Signal Transduction, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a key component of the signaling machinery for the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). Whereas recruitment and activation of ZAP-70 are relatively well understood, the proteins phosphorylated by ZAP-70 are incompletely known. We report here that VHR, a Vaccinia virus VH1-related dual-specific protein phosphatase that inactivates the mitogen-activated kinases Erk2 and Jnk, is phosphorylated at Y138 by ZAP-70. Tyr138 phosphorylation was required for VHR to inhibit the Erk2-Elk-1 pathway and, conversely, the VHR(Y138F) mutant augmented TCR-induced Erk2 kinase and activation of the gene encoding interleukin 2. These results suggest that VHR is a target for ZAP-70 and tempers activation of the Erk2 pathway in a ZAP-70-controlled manner.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603, AI40552, AI48032

    Nature immunology 2003;4;1;44-8

  • Structural basis for the recognition of a bisphosphorylated MAP kinase peptide by human VHR protein Phosphatase.

    Schumacher MA, Todd JL, Rice AE, Tanner KG and Denu JM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, USA. schumacn@ohsu.edu

    Human VHR (vaccinia H1 related phosphatase) is a member of the dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) that often act on bisphosphorylated protein substrates. Unlike most DSPs, VHR displays a strong preference for dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine residues over phosphothreonine residues. Here we describe the 2.75 A crystal structure of the C124S inactive VHR mutant in complex with a bisphosphorylated peptide corresponding to the MAP kinase activation lip. This structure and subsequent biochemical studies revealed the basis for the strong preference for hydrolyzing phosphotyrosine within bisphosphorylated substrates containing -pTXpY-. In the structure, the two phospho residues are oriented into distinct pockets; the phosphotyrosine is bound in the exposed yet deep active site cleft while the phosphothreonine is loosely tethered into a nearby basic pocket containing Arg(158). As this structure is the first substrate-enzyme complex reported for the DSP family of enzymes, these results provide the first glimpse into how DSPs bind their protein substrates.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM59782-02

    Biochemistry 2002;41;9;3009-17

  • Vaccinia virus blocks gamma interferon signal transduction: viral VH1 phosphatase reverses Stat1 activation.

    Najarro P, Traktman P and Lewis JA

    Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA.

    We have analyzed the effects of vaccinia virus (VV) on gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) signal transduction. Infection of cells with VV 1 to 2 h prior to treatment with IFN-gamma inhibits phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Stat1 and consequently blocks accumulation of mRNAs normally induced by IFN-gamma. While phosphorylation of other proteins in the IFN-gamma pathway was not affected, activation of Stat1 by other ligand-receptor systems was also blocked by VV. This block of Stat1 activation was dose dependent, and although viral protein synthesis was not required, entry and uncoating of viral cores appear to be needed to block the accumulation of phosphorylated Stat1. These results suggest that a virion component is responsible for the effect. VV virions contain a phosphatase (VH1) that is sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor Na(3)VO(4) but not to okadaic acid. Addition of Na(3)VO(4) but not okadaic acid restored normal Stat1 phosphorylation levels in VV-infected cells. Moreover, virions containing reduced levels of VH1 were unable to block the IFN-gamma signaling pathway. In vitro studies show that the phosphatase can bind and dephosphorylate Stat1, indicating that this transcription factor can be a substrate for VH1. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which VV interferes with the onset of host immune responses by blocking the IFN-gamma signal cascade through the dephosphorylating activity of the viral phosphatase VH1.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 4697703

    Journal of virology 2001;75;7;3185-96

  • Inhibitory role for dual specificity phosphatase VHR in T cell antigen receptor and CD28-induced Erk and Jnk activation.

    Alonso A, Saxena M, Williams S and Mustelin T

    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, La Jolla Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The 21-kDa dual specific protein phosphatase VH1-related (VHR) is one of the smallest known phosphatases, and its function has remained obscure. We report that this enzyme is expressed in lymphoid cells and is not induced by T cell antigen receptor like other dual specificity phosphatases. Introduction of exogenous VHR into Jurkat T cells caused a marked decrease in the transcriptional activation of a nuclear factor of activated T cells and an activator protein-1-driven reporter gene in response to ligation of T cell antigen receptors. The inhibition was dose-dependent and was similar at different doses of anti-receptor antibody. Catalytically inactive VHR mutants caused an increase in gene activation, suggesting a role for endogenous VHR in this response. In contrast, the activation of a nuclear factor kappaB-driven reporter was not affected. The inhibitory effects of VHR were also seen at the level of the mitogen-activated kinases Erk1, Erk2, Jnk1, Jnk2, and on reporter genes that directly depend on these kinases, namely Elk, c-Jun, and activator protein-1. In contrast, p38 kinase activation was not affected by VHR, and p38-assisted gene activation was less sensitive. Our results suggest that VHR is a negative regulator of the Erk and Jnk pathways in T cells and, therefore, may play a role in aspects of T lymphocyte physiology that depend on these kinases.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35603, AI40552, AI41481, AI48032

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;7;4766-71

  • Extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and ERK2 are authentic substrates for the dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatase VHR. A novel role in down-regulating the ERK pathway.

    Todd JL, Tanner KG and Denu JM

    Oregon Health Sciences University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology L224, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, USA.

    The mammalian dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatase VHR (for VH1-related) has been identified as a novel regulator of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). To identify potential cellular substrates of VHR, covalently immobilized mutant VHR protein was employed as an affinity trap. A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein(s) of approximately 42 kDa was specifically adsorbed by the affinity column and identified as ERK1 and ERK2. Subsequent kinetic analyses and transfection studies demonstrated that VHR specifically dephosphorylates and inactivates ERK1 and ERK2 in vitro and in vivo. Only the native structure of phosphorylated ERK was recognized by VHR and was inactivated with a second-order rate constant of 40,000 M-1 s-1. VHR was found to dephosphorylate endogenous ERK, but not p38 and JNK. Immunodepletion of endogenous VHR eliminated the dephosphorylation of cellular ERK. Transfection studies in COS-1 cells demonstrated that in vivo phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor-stimulated ERK depended on VHR protein levels. Overexpression above endogenous levels of VHR led to accelerated ERK inactivation, but did not alter the normal activation of ERK. Unique among reported mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatases, VHR is constitutively expressed, localized to the nucleus, and tyrosine-specific. This study is the first to report the identification of authentic substrates of dual-specificity phosphatases utilizing affinity absorbents and is the first to identify a nuclear, constitutively expressed, and tyrosine-specific ERK phosphatase. The data strongly suggest that VHR is responsible for the rapid inactivation of ERK following stimulation and for its repression in quiescent cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;19;13271-80

  • Crystal structure of the dual specificity protein phosphatase VHR.

    Yuvaniyama J, Denu JM, Dixon JE and Saper MA

    Biophysics Research Division and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1055, USA.

    Dual specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) regulate mitogenic signal transduction and control the cell cycle. Here, the crystal structure of a human DSP, vaccinia H1-related phosphatase (or VHR), was determined at 2.1 angstrom resolution. A shallow active site pocket in VHR allows for the hydrolysis of phosphorylated serine, threonine, or tyrosine protein residues, whereas the deeper active site of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) restricts substrate specificity to only phosphotyrosine. Positively charged crevices near the active site may explain the enzyme's preference for substrates with two phosphorylated residues. The VHR structure defines a conserved structural scaffold for both DSPs and PTPs. A "recognition region," connecting helix alpha1 to strand beta1, may determine differences in substrate specificity between VHR, the PTPs, and other DSPs.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 34095; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18024, DK18849; ...

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1996;272;5266;1328-31

  • The purification and characterization of a human dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Denu JM, Zhou G, Wu L, Zhao R, Yuvaniyama J, Saper MA and Dixon JE

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0606.

    An expression and purification method was developed to obtain the recombinant human dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) VHR in quantities suitable for both kinetic studies and crystallization. Physical characterization of the homogeneous recombinant protein verified the mass to be 20,500 +/- 100 by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry, confirmed the anticipated NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and demonstrated that the protein exists as a monomer. Conditions were developed to obtain crystals which were suitable for x-ray structure determination. Using synthetic diphosphorylated peptides corresponding to MAP177-189 (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (DHTG-FLpTEpYVATR), an assay was devised which permitted the determination of the rate constants for dephosphorylation of the diphosphorylated peptide on threonine and tyrosine residues. The diphosphorylated peptides are preferred over the singly phosphorylated on tyrosine by 3-8-fold. The apparent second-order rate constant kcat/Km for dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine on DHTGFLpTEpYVATR was 32,000 M-1 S-1 while dephosphorylation of phosphothreonine was 14 M-1 S-1 (pH 6). The reaction of DHTGFLpTEpYVATR with VHR is ordered, with rapid dephosphorylation on tyrosine occurring first followed by slow dephosphorylation on threonine. Similar results were obtained with F(NLe)(N-Le)pTPpYVVTR, a peptide corresponding to a MAP kinase-like protein (JNK1(180-189)) which is involved in the stress response signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P560 AR20557; NIDDK NIH HHS: NIDDKD 18024, NIDDKD 18849; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;8;3796-803

  • The catalytic role of Cys124 in the dual specificity phosphatase VHR.

    Zhou G, Denu JM, Wu L and Dixon JE

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0606.

    The recombinant human Vaccinia virus H1-related protein tyrosine phosphatase, (VHR PTPase) possesses intrinsic Tyr and Thr/Ser phosphatase activities. Both activities were abolished by a single amino acid substitution, C124S. When VHR was incubated with a 32P-labeled phosphotyrosine-containing substrate and then rapidly denatured, enzyme-associated 32P was evident following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The formation of 32P-labeled protein could be blocked in the presence of an unlabeled substrate. VHR-associated 32P was sensitive to iodine but insensitive to pyridine and hydroxylamine. The catalytically inactive C124S mutant would not form a 32P-labeled enzyme. Furthermore, VHR phosphatase could be selectively inactivated by the alkylating agent iodoacetate. The inactivation resulted from the specific covalent modification of Cys124. Collectively these results suggest that a thiol-phosphate enzyme intermediate is formed when Cys124 of VHR accepts a phosphate from the substrate. Our results also demonstrate that the dual specificity phosphatases and the tyrosine-specific PTPases employ similar catalytic mechanisms.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07245-17, NIDDKD 18024, NIDDKD 18849

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;45;28084-90

  • The detailed characterisation of a 400 kb cosmid walk in the BRCA1 region: identification and localisation of 10 genes including a dual-specificity phosphatase.

    Jones KA, Black DM, Brown MA, Griffiths BL, Nicolai HM, Chambers JA, Bonjardim M, Xu CF, Boyd M, McFarlane R et al.

    Somatic Cell Genetics Laboratory, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London.

    We have produced a detailed physical and transcriptional map of a 400 kb region within the narrowest flanking markers known to contain the hereditary breast and ovarian susceptibility gene, BRCA1. The approach described here has avoided the problems of chimaerism, instability and rearrangements commonly observed in yeast artificial chromosomes by converting the YAC clones into ordered chromosome 17-specific cosmid contigs and joining these contigs by cosmid end-walking. A detailed long-range restriction map provided a framework for the cosmid contig assembly and further refines existing physical mapping data. We have used a combined approach towards the isolation of the genes housed within these cosmids. This has resulted in the isolation and precise localisation of eight novel genes, including a novel G protein and an endogenous retrovirus related to the HERV-K family, and the previously described dual-specificity VHR phosphatase and MOX1 homeobox genes.

    Human molecular genetics 1994;3;11;1927-34

  • Confirmation of the assignment of the gene encoding Kv1.3, a voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNA3) to the proximal short arm of human chromosome 1.

    Folander K, Douglass J and Swanson R

    Department of Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486.

    Genomics 1994;23;1;295-6

  • Localization of the VHR phosphatase gene and its analysis as a candidate for BRCA1.

    Kamb A, Futreal PA, Rosenthal J, Cochran C, Harshman KD, Liu Q, Phelps RS, Tavtigian SV, Tran T, Hussey C et al.

    Myriad Genetics, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 84108.

    The VH1-related human protein (VHR) gene was localized to human chromosome 17q21 in a region thought to contain the BRCA1 locus, a locus that confers susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. VHR encodes a phosphatase with dual specificity for tyrosine and serine residues. Thus it is a plausible candidate for a tumor suppressor gene such as BRCA1. To test this possibility, the VHR coding sequence was screened in individuals with familial breast cancer and in sporadic breast tumor and breast cancer cell lines. No mutations were detected, suggesting that the VHR gene is not BRCA1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-48711, CA-55914

    Genomics 1994;23;1;163-7

  • Expression cloning of a human dual-specificity phosphatase.

    Ishibashi T, Bottaro DP, Chan A, Miki T and Aaronson SA

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Using an expression cloning strategy, we isolated a cDNA encoding a human protein-tyrosine-phosphatase. Bacteria expressing the kinase domain of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (bek/fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) were infected with a fibroblast cDNA library in a phagemid prokaryotic expression vector and screened with a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Among several clones showing decreased anti-phosphotyrosine recognition, one displayed phosphatase activity toward the kinase in vitro. The 4.1-kilobase cDNA encoded a deduced protein of 185 amino acids with limited sequence similarity to the vaccinia virus phosphatase VH1. The purified recombinant protein dephosphorylated several activated growth factor receptors, as well as serine-phosphorylated casein, in vitro. Both serine and tyrosine phosphatase activities were completely abolished by mutagenesis of a single cysteine residue conserved in VH1 and the VH1-related (VHR) human protein. These properties suggest that VHR is capable of regulating intracellular events mediated by both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;24;12170-4

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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