G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog
G00000187 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000147507 (Ensembl human gene)
4067 (Entrez Gene)
521 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LYN (GeneCards)
165120 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6735 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
4492 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P07948 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • JTK8

Literature (239)

Pubmed - other

  • Rituximab inhibits B-cell receptor signaling.

    Kheirallah S, Caron P, Gross E, Quillet-Mary A, Bertrand-Michel J, Fournié JJ, Laurent G and Bezombes C

    Inserm, U563, Toulouse, France.

    Rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 protein, is a drug commonly used in the treatment of B-cell-derived lymphoid neoplasias and of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. In addition to cell- and complement-mediated B-cell depletion, RTX is thought to inhibit B-cell survival and proliferation through negative regulation of canonical signaling pathways involving Akt, ERK, and mammalian target of rapamycin. However, surprisingly, although B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling has been considered critical for normal and more recently, for neoplastic B cells, the hypothesis that RTX could target BCR has never been investigated. Using follicular lymphoma cell lines as models, as well as normal B cells, we show here, for the first time, that pretreatment with RTX results in a time-dependent inhibition of the BCR-signaling cascade involving Lyn, Syk, PLC gamma 2, Akt, and ERK, and calcium mobilization. The inhibitory effect of RTX correlates with decrease of raft-associated cholesterol, complete inhibition of BCR relocalization into lipid raft microdomains, and down-regulation of BCR immunoglobulin expression. Thus, RTX-mediated alteration of BCR expression, dynamics, and signaling might contribute to the immunosuppressive activity of the drug.

    Blood 2010;115;5;985-94

  • Identification of a novel TEL-Lyn fusion gene in primary myelofibrosis.

    Tanaka H, Takeuchi M, Takeda Y, Sakai S, Abe D, Ohwada C, Sakaida E, Shimizu N, Saito Y, Miyagi S, Iwama A and Nakaseko C

    Leukemia 2010;24;1;197-200

  • Candidate gene polymorphisms for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer are associated with longevity in Koreans.

    Park JW, Ji YI, Choi YH, Kang MY, Jung E, Cho SY, Cho HY, Kang BK, Joung YS, Kim DH, Park SC and Park J

    Department of Medical Genetics, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea.

    Long-lived people may have a unique genetic makeup that makes them more resistant than the general population to prevalent age-related diseases; however, not much is known about genes involved in the longevity. To identify susceptibility variants controlling longevity, we performed a high-throughput candidate gene study using 137 Koreans over 90 yr old and 213 young healthy Koreans. We evaluated 463 informative markers located in 176 candidate genes mostly for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer under five genetic models. We estimated the odds ratios for each allele, genotype, haplotype, and gene-gene interaction using logistic regression analysis. Associations between 13 genes and longevity were detected at a P-value less than 0.01. Particularly, the rs671 (A) allele of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial) (ALDH2) gene was associated with longevity only in men (OR 2.11, P =0.008). Four genes, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1, P=0.008), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, P=0.003), paired box 4 (PAX4, P=0.008), and V-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog (LYN, P=0.002) consistently yielded statistical evidence for association with longevity. The findings of the current study may provide a starting point for future studies to unravel genetic factors controlling longevity in Koreans.

    Experimental & molecular medicine 2009;41;11;772-81

  • Opposite expression pattern of Src kinase Lyn in acute and chronic haematological malignancies.

    Hussein K, von Neuhoff N, Büsche G, Buhr T, Kreipe H and Bock O

    Institute of Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

    Lck/yes-related novel (Lyn) tyrosine kinase overexpression has been suggested to be important for leukaemic cell growth making it an attractive target for therapy. By contrast, Lyn deficiency was shown to be responsible for a phenotype resembling myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in mice. We aimed to shed more light on Lyn's role in haematological neoplasm and systematically investigated Lyn expression in MPN, acute and chronic leukaemia subtypes (n = 236). On top, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia significantly overexpressed Lyn when compared to de novo acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and Philadelphia-chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (p < 0.001). Most of acute leukaemia subtypes showed a notable down-regulation of Lyn mRNA but anyhow individual cases were labelled for the active form of Lyn protein. Intriguingly, secondary AML evolved in myelodysplastic syndromes revealed almost undetectable Lyn. Overexpression of Lyn in B-CLL was associated with a significant down-regulation of microRNA-337-5p suggesting that aberrant expression of this particular microRNA could be involved in post-transcriptional control of Lyn mRNA fate. We conclude that tyrosine kinase Lyn contributes to the malignant phenotype in certain leukaemia subtypes and therefore attracts targeted therapy.

    Annals of hematology 2009;88;11;1059-67

  • Identification of SH3 domain interaction partners of human FasL (CD178) by phage display screening.

    Voss M, Lettau M and Janssen O

    Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. matthias.voss@med.uni-muenchen.de

    Background: Fas ligand is a cytotoxic effector molecule of T and NK cells which is characterized by an intracellular N-terminal polyproline region that serves as a docking site for SH3 and WW domain proteins. Several previously described Fas ligand-interacting SH3 domain proteins turned out to be crucial for the regulation of storage, expression and function of the death factor. Recent observations, however, indicate that Fas ligand is also subject to posttranslational modifications including shedding and intramembrane proteolysis. This results in the generation of short intracellular fragments that might either be degraded or translocate to the nucleus to influence transcription. So far, protein-protein interactions that specifically regulate the fate of the intracellular fragments have not been identified.

    Results: In order to further define the SH3 domain interactome of the intracellular region of Fas ligand, we now screened a human SH3 domain phage display library. In addition to known SH3 domains mediating binding to the Fas ligand proline-rich domain, we were able to identify a number of additional SH3 domains that might also associate with FasL. Potential functional implications of the new binding proteins for the death factor's biology are discussed. For Tec kinases and sorting nexins, the observed interactions were verified in cellular systems by pulldown experiments.

    Conclusion: We provide an extended list of putative Fas ligand interaction partners, confirming previously identified interactions, but also introducing several novel SH3 domain proteins that might be important regulators of Fas ligand function.

    BMC immunology 2009;10;53

  • Requirement of the SH4 and tyrosine-kinase domains but not the kinase activity of Lyn for its biosynthetic targeting to caveolin-positive Golgi membranes.

    Ikeda K, Nakayama Y, Ishii M, Obata Y, Kasahara K, Fukumoto Y and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Background: The Src-family non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase Lyn, which is often associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in cancer, localizes not only to the plasma membrane but also Golgi membranes. Recently, we showed that Lyn, which is synthesized in the cytosol, is transported from the Golgi to the plasma membrane along the secretory pathway. However, it is still unclear how Golgi targeting of newly synthesized Lyn is regulated.

    Methods: Subcellular localization of Lyn and its mutants was determined by confocal microscopy.

    Results: We show that the kinase domain, but not the SH3 and SH2 domains, of Lyn is required for the targeting of Lyn to the Golgi, whereas the N-terminal lipids of the Lyn SH4 domain are not sufficient for its Golgi targeting. Although intact Lyn, which colocalizes with caveolin-positive Golgi membranes, can traffic toward the plasma membrane, kinase domain-deleted Lyn is immobilized on caveolin-negative Golgi membranes.

    Besides the SH4 domain, the Lyn kinase domain is important for targeting of newly synthesized Lyn to the Golgi, especially caveolin-positive transport membranes. Our results provide a novel role of the Lyn catalytic domain in the Golgi targeting of newly synthesized Lyn in a manner independent of its kinase activity.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1790;10;1345-52

  • Resequencing analysis of the human tyrosine kinase gene family in pancreatic cancer.

    Kubo T, Kuroda Y, Kokubu A, Hosoda F, Arai Y, Hiraoka N, Hirohashi S and Shibata T

    National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

    Objectives: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most intractable of cancers. However, the comprehensive view of somatic mutations in this tumor is far from clear. The tyrosine kinase (TK) gene family, which encodes important regulators of various signal transduction pathways, is one of the most frequently altered gene families in human cancer.

    Methods: To clarify the somatic mutation profile of TKs in pancreatic cancer, we performed a systematic screening of mutations in the kinase domains of all human TK genes (636 exons of 90 genes in total) in 11 pancreatic cancer cell lines and 29 microdissected primary tumors.

    Results: We identified 15 nonsynonymous alterations that included 9 DNA alterations in cell lines and 6 somatic mutations in primary tumors. In particular, we identified the previously reported pathogenic mutation of NTRK3 in a KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumor and 2 somatic mutations in the Src family of kinases (YES1 and LYN) that would be expected to cause structural changes.

    Conclusions: Our genome-wide resequencing approach revealed novel oncogenic pathways in pancreatic cancers.

    Pancreas 2009;38;7;e200-6

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • The caspase-cleaved form of LYN mediates a psoriasis-like inflammatory syndrome in mice.

    Marchetti S, Gamas P, Belhacène N, Grosso S, Pradelli LA, Colosetti P, Johansen C, Iversen L, Deckert M, Luciano F, Hofman P, Ortonne N, Khemis A, Mari B, Ortonne JP, Ricci JE and Auberger P

    INSERM, U895, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire (C3M), Team 2, Nice, France.

    We showed previously that Lyn is a substrate for caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the caspase-cleaved form of Lyn (LynDeltaN), in mice, mediates a chronic inflammatory syndrome resembling human psoriasis. Genetic ablation of TNF receptor 1 in a LynDeltaN background rescues a normal phenotype, indicating that LynDeltaN mice phenotype is TNF-alpha-dependent. The predominant role of T cells in the disease occurring in LynDeltaN mice was highlighted by the distinct improvement of LynDeltaN mice phenotype in a Rag1-deficient background. Using pan-genomic profiling, we also established that LynDeltaN mice show an increased expression of STAT-3 and inhibitory members of the NFkappaB pathway. Accordingly, LynDeltaN alters NFkappaB activity underlying a link between inhibition of NFkappaB and LynDeltaN mice phenotype. Finally, analysis of Lyn expression in human skin biopsies of psoriatic patients led to the detection of Lyn cleavage product whose expression correlates with the activation of caspase 1. Our data identify a new role for Lyn as a regulator of psoriasis through its cleavage by caspases.

    The EMBO journal 2009;28;16;2449-60

  • Inhibition of imatinib-mediated apoptosis by the caspase-cleaved form of the tyrosine kinase Lyn in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Gamas P, Marchetti S, Puissant A, Grosso S, Jacquel A, Colosetti P, Pasquet JM, Mahon FX, Cassuto JP and Auberger P

    Team 2: Cell Death Differentiation and Cancer, INSERM U895, Nice, France.

    Once cleaved by caspases, the Lyn tyrosine kinase (LynDeltaN) is relocalized from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm of apoptotic cells, but the function of such a cleavage is incompletely understood. We evaluated the effect of LynDeltaN overexpression on imatinib sensitivity of the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562. Therefore, we generated stable cells that express plasmids encoding LynDeltaN or its catalytically inactive counterpart LynDeltaNKD. We established that Lyn is cleaved in imatinib-treated parental K562 cells in a caspase-dependent manner. Lyn cleavage also occurred following BCR-ABL silencing by specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA). Imatinib-induced apoptosis was abrogated in LynDeltaN-overexpressing cells, but not in cells overexpressing its inactive counterpart. Conversely, the overexpression of LynDeltaN failed to affect the differentiation of K562 cells. Importantly, the protective effect of LynDeltaN was suppressed by two inhibitors of Lyn activity. LynDeltaN also inhibits imatinib-mediated caspase-3 activation in the small proportion of nilotinib-resistant K562 cells overexpressing Lyn that can engage an apoptotic program upon imatinib stimulation. Finally, Lyn knockdown by sh-RNA altered neither imatinib-mediated apoptosis nor differentiation. Taken together, our data show that the caspase-cleaved form of Lyn exerts a negative feedback on imatinib-mediated CML cell apoptosis that is entirely dependent on its kinase activity and likely on the BCR-ABL pathway.

    Leukemia 2009;23;8;1500-6

  • Genetic associations of LYN with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Lu R, Vidal GS, Kelly JA, Delgado-Vega AM, Howard XK, Macwana SR, Dominguez N, Klein W, Burrell C, Harley IT, Kaufman KM, Bruner GR, Moser KL, Gaffney PM, Gilkeson GS, Wakeland EK, Li QZ, Langefeld CD, Marion MC, Divers J, Alarcón GS, Brown EE, Kimberly RP, Edberg JC, Ramsey-Goldman R, Reveille JD, McGwin G, Vilá LM, Petri MA, Bae SC, Cho SK, Bang SY, Kim I, Choi CB, Martin J, Vyse TJ, Merrill JT, Harley JB, Alarcón-Riquelme ME, BIOLUPUS and GENLES Multicenter Collaborations, Nath SK, James JA and Guthridge JM

    Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

    We targeted LYN, a src-tyosine kinase involved in B-cell activation, in case-control association studies using populations of European-American, African-American and Korean subjects. Our combined European-derived population, consisting of 2463 independent cases and 3131 unrelated controls, shows significant association with rs6983130 in a female-only analysis with 2254 cases and 2228 controls (P=1.1 x 10(-4), odds ratio (OR)=0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.90)). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is located in the 5' untranslated region within the first intron near the transcription initiation site of LYN. In addition, SNPs upstream of the first exon also show weak and sporadic association in subsets of the total European-American population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implicates rs6983130 as a protective factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility when anti-dsDNA, anti-chromatin, anti-52 kDa Ro or anti-Sm autoantibody status were used as covariates. Subset analysis of the European-American female cases by American College of Rheumatology classification criteria shows a reduction in the risk of hematological disorder with rs6983130 compared with cases without hematological disorders (P=1.5 x 10(-3), OR=0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89)). None of the 90 SNPs tested show significant association with SLE in the African American or Korean populations. These results support an association of LYN with European-derived individuals with SLE, especially within autoantibody or clinical subsets.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR015577, P20 RR015577-060005, P20 RR020143, P20 RR020143-010003, P20 RR020143-020003, P20 RR020143-037496, P20 RR020143-05, RR015577, RR020143, UL1 RR025741; NIAID NIH HHS: AI031584, AI063274, AI063622, AI24717, N01 AI050026, R01 AI024717, R01 AI024717-16, R01 AI031584, R01 AI031584-13, R01 AI063274, R01 AI063274-06, R01 AI063622, R01 AI063622-05, R37 AI024717, R56 AI063274; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR043247, AR049084, AR052125, AR053483, AR42460, AR48940, N01 AR012253, N01 AR062277, N01AR12253, N01AR62277, P01 AR049084, P01 AR049084-010002, P01 AR049084-010003, P30 AR053483, P30 AR053483-02, P30 AR053483-020002, P50 AR048940, P50 AR048940-010001, R01 AR042460, R01 AR042460-15, R01 AR043274, R01 AR043274-13, R01 AR052125, R01 AR052125-04; NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE015223, R01 DE015223-05; PHS HHS: DEO15223, HHSN266200500026C

    Genes and immunity 2009;10;5;397-403

  • Celastrol binds to ERK and inhibits FcepsilonRI signaling to exert an anti-allergic effect.

    Kim Y, Kim K, Lee H, Han S, Lee YS, Choe J, Kim YM, Hahn JH, Ro JY and Jeoung D

    School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Republic of Korea.

    The role of celastrol, a triterpene extracted from the Chinese "Thunder of God Vine," in allergic inflammation was investigated. Celastrol decreased the secretion of beta-hexosaminidase, decreased the release of histamine, decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines and decreased calcium influx and cell adhesion in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Exposure to celastrol decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and the ERK kinase activity was decreased in RBL2H3 cells. A molecular dynamics simulation showed binding of celastrol to a large pocket in ERK2, which serves as the ATP-binding site. Exposure to celastrol inhibited the interaction between immunoglobulin Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRIgamma) and ERK and inhibited interaction between FcepsilonRIgamma and protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta). Antigen stimulation induced an interaction between Rac1 and ERK as well as an interaction between Rac1 and PKCdelta. Inhibition of ERK decreased Rac1 activity and inhibition of Rac1 decreased ERK activity in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Celastrol regulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins through inhibition of PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and Rac1 in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Exposure to celatrol inhibited PKCdelta activity in antigen-stimulated RBL2H3 cells. Celastrol exerted a negative effect on FcepsilonRIbeta signaling by inhibiting the interaction between heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and proteins, such as, FcepsilonRIbeta, Akt and PKCalpha. Celastrol exerted a negative effect on in vivo atopic dermatitis induced by 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), which requires ERK. Celastrol also showed an inhibitory effect on skin inflammation induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in Balb/c mice. In summary, celastrol binds to ERK and inhibits FcepsilonRI signaling to exert an anti-inflammatory effect.

    European journal of pharmacology 2009;612;1-3;131-42

  • Erythropoietin down-regulates stem cell factor receptor (Kit) expression in the leukemic proerythroblast: role of Lyn kinase.

    Kosmider O, Buet D, Gallais I, Denis N and Moreau-Gachelin F

    Inserm U830, Paris, France.

    Overexpression of the transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 by transgenesis in mice induces a maturation arrest at the proerythroblastic stage of differentiation. We have previously isolated a panel of spi-1 transgenic erythroleukemic cell lines that proliferated in the presence of either erythropoietin (Epo) or stem cell factor (SCF). Using these cell lines, we observed that EpoR stimulation by Epo down-regulated expression of the SCF receptor Kit and induced expression of the Src kinase Lyn. Furthermore, enforced expression of Lyn in the cell lines increased cell proliferation in response to Epo, but reduced cell growth in response to SCF in accordance with Lyn ability to down-regulate Kit expression. Together, the data suggest that Epo-R/Lyn signaling pathway is essential for extinction of SCF signaling leading the proerythroblast to strict Epo dependency. These results highlight a new role for Lyn as an effector of EpoR in controlling Kit expression. They suggest that Lyn may play a central role in during erythroid differentiation at the switch between proliferation and maturation.

    PloS one 2009;4;5;e5721

  • Jak2 inhibition deactivates Lyn kinase through the SET-PP2A-SHP1 pathway, causing apoptosis in drug-resistant cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients.

    Samanta AK, Chakraborty SN, Wang Y, Kantarjian H, Sun X, Hood J, Perrotti D and Arlinghaus RB

    Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77054, USA.

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients treated with imatinib mesylate (IM) become drug resistant by mutations within the kinase domain of Bcr-Abl, and by other changes that cause progression to advanced stage (blast crisis) and increased expression of the Lyn tyrosine kinase, the regulation of which is not understood yet. In Bcr-Abl+ cells inhibition of Jak2, a downstream target of Bcr-Abl, by either Jak2 inhibitors or Jak2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the level of the SET protein, and increased PP2A Ser/Thr phosphatase and Shp1 tyrosine phosphatase activities, which led to decreased levels of activated Lyn. Activation of PP2A combined with Jak2 inhibition enhanced the reduction of activated Lyn kinase compared with Jak2 inhibition alone. In contrast, inhibition of either PP2A or Shp1 combined with Jak2 inhibition interfered with the loss of Lyn kinase activation more so than Jak2 inhibition alone, indicating the involvement of PP2A and Shp1 in the inactivation of the Lyn kinase caused by Jak2 inhibition. Inhibition of Jak2 induced apoptosis and reduced colony formation in IM-sensitive and -resistant Bcr-Abl mutant cell lines. Jak2 inhibition also induced apoptosis in CML cells from blast crisis patients but not in normal hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that Lyn is downstream of Jak2, and Jak2 maintains activated Lyn kinase in CML through the SET-PP2A-Shp1 pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA093792, CA095512, CA100632, CA49639, P01 CA049639, P50 CA100632, R01 CA093792, R01 CA095512, R01 CA095512-05A1

    Oncogene 2009;28;14;1669-81

  • Differential trafficking of Src, Lyn, Yes and Fyn is specified by the state of palmitoylation in the SH4 domain.

    Sato I, Obata Y, Kasahara K, Nakayama Y, Fukumoto Y, Yamasaki T, Yokoyama KK, Saito T and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs), which participate in a variety of signal transduction events, are known to localize to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane through lipid modification. Recently, we showed that Lyn, an SFK member, is exocytosed to the plasma membrane via the Golgi region along the secretory pathway. We show here that SFK trafficking is specified by the palmitoylation state. Yes is also a monopalmitoylated SFK and is biosynthetically transported from the Golgi pool of caveolin to the plasma membrane. This pathway can be inhibited in the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-to-cell surface delivery by temperature block at 19 degrees C or dominant-negative Rab11 GTPase. A large fraction of Fyn, a dually palmitoylated SFK, is directly targeted to the plasma membrane irrespective of temperature block of TGN exit. Fyn(C6S), which lacks the second palmitoylation site, is able to traffic in the same way as Lyn and Yes. Moreover, construction of Yes(S6C) and chimeric Lyn or Yes with the Fyn N-terminus further substantiates the importance of the dual palmitoylation site for plasma membrane targeting. Taken together with our recent finding that Src, a nonpalmitoylated SFK, is rapidly exchanged between the plasma membrane and late endosomes/lysosomes, these results suggest that SFK trafficking is specified by the palmitoylation state in the SH4 domain.

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 7;965-75

  • Geldanamycin-induced Lyn dissociation from aberrant Hsp90-stabilized cytosolic complex is an early event in apoptotic mechanisms in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Trentin L, Frasson M, Donella-Deana A, Frezzato F, Pagano MA, Tibaldi E, Gattazzo C, Zambello R, Semenzato G and Brunati AM

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Hematology and Clinical Immunology Branch, Padua University School of Medicine, Padua, Italy.

    Lyn, a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family, plays a key role as a switch molecule that couples the B-cell receptor to downstream signaling. In B-CLL cells, Lyn is overexpressed, anomalously present in the cytosol, and displays a high constitutive activity, compared with normal B lymphocytes. The aim of this work was to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these aberrant properties of Lyn, which have already been demonstrated to be related to defective apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. Herein, Lyn is described to be in an active conformation as integral component of an aberrant cytosolic 600-kDa multiprotein complex in B-CLL cells, associated with several proteins, such as Hsp90 through its catalytic domain, and HS1 and SHP-1L through its SH3 domain. In particular, Hsp90 appears tightly bound to cytosolic Lyn (CL), thus stabilizing the aberrant complex and converting individual transient interactions into stable ones. We also demonstrate that treatment of B-CLL cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor already reported to induce cell death, is capable of dissociating the CL complex in the early phases of apoptosis and thus inactivating CL itself. These data identify the CL complex as a potential target for therapy in B-CLL.

    Blood 2008;112;12;4665-74

  • Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity.

    Ikeda K, Nakayama Y, Togashi Y, Obata Y, Kuga T, Kasahara K, Fukumoto Y and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;18;3392-404

  • Monocyte migration and LFA-1-mediated attachment to brain microvascular endothelia is regulated by SDF-1 alpha through Lyn kinase.

    Malik M, Chen YY, Kienzle MF, Tomkowicz BE, Collman RG and Ptasznik A

    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Infiltration of activated monocytes into the brain is a prerequisite for the development of various neurological disorders such as HIV-associated dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other inflammatory processes. In these pathologies, the chemokine SDF-1alpha (CXCL12) is over-expressed and might attract monocytes into the CNS. We demonstrate here that SDF-1alpha stimulates migration of monocytes through its receptor, CXCR4, and decreases monocyte adherence to surfaces coated with ICAM-1, a ligand for beta(2) integrins. SDF-1alpha also decreases monocyte adherence to brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that are activated with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or recombinant envelope glycoprotein from HIV-1, which increase BMVEC expression of ICAM-1. The decreased adherence is linked to down-regulation on monocytes of the activation-dependent epitope of the beta(2) integrin LFA-1 by SDF-1alpha. Knockdown of Lyn in monocytes using small interfering RNA decreases SDF-1alpha-mediated migration and prevents the inhibition of monocyte attachment to ICAM-1 and activated BMVEC. Thus, in SDF-1alpha-stimulated monocytes, Lyn acts as a positive regulator of migration and a negative regulator of adhesion to BMVEC through the LFA-1 integrin. These results provide a novel Lyn-mediated signaling mechanism for the regulation of monocyte movement at the blood-brain barrier.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA108552, R01CA108552; NIAID NIH HHS: P30 AI045008, R01 AI035502, R01 AI035502-12, R01 AI035502-13; NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH061139, R01 MH061139-10, R01MH61139; NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS027405, P01 NS027405-170003, P01 NS027405-180003, P01NS27405

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;181;7;4632-7

  • Phospholipid scramblase 1 modulates a selected set of IgE receptor-mediated mast cell responses through LAT-dependent pathway.

    Amir-Moazami O, Alexia C, Charles N, Launay P, Monteiro RC and Benhamou M

    INSERM U699, and Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat, Université Paris 7, 16 Rue Henri Huchard, Paris, France.

    Engagement of the IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells leads to the release of preformed and newly formed mediators as well as of cytokines. The signaling pathways responsible for these responses involve tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins. We previously reported the phosphorylation on tyrosine of phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) after FcepsilonRI aggregation. Here, PLSCR1 expression was knocked down in the RBL-2H3 mast cell line using short hairpin RNA. Knocking down PLSCR1 expression resulted in significantly impaired degranulation responses after FcepsilonRI aggregation and release of vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas release of MCP-1 was minimally affected. The release of neither leukotriene C4 nor prostaglandin D2 was altered by knocking down of PLSCR1. Analysis of FcepsilonRI-dependent signaling pathways revealed that whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was unaffected, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT was significantly reduced in PLSCR1 knocked down cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and consequently the mobilization of calcium were also significantly reduced in these cells. In nonactivated mast cells, PLSCR1 was found in part in lipid rafts where it was further recruited after cell activation and was constitutively associated with Lyn and Syk but not with LAT or Fyn. Altogether, these data identify PLSCR1 as a novel amplifier of FcepsilonRI signaling that acts selectively on the Lyn-initiated LAT/phospholipase Cgamma1/calcium axis, resulting in potentiation of a selected set of mast cell responses.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;37;25514-23

  • Association between imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutation-negative leukemia and persistent activation of LYN kinase.

    Wu J, Meng F, Kong LY, Peng Z, Ying Y, Bornmann WG, Darnay BG, Lamothe B, Sun H, Talpaz M and Donato NJ

    Departments of Experimental Therapeutics, The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

    Background: Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). BCR-ABL mutations are associated with failure of imatinib treatment in many CML patients. LYN kinase regulates survival and responsiveness of CML cells to inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase, and differences in LYN regulation have been found between imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cell lines.

    Methods: We evaluated cells from 12 imatinib-resistant CML patients with mutation-negative BCR-ABL and from six imatinib-sensitive patients who discontinued therapy because of imatinib intolerance. Phosphorylation of BCR-ABL and LYN was assessed in patient cells and cell lines by immunoblotting with activation state-specific antibodies, co-immunoprecipitation studies, and mass spectroscopy analysis of phosphopeptides. Cell viability, caspase activation, and apoptosis were also measured. Mutations were analyzed by sequencing. The effect of silencing LYN with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or reducing activation by treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors was evaluated in cell lines and patient cells.

    Results: Imatinib treatment suppressed LYN phosphorylation in cells from imatinib-sensitive CML patients and imatinib-sensitive cell lines. Imatinib treatment blocked BCR-ABL signaling but did not suppress LYN phosphorylation in cells from imatinib-resistant patients, and persistent activation of LYN kinase was not associated with mutations in LYN kinase or its carboxyl-terminal regulatory domains. Unique LYN phosphorylation sites (tyrosine-193 and tyrosine-459) and associated proteins (c-Cbl and p80) were identified in cells from imatinib-resistant patients. Reducing LYN expression (siRNA) or activation (dasatinib) was associated with loss of cell survival and cytogenetic or complete hematologic responses in imatinib-resistant disease.

    Conclusions: LYN activation was independent of BCR-ABL in cells from imatinib-resistant patients. Thus, LYN kinase may be involved in imatinib resistance in CML patients with mutation-negative BCR-ABL and its direct inhibition is consistent with clinical responses in these patients.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA49639

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2008;100;13;926-39

  • Role of Src-family kinases in formation of the cortical actin cap at the dorsal cell surface.

    Kuga T, Hoshino M, Nakayama Y, Kasahara K, Ikeda K, Obata Y, Takahashi A, Higashiyama Y, Fukumoto Y and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation is regulated by protein-tyrosine kinases and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) participate in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin filaments can be accumulated in a cap at the dorsal cell surface, which is called the cortical actin cap. Here, we show that SFKs play an important role in formation of the cortical actin cap. HeLa cells normally exhibit the cortical actin cap, one of the major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. The cortical actin cap is disrupted by SFK inhibitors or overexpression of the Lyn SH3 domain. Csk-knockout cells form the cortical actin cap when the level of tyrosine phosphorylation is increased by Na(3)VO(4), a PTP inhibitor, and the formation of the cortical actin cap is inhibited by SFK inactivation with re-introduction of Csk. SYF cells lacking SFKs minimally exhibit the cortical actin cap even in the presence of Na(3)VO(4), and transfection with Lyn restores the cortical actin cap in the presence of Na(3)VO(4). Disruption of the cortical actin cap by dominant-negative Cdc42 causes loss of tyrosine phosphorylation at the cell top. These results suggest that SFK(s) is involved in formation of the cortical actin cap, which may serve as a platform of tyrosine phosphorylation signaling.

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;10;2040-54

  • Tissue factor and IL8 production by P-selectin-dependent platelet-monocyte aggregates in whole blood involves phosphorylation of Lyn and is inhibited by IL10.

    Christersson C, Johnell M and Siegbahn A

    Department of Cardiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. christina.christersson@akademiska.se

    Background: P-selectin and CD40L expressed by activated platelets induce tissue factor (TF) and inflammatory cytokines in monocytes, but little is known of the cellular signaling pathways involved. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 reduces atherosclerotic plaque formation.

    Objectives: To evaluate the importance of P-selectin upon platelet-monocyte aggregate (PMA) formation in thrombin receptor activator peptide (TRAP) stimulated whole blood, the P-selectin-P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1-induced cellular signaling pathway, and the effects of IL10 on these functions.

    Methods: TF, IL8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production, PMAs and phosphorylation of Lyn were analyzed in whole blood, purified monocytes, and vitamin D(3)-differentiated U-937 cells stimulated with TRAP or P-selectin with or without IL10. Anti-P-selectin or anti-CD40L antibodies (Abs), Src-kinases inhibitors, SU6656 or PP2, were added in some experiments.

    Results: TRAP and P-selectin increased TF, IL8, and MCP-1 mRNA in whole blood and purified monocytes. Anti-P-selectin Ab reduced TRAP-induced PMA formation by 80 +/- 2% (P = 0.001) and production of TF (P = 0.04) and IL8 (P = 0.01). IL10 and SU6656 had no effect on PMA formation, although both significantly reduced TF (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02) and IL8 (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001) mRNA upon TRAP and P-selectin stimulation. Induced Lyn phosphorylation in monocytes was diminished by SU6656 (P = 0.02), anti-P-selectin Ab (P = 0.02), and IL10 (P = 0.03) upon TRAP or P-selectin stimulation. These results were confirmed in the vitamin D(3)-differentiated U-937 cells.

    Conclusions: The formation of PMAs in whole blood was P-selectin-dependent in the long term. P-selectin-PSGL-1-induced TF and IL8 expression through Lyn phosphorylation, and part of the inhibitory effect of IL10 depends on reduced phosphorylation.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2008;6;6;986-94

  • Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.

    Gudbjartsson DF, Walters GB, Thorleifsson G, Stefansson H, Halldorsson BV, Zusmanovich P, Sulem P, Thorlacius S, Gylfason A, Steinberg S, Helgadottir A, Ingason A, Steinthorsdottir V, Olafsdottir EJ, Olafsdottir GH, Jonsson T, Borch-Johnsen K, Hansen T, Andersen G, Jorgensen T, Pedersen O, Aben KK, Witjes JA, Swinkels DW, den Heijer M, Franke B, Verbeek AL, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Becker LC, Tryggvadottir L, Rafnar T, Gulcher J, Kiemeney LA, Kong A, Thorsteinsdottir U and Stefansson K

    deCODE Genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. daniel.gudbjartsson@decode.is

    Adult human height is one of the classical complex human traits. We searched for sequence variants that affect height by scanning the genomes of 25,174 Icelanders, 2,876 Dutch, 1,770 European Americans and 1,148 African Americans. We then combined these results with previously published results from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative on 3,024 Scandinavians and tested a selected subset of SNPs in 5,517 Danes. We identified 27 regions of the genome with one or more sequence variants showing significant association with height. The estimated effects per allele of these variants ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 cm and, taken together, they explain around 3.7% of the population variation in height. The genes neighboring the identified loci cluster in biological processes related to skeletal development and mitosis. Association to three previously reported loci are replicated in our analyses, and the strongest association was with SNPs in the ZBTB38 gene.

    Nature genetics 2008;40;5;609-15

  • Lyn regulates BCR-ABL and Gab2 tyrosine phosphorylation and c-Cbl protein stability in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Wu J, Meng F, Lu H, Kong L, Bornmann W, Peng Z, Talpaz M and Donato NJ

    Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.

    Lyn kinase functions as a regulator of imatinib sensitivity in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells through an unknown mechanism. In patients who fail imatinib therapy but have no detectable BCR-ABL kinase mutation, we detected persistently activated Lyn kinase. In imatinib-resistant CML cells and patients, Lyn activation is BCR-ABL independent, it is complexed with the Gab2 and c-Cbl adapter/scaffold proteins, and it mediates persistent Gab2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine phosphorylation in the presence or absence of imatinib. Lyn silencing or inhibition is necessary to suppress Gab2 and BCR-ABL phosphorylation and to recover imatinib activity. Lyn also negatively regulates c-Cbl stability, whereas c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by BCR-ABL. These results suggest that Lyn exists as a component of the BCR-ABL signaling complex and, in cells with high Lyn expression or activation, BCR-ABL kinase inhibition alone (imatinib) is not sufficient to fully disengage BCR-ABL-mediated signaling and suggests that BCR-ABL and Lyn kinase inhibition are needed to prevent or treat this form of imatinib resistance.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA 49639, P01 CA049639

    Blood 2008;111;7;3821-9

  • Protein purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Lyn tyrosine kinase.

    Kinoshita T, Miyano N, Nakai R, Yokota K, Ishiguro H and Tada T

    Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuencho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan. kinotk@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    Lyn is a member of the Src family of non-receptor protein kinase. As well as all members of the Src family, Lyn is thought to participate in signal transduction from cell surface receptors. The crystal structure of Lyn would have a better understanding of Lyn function in various cells. For the purpose of crystallization, C-terminal catalytic segment of human Lyn kinase conjugating hexahistidine purification tag (His-tag) was expressed in Sf21 insect cells. After first step purification utilizing His-tag, an anion-exchange chromatogram yielded four major peaks which had distinguishable phosphorylation manner as judged by Western blot analysis, Native-PAGE analysis and kinase activity measurements. The fractioned samples were separately examined for crystallization screening using a commercial available screening kit. The mono-phosphorylated protein was crystallized with a small rod-shaped and needle clusters. The higher phosphorylated samples corresponding to the other three fractions on the anion-exchange chromatogram were aggregated or precipitated under the above conditions. A crystal of the mono-phosphorylated sample was diffracted to 3.2A with synchrotron source at Photon Factory and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected. The coarse structure was solved by a molecular replacement method and further structural refinement is currently underway.

    Protein expression and purification 2008;58;2;318-24

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Dynamic regulation of neutrophil survival through tyrosine phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of caspase-8.

    Jia SH, Parodo J, Kapus A, Rotstein OD and Marshall JC

    Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Efficient expression of innate immunity is critically dependent upon the capacity of the neutrophil to be activated rapidly in the face of an acute threat and to involute once that threat has been eliminated. Here we report a novel mechanism regulating neutrophil survival dynamically through the tyrosine phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of caspase-8. Caspase-8 is tyrosine-phosphorylated in freshly isolated neutrophils but spontaneously dephosphorylates in culture, in association with the progression of constitutive apoptosis. Phosphorylation of caspase-8 on Tyr-310 facilitates its interaction with the Src-homology domain 2 containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and enables SHP-1 to dephosphorylate caspase-8, permitting apoptosis to proceed. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Lyn, can phosphorylate caspase-8 on Tyr-397 and Tyr-465, rendering it resistant to activational cleavage and inhibiting apoptosis. Exposure to lipopolysaccharide reduces SHP-1 activity and binding to caspase-8, caspase-8 activity, and rates of spontaneous apoptosis. SHP-1 activity is reduced and Lyn increased in neutrophils from patients with sepsis, in association with profoundly delayed apoptosis; inhibition of Lyn can partially reverse this delay. Thus the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of caspase-8, mediated by Lyn and SHP-1, respectively, represents a novel, dynamic post-translational mechanism for the regulation of neutrophil apoptosis whose dysregulation contributes to persistent neutrophil survival in sepsis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;9;5402-13

  • Oncogenic association of the Cbp/PAG adaptor protein with the Lyn tyrosine kinase in human B-NHL rafts.

    Tauzin S, Ding H, Khatib K, Ahmad I, Burdevet D, van Echten-Deckert G, Lindquist JA, Schraven B, Din NU, Borisch B and Hoessli DC

    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

    B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) use a raft-associated signalosome made of the constitutively active Lyn kinase, the tyrosine phosphorylated Cbp/PAG adaptor, and tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 transcription factor. No such "signalosome" is found in rafts of ALK(+) T lymphoma and Hodgkin-derived cell lines, despite similar Cbp/PAG, Lyn, and STAT3 expression and similar amounts of raft sphingolipids. Stable association of the signalosome with B-NHL rafts requires (1) a Lyn kinase (auto)phosphorylated in its regulatory and active site tyrosines, (2) a Cbp/PAG adaptor phosphorylated at tyrosine 317 and bound to Lyn SH2 via phosphotyrosine 299 and neighboring residues, and (3) a tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 linked via SH2 to the regulatory, C-terminal tyrosine of Lyn. No Csk appears to be part of this B-NHL signalosome. An oncogenic role for Lyn was shown after exposure of B-NHL lines to Lyn inhibitors that prevented Lyn and Cbp/PAG phosphorylation, dissociated the signalosome from rafts, and eventually induced death. Cell death followed decreases in Lyn or Cbp/PAG expression levels in one mantle cell lymphoma line, but not in a Hodgkin-derived one. The Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome appears to control proliferation and survival in most B-NHLs and constitutes a therapeutic target in B-NHL cells that exhibit oncogenic "addiction" to the Lyn kinase.

    Blood 2008;111;4;2310-20

  • Association of polymorphisms in complement component C3 gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Miyagawa H, Yamai M, Sakaguchi D, Kiyohara C, Tsukamoto H, Kimoto Y, Nakamura T, Lee JH, Tsai CY, Chiang BL, Shimoda T, Harada M, Tahira T, Hayashi K and Horiuchi T

    Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

    Objective: Identification of the genes responsible for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Methods: All the exons and putative promoter regions of 53 candidate genes (TNFRSF6/Fas, TNFSF6/FasL, Fli1, TNFSF10/TRAIL, TNFSF12/TWEAK, Bcl-2, PTEN, FADD, TRADD, CDKN1A, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1, TNFRSF4/OX40, TNFSF4/OX40L, TNFSF5/CD40L, TNFSF13B/BAFF, ICOS, CTLA4, CD28, FYN, G2A, CR2, PTPRC/CD45, CD22, CD19, Lyn, PDCD1, PTPN6, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, CD3Z, DNASE1, APCS, MERTK, C3, C1QA, C1QB, C1QG, C2, MBL2, IGHM, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFNG, TNFA, MAN2A1, TNFRSF11A/RANK, TNFRSF11B/OPG, TNFSF11/OPGL) were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with SLE was assessed by case-control studies. A total of 509 cases and 964 controls of Japanese descent were enrolled.

    Results: A total of 316 SNPs was identified. When analysed in the Japanese population, the allele frequencies of T at rs7951 and G at rs2230201 of the C3 gene were 0.110 and 0.626, respectively, in SLE patients; significantly higher than the frequencies of 0.081 and 0.584, respectively, in controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.86, P = 0.016 and OR=1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.41, P = 0.038, respectively]. The mean serum C3 level of carriers of the rs7951 T allele was significantly lower than that of non-carriers of the T allele in 87 SLE patients whose medical records were available (P = 0.0018).

    Conclusion: rs7951 T allele of the C3 gene was significantly associated with SLE, and decreased serum level of C3 seems to be correlated with this allele.

    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 2008;47;2;158-64

  • Signaling status of IgG B cell receptor (IgG BCR) is indicative for an activated state of circulating B cells in multiple myeloma.

    Ilić V, Milosević-Jovcić N, Petrović S, Marković D, Bila J, Bosković D, Stefanović G, Marković O and Glibetić M

    Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. vesnai@imi.bg.ac.yu

    Circulating post-switch B cells have been proposed as proliferative and disseminating progenitors in multiple myeloma. It is unclear whether the class-switched antigen receptor expressed at the surface of these cells plays a role in their expansion. In this work, the signaling status of IgG B cell receptor (BCR) isolated from the lysates of peripheral blood lymphocytes of 32 patients with IgG multiple myeloma, at the time of diagnosis, was investigated by examining whether phosphorylation of BCR Igalpha and Igbeta signal transducer factors (co-receptors) or other signaling molecules was abnormal in these cells when compared with healthy controls. In IgG BCR of normal controls, weak phosphorylation of 56 and 61 kDa Src kinase-related proteins and unphosphorylated co-receptors were found. In myeloma, p56 and p61 kDa proteins, co-receptors, and other IgG BCR-associated proteins from the signal cascade were phosphorylated. Myeloma patients can be classified into subgroups by IgG BCR phosphorylation profiles which characteristically coordinated with the level of IgG paraprotein in serum and the stage of disease. There was a correlative trend between the extent of phosphorylation reduction and advanced stage of disease. Reduced phosphorylation was more pronounced with advanced stages of multiple myeloma.

    Annals of hematology 2007;86;12;905-12

  • Differential mitotic activation of endogenous c-Src, c-Yes, and Lyn in HeLa cells.

    Kuga T, Nakayama Y, Hoshino M, Higashiyama Y, Obata Y, Matsuda D, Kasahara K, Fukumoto Y and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) play an important role in mitosis. Despite overlapping expression of multiple SFK members, little is known about how individual SFK members are activated in M phase. Here, we examined mitotic activation of endogenous c-Src, c-Yes, and Lyn, which are co-expressed in HeLa cells. c-Src, c-Yes, and Lyn were activated at different levels in M phase, and the activation was inhibited by Cdc2 inactivation. Mitotic c-Src and c-Yes exhibited normal- and retarded-electrophoretic-mobility forms on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, whereas Lyn did not show mobility retardation. Like c-Src, the retardation of electrophoretic mobility of c-Yes was caused by Cdc2-mediated phosphorylation. The normal- and retarded-mobility forms of c-Src were comparably activated, but activation of the retarded-mobility form of c-Yes was higher than that of the normal-mobility form of c-Yes. Thus, these results suggest that endogenous c-Src, c-Yes, and Lyn are differentially activated through Cdc2 activation during M phase.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2007;466;1;116-24

  • Paxillin family members function as Csk-binding proteins that regulate Lyn activity in human and murine platelets.

    Rathore VB, Okada M, Newman PJ and Newman DK

    Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

    SFKs (Src family kinases) contribute importantly to platelet function in haemostasis. SFK activity is controlled by Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), which phosphorylates a C-terminal tyrosine residue on SFKs, resulting in inhibition of SFK activity. Csk is recruited to sites of SFK activity by tyrosine-phosphorylated Csk-binding proteins. Paxillin, a multidomain adaptor protein, has been shown to act as a Csk-binding protein and to inhibit Src activity during growth factor signalling. Human platelets express Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family; however, its ability to act as a Csk-binding protein has not been characterized. We sought to identify and characterize the ability of paxillin family members to act as Csk-binding proteins during platelet activation. We found that murine and human platelets differ in the complement of paxillin family members expressed. Human platelets express Hic-5, whereas murine platelets express paxillin and leupaxin in addition to Hic-5. In aggregating human platelets, Hic-5 was tyrosine phosphorylated and recruited Csk via its SH2 domains. In aggregating murine platelets, however, Csk bound preferentially to paxillin, even though both paxillin and Hic-5 were abundantly present and became tyrosine phosphorylated. The SFK Lyn, but not Src or Fyn, was associated with paxillin family members in resting and aggregated human and murine platelets. Lyn, however, was phosphorylated on its C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine residue only following platelet aggregation, which was coincident with recruitment of Csk to paxillin and/or Hic-5 in a manner dependent on prior alpha(IIb)beta3 engagement. These observations support the notion that Hic-5 and paxillin function as negative feedback regulators of SFKs in aggregated platelets and that, when both are present, paxillin is preferentially used.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL44, R01 HL90926

    The Biochemical journal 2007;403;2;275-81

  • Lyn is an important component of the signal transduction pathway specific to FLT3/ITD and can be a therapeutic target in the treatment of AML with FLT3/ITD.

    Okamoto M, Hayakawa F, Miyata Y, Watamoto K, Emi N, Abe A, Kiyoi H, Towatari M and Naoe T

    1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells. An internal tandem duplication (ITD) of FLT3 (FLT3/ITD) is the most frequent mutation in human adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3/ITD contributes to the constitutive activation of FLT3 itself and its downstream signal components, mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), and enables interleukin (IL)-3-dependent cell lines to grow autonomously. In the present study, we showed the specific association of FLT3/ITD with Lyn, which led to the phosphorylation of Lyn in vivo. We also demonstrated that FLT3/ITD receptors displayed a higher affinity to bind to Lyn than wild-type FLT3 receptors in vitro and that this affinity was relative to the intensity of tyrosil phosphorylation of the receptor. Both treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Lyn and the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 suppressed the IL-3-independent growth of FLT3/ITD-expressing 32D cells (FLT3/ITD-32D), reducing the constitutive phosphorylation of Lyn and STAT5. PP2 treatment of mice transplanted with FLT3/ITD-32D cells blocked the onset of tumors and decreased the size of established tumors. These results demonstrate that Lyn is an important component of the signal transduction pathway specific to FLT3/ITD and can be a therapeutic target in the treatment of AML with FLT3/ITD.

    Leukemia 2007;21;3;403-10

  • Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wissing J, Jänsch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Kéri G, Wehland J and Daub H

    Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. However, due to their relatively low abundance compared with the vast majority of cellular proteins, currently available proteomics techniques do not permit the comprehensive biochemical characterization of protein kinases. To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;3;537-47

  • Cdk-inhibitory activity and stability of p27Kip1 are directly regulated by oncogenic tyrosine kinases.

    Grimmler M, Wang Y, Mund T, Cilensek Z, Keidel EM, Waddell MB, Jäkel H, Kullmann M, Kriwacki RW and Hengst L

    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    p27Kip1 controls cell proliferation by binding to and regulating the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Here we show that Cdk inhibition and p27 stability are regulated through direct phosphorylation by tyrosine kinases. A conserved tyrosine residue (Y88) in the Cdk-binding domain of p27 can be phosphorylated by the Src-family kinase Lyn and the oncogene product BCR-ABL. Y88 phosphorylation does not prevent p27 binding to cyclin A/Cdk2. Instead, it causes phosphorylated Y88 and the entire inhibitory 3(10)-helix of p27 to be ejected from the Cdk2 active site, thus restoring partial Cdk activity. Importantly, this allows Y88-phosphorylated p27 to be efficiently phosphorylated on threonine 187 by Cdk2 which in turn promotes its SCF-Skp2-dependent degradation. This direct link between transforming tyrosine kinases and p27 may provide an explanation for Cdk kinase activities observed in p27 complexes and for premature p27 elimination in cells that have been transformed by activated tyrosine kinases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA21765, R01 CA82491; NCRR NIH HHS: RR014675

    Cell 2007;128;2;269-80

  • Sorting of Fas ligand to secretory lysosomes is regulated by mono-ubiquitylation and phosphorylation.

    Zuccato E, Blott EJ, Holt O, Sigismund S, Shaw M, Bossi G and Griffiths GM

    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK.

    Fas ligand (FasL), a potent mediator of apoptosis expressed by CTL and NK cells, is sorted into the inner vesicles of secretory lysosomes for release via exosome-like vesicles. Previous studies identified a proline-rich domain in the cytoplasmic tail required for sorting FasL to secretory lysosomes, but the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that the PRD of FasL binds Fgr, Fyn and Lyn tyrosine kinases, leading to phosphorylation of FasL. Loss of phosphorylation reduces internalisation of FasL into multivesicular bodies. FasL is also directly mono-ubiquitylated at lysines flanking the PRD and mutation of these lysines reduces MVB localisation of FasL. Phosphorylation is not required for ubiquitylation because FasL lacking all tyrosines undergoes mono-ubiquitylation. These studies show that phosphorylation and ubiquitin signals regulate the sorting of FasL to secretory lysosomes by controlling entry into multivesicular bodies.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 1;191-9

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • HIV-1 Nef selectively activates Src family kinases Hck, Lyn, and c-Src through direct SH3 domain interaction.

    Trible RP, Emert-Sedlak L and Smithgall TE

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

    Nef is an HIV-1 virulence factor that promotes viral pathogenicity by altering host cell signaling pathways. Nef binds several members of the Src kinase family, and these interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS. However, the direct effect of Nef interaction on Src family kinase (SFK) regulation and activity has not been systematically addressed. We explored this issue using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a well defined model system for the study of SFK regulation. Previous studies have shown that ectopic expression of c-Src arrests yeast cell growth in a kinase-dependent manner. We expressed Fgr, Fyn, Hck, Lck, Lyn, and Yes as well as c-Src in yeast and found that each kinase was active and induced growth suppression. Co-expression of the negative regulatory kinase Csk suppressed SFK activity and reversed the growth-inhibitory effect. We then co-expressed each SFK with HIV-1 Nef in the presence of Csk. Nef strongly activated Hck, Lyn, and c-Src but did not detectably affect Fgr, Fyn, Lck, or Yes. Mutagenesis of the Nef PXXP motif essential for SH3 domain binding greatly reduced the effect of Nef on Hck, Lyn, and c-Src, suggesting that Nef activates these Src family members through allosteric displacement of intramolecular SH3-linker interactions. These data show that Nef selectively activates Hck, Lyn, and c-Src among SFKs, identifying these kinases as proximal effectors of Nef signaling and potential targets for anti-HIV drug discovery.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81398, R01 CA081398, R01 CA081398-07; NIAID NIH HHS: AI057083, R01 AI057083

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;37;27029-38

  • Dynamic profiling of the post-translational modifications and interaction partners of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling after stimulation by epidermal growth factor using Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA).

    Wu SL, Kim J, Bandle RW, Liotta L, Petricoin E and Karger BL

    Barnett Institute, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 01225, USA.

    In a recent report, we introduced Extended Range Proteomic Analysis (ERPA), an intermediate approach between top-down and bottom-up proteomics, for the comprehensive characterization at the trace level (fmol level) of large and complex proteins. In this study, we extended ERPA to determine quantitatively the temporal changes that occur in the tyrosine kinase receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upon stimulation. Specifically A 431 cells were stimulated with epidermal growth factor after which EGFR was immunoprecipitated at stimulation times of 0, 0.5, 2, and 10 min as well as 4 h. High sequence coverage was obtained (96%), and methods were developed for label-free quantitation of phosphorylation and glycosylation. A total of 13 phosphorylation sites were identified, and the estimated stoichiometry was determined over the stimulation time points, including Thr(P) and Ser(P) sites in addition to Tyr(P) sites. A total of 10 extracellular domain N-glycan sites were also identified, and major glycoforms at each site were quantitated. No change in the extent of glycosylation with stimulation was observed as expected. Finally potential binding partners to EGFR were identified based on changes in the amount of protein pulled down with EGFR as a function of time of stimulation. Many of the 19 proteins identified are known binding partners of EGFR. This work demonstrates that comprehensive characterization provides a powerful tool to aid in the study of important therapeutic targets. The detailed molecular information will prove useful in future studies in tissue.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 15847

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;9;1610-27

  • The SRC family kinase LYN redirects B cell receptor signaling in human SLP65-deficient B cell lymphoma cells.

    Sprangers M, Feldhahn N, Herzog S, Hansmann ML, Reppel M, Hescheler J, Jumaa H, Siebert R and Müschen M

    Laboratory for Molecular Stem Cell Biology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, and Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Germany.

    SLP65 represents a critical component in (pre-) B cell receptor signal transduction but is compromised in a subset of pre-B cell-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Based on these findings, we investigated (i.) whether SLP65-deficiency also occurs in mature B cell-derived lymphoma and (ii.) whether SLP65-deficient B cell lymphoma cells use an alternative B cell receptor signaling pathway in the absence of SLP65. Indeed, expression of SLP65 protein was also missing in a fraction of B cell lymphoma cases. While SLP65 is essential for B cell receptor-induced Ca2+ mobilization in normal B cells, B cell receptor engagement in SLP65-deficient as compared to SLP65-reconstituted B cell lymphoma cells resulted in an accelerated yet shortlived Ca2+-signal. B cell receptor engagement of SLP65-deficient lymphoma cells involves SRC kinase activation, which is critical for B cell receptor-dependent Ca2+-mobilisation in the absence but not in the presence of SLP65. As shown by RNA interference, the SRC kinase LYN is required for B cell receptor-induced Ca2+ release in SLP65-deficient B cell lymphoma cells but dispensable after SLP65-reconstitution. B cell receptor engagement in SLP65-deficient B cell lymphoma cells also resulted in tyrosine-phosphorylation of the proliferation- and survival-related MAPK1 and STAT5 molecules, which was sensitive to silencing of the SRC kinase LYN. Inhibition of SRC kinase activity resulted in growth arrest and cell death specifically in SLP65-deficient lymphoma cells. These findings indicate that LYN can short-circuit conventional B cell receptor signaling in SLP65-deficient B cell lymphoma cells and thereby promote activation of survival and proliferation-related molecules.

    Oncogene 2006;25;36;5056-62

  • The Src kinase Lyn is required for CCR5 signaling in response to MIP-1beta and R5 HIV-1 gp120 in human macrophages.

    Tomkowicz B, Lee C, Ravyn V, Cheung R, Ptasznik A and Collman RG

    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    CCR5 is a receptor for several beta chemokines and the entry coreceptor used by macrophage-tropic (R5) strains of HIV-1. In addition to supporting viral entry, CCR5 ligation by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) can activate intracellular signals in macrophages and trigger inflammatory mediator release. Using a combination of in vitro kinase assay, Western blotting for phospho-specific proteins, pharmacologic inhibition, CCR5 knockout (CCR5Delta32) cells, and kinase-specific blocking peptide, we show for the first time that signaling through CCR5 in primary human macrophages is linked to the Src kinase Lyn. Stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with either HIV-1 gp120 or MIP-1beta results in the CCR5-mediated activation of Lyn and the concomitant Lyn-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK-1/2. Furthermore, activation of the CCR5/Lyn/ERK-1/2 pathway is responsible for gp120-triggered production of TNF-alpha by macrophages, which is believed to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Thus, Lyn kinase may play an important role both in normal CCR5 function in macrophages and in AIDS pathogenesis in syndromes such as AIDS dementia where HIV-1 gp120 contributes to inappropriate macrophage activation, mediator production, and secondary injury.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA108552; NIAID NIH HHS: AI07324, P30 AI045008; NIMH NIH HHS: MH061139; NINDS NIH HHS: NS027405

    Blood 2006;108;4;1145-50

  • Regulation of lysophosphatidic acid-induced epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and interleukin-8 secretion in human bronchial epithelial cells by protein kinase Cdelta, Lyn kinase, and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Zhao Y, He D, Saatian B, Watkins T, Spannhake EW, Pyne NJ and Natarajan V

    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    We have demonstrated earlier that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is regulated by protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta)-dependent NF-kappaB activation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Here we provide evidence for signaling pathways that regulate LPA-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the role of cross-talk between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in IL-8 secretion in HBEpCs. Treatment of HBEpCs with LPA stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, which was attenuated by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001), heparin binding (HB)-EGF inhibitor (CRM 197), and HB-EGF neutralizing antibody. Overexpression of dominant negative PKCdelta or pretreatment with a PKCdelta inhibitor (rottlerin) or Src kinase family inhibitor (PP2) partially blocked LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Down-regulation of Lyn kinase, but not Src kinase, by specific small interfering RNA mitigated LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, overexpression of dominant negative PKCdelta blocked LPA-induced phosphorylation and translocation of Lyn kinase to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGFR by EGFR small interfering RNA or pretreatment of cells with EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD158780 almost completely blocked LPA-dependent EGFR phosphorylation and partially attenuated IL-8 secretion, respectively. These results demonstrate that LPA-induced IL-8 secretion is partly dependent on EGFR transactivation regulated by PKCdelta-dependent activation of Lyn kinase and MMPs and proHB-EGF shedding, suggesting a novel mechanism of cross-talk and interaction between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in HBEpCs.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71152, R01 HL071152, R01 HL071152-03

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;28;19501-11

  • Src kinase Lyn is crucial for Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization into lung cells.

    Kannan S, Audet A, Knittel J, Mullegama S, Gao GF and Wu M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 558203, USA.

    Lyn is an important B cell signaling kinase of the Src tyrosine kinase family with a broad range of functions from cytoskeletal changes to induction of apoptosis. However, the role of Lyn in infectious diseases is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that Lyn activation by phosphorylation significantly impacted invasion of an alveolar epithelial cell line, primary lung cells, and rat lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a common opportunistic lung pathogen affecting individuals with deficient lung immunity. Our results indicate that activation of Lyn and its interaction with rafts and TLR2, played an important role in the initial stages of PA interaction with host cells. The role of Lyn was further evaluated using the pharmacologic Src-specific inhibitor PP2, a dominant negative mutant, and finally confirmed with Lyn-deficient (Lyn(-/-)) bone marrow-derived mast cells. Inhibition of Lyn's function by above approaches prevented PA internalization. Moreover, blocking of Lyn also affected downstream events: induction of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. This report brings out a new role of Lyn in infectious diseases and indicates potential new targets for prevention and treatment of infections.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20-RR16471; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES1469

    European journal of immunology 2006;36;7;1739-52

  • Integrin inhibition through Lyn-dependent cross talk from CXCR4 chemokine receptors in normal human CD34+ marrow cells.

    Nakata Y, Tomkowicz B, Gewirtz AM and Ptasznik A

    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

    We studied the effects of Lyn ablation on CXCR4 receptor-mediated migration and adhesion of hematopoietic precursors. Down-regulation of Lyn expression with siRNA greatly reduced CXCR4-dependent hematopoietic cell movement, and increased cell adherence to stroma. This increase was associated with the up-regulated expression of activation-dependent epitopes of the beta(2) integrin LFA-1 and was prevented by antibodies that selectively block cell adhesion mediated by ICAM-1. Attachment to surfaces coated with ICAM-1 was also enhanced in Lyn-depleted hematopoietic cells, as compared with Lyn-expressing cells. Functional rescue experiments with Lyn siRNA targeting the 3' UTR indicated that the observed effects can be attributed directly to specific inhibition of Lyn. Our results show that in chemokine-stimulated hematopoietic cells Lyn kinase is a positive regulator of cell movement while negatively regulating adhesion to stromal cells by inhibiting the ICAM-1-binding activity of beta(2) integrins. These results provide a molecular mechanism for cross talk between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and beta(2) integrins. This cross talk may allow chemokine receptors to modulate the arrest of rolling hematopoietic precursors on the surface of bone marrow stromal cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01CA108 552-01A1, R01CA101 859

    Blood 2006;107;11;4234-9

  • Receptor association and tyrosine phosphorylation of S6 kinases.

    Rebholz H, Panasyuk G, Fenton T, Nemazanyy I, Valovka T, Flajolet M, Ronnstrand L, Stephens L, West A and Gout IT

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK. hrebholz@rockefeller.edu

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is activated by an array of mitogenic stimuli and is a key player in the regulation of cell growth. The activation process of S6 kinase involves a complex and sequential series of multiple Ser/Thr phosphorylations and is mainly mediated via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and mTor-dependent pathways. Upstream regulators of S6K, such as PDK1 and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), are recruited to the membrane via their pleckstrin homology (PH) or protein-protein interaction domains. However, the mechanism of integration of S6K into a multi-enzyme complex around activated receptor tyrosine kinases is not clear. In the present study, we describe a specific interaction between S6K with receptor tyrosine kinases, such as platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The interaction with PDGFR is mediated via the kinase or the kinase extension domain of S6K. Complex formation is inducible by growth factors and leads to S6K tyrosine phosphorylation. Using PDGFR mutants, we have shown that the phosphorylation is exerted via a PDGFR-src pathway. Furthermore, src kinase phosphorylates and coimmunoprecipitates with S6K in vivo. Inhibitors towards tyrosine kinases, such as genistein and PP1, or src-specific SU6656, but not PI3K and mTor inhibitors, lead to a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of S6K. In addition, we mapped the sites of tyrosine phosphorylation in S6K1 and S6K2 to Y39 and Y45, respectively. Mutational and immunofluorescent analysis indicated that phosphorylation of S6Ks at these sites does not affect their activity or subcellular localization. Our data indicate that S6 kinase is recruited into a complex with RTKs and src and becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine/s in response to PDGF or serum.

    The FEBS journal 2006;273;9;2023-36

  • Src kinase activation: A switched electrostatic network.

    Ozkirimli E and Post CB

    Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Department, Markey Center for Structural Biology and Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2091, USA.

    Src tyrosine kinases are essential in numerous cell signaling pathways, and improper functioning of these enzymes has been implicated in many diseases. The activity of Src kinases is regulated by conformational activation, which involves several structural changes within the catalytic domain (CD): the orientation of two lobes of CD; rearrangement of the activation loop (A-loop); and movement of an alpha-helix (alphaC), which is located at the interface between the two lobes, into or away from the catalytic cleft. Conformational activation was investigated using biased molecular dynamics to explore the transition pathway between the active and the down-regulated conformation of CD for the Src-kinase family member Lyn kinase, and to gain insight into the interdependence of these changes. Lobe opening is observed to be a facile motion, whereas movement of the A-loop motion is more complex requiring secondary structure changes as well as communication with alphaC. A key result is that the conformational transition involves a switch in an electrostatic network of six polar residues between the active and the down-regulated conformations. The exchange between interactions links the three main motions of the CD. Kinetic experiments that would demonstrate the contribution of the switched electrostatic network to the enzyme mechanism are proposed. Possible implications for regulation conferred by interdomain interactions are also discussed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA23568; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39478, R01 GM039478

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2006;15;5;1051-62

  • LIME acts as a transmembrane adapter mediating BCR-dependent B-cell activation.

    Ahn E, Lee H and Yun Y

    Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Womans University, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.

    Assembly of a signaling complex around the transmembrane adapter LAT is essential for the transmission of T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling. However, a LAT-like molecule responsible for the initial activation events in B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling has not yet been identified. Here, we show that LIME is a transmembrane adaptor required for BCR-mediated B-cell activation. LIME was found to be expressed in mouse splenic B cells. Upon BCR cross-linking, LIME was tyrosine phosphorylated by Lyn and associated with Lyn, Grb2, PLC-gamma2, and PI3K. Reduction of LIME expression by the introduction of siRNA resulted in the disruption of BCR-mediated activation of MAPK, calcium flux, NF-AT, PI3K, and NF-kappaB. Taken together, these results establish that LIME is an essential transmembrane adaptor linking BCR ligation to the downstream signaling events that lead to B-cell activation.

    Blood 2006;107;4;1521-7

  • IgE-dependent activation of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate requires Fyn kinase and contributes to mast cell responses.

    Olivera A, Urtz N, Mizugishi K, Yamashita Y, Gilfillan AM, Furumoto Y, Gu H, Proia RL, Baumruker T and Rivera J

    Molecular Inflammation Section, Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Engagement of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells results in the production and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid metabolite present in the lungs of allergen-challenged asthmatics. Herein we report that two isoforms of sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and SphK2) are expressed and activated upon FcepsilonRI engagement of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Fyn kinase is required for FcepsilonRI coupling to SphK1 and -2 and for subsequent S1P production. Normal activation of SphK1 and -2 was restored by expression of wild type Fyn but only partly with a kinase-defective Fyn, indicating that induction of SphK1 and SphK2 depended on both catalytic and noncatalytic properties of Fyn. Downstream of Fyn, the requirements for SphK1 activation differed from that of SphK2. Whereas SphK1 was considerably dependent on the adapter Grb2-associated binder 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase, SphK2 showed minimal dependence on these molecules. Fyn-deficient BMMC were defective in chemotaxis and, as previously reported, in degranulation. These functional responses were partly reconstituted by the addition of exogenous S1P to FcepsilonRI-stimulated cells. Taken together with our previous study, which demonstrated delayed SphK activation in Lyn-deficient BMMC, we propose a cooperative role between Fyn and Lyn kinases in the activation of SphKs, which contributes to mast cell responses.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI51612

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;5;2515-25

  • Identification of preferred protein interactions by phage-display of the human Src homology-3 proteome.

    Kärkkäinen S, Hiipakka M, Wang JH, Kleino I, Vähä-Jaakkola M, Renkema GH, Liss M, Wagner R and Saksela K

    Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Biokatu 8, Tampere 33014, Finland.

    We have determined the human genome to contain 296 different Src homology-3 (SH3) domains and cloned them into a phage-display vector. This provided a powerful and unbiased system for simultaneous assaying of the complete human SH3 proteome for the strongest binding to target proteins of interest, without the limitations posed by short linear peptide ligands or confounding variables of more indirect methods for protein interaction screening. Studies involving three ligand proteins, human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef, p21-activated kinase (PAK)2 and ADAM15, showed previously reported as well as novel SH3 partners with nanomolar affinities specific for them. This argues that SH3 domains may have a more dominant role in directing cellular protein interactions than has been assumed. Besides showing potentially important new SH3-directed interactions, these studies also led to the discovery of novel signalling proteins, such as the PAK2-binding adaptor protein POSH2 and the ADAM15-binding sorting nexin family member SNX30.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;2;186-91

  • Modelling thymic HIV-1 Nef effects.

    Stove V and Verhasselt B

    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

    The nef gene is conserved among primate lentiviruses and is one of the first viral genes that is transcribed following infection. This suggests a critical role for Nef in the virus life cycle and in the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. In vitro, several functions have been described, including down regulation of CD4 and MHC class I surface expression, altered T-cell signaling and activation, and enhanced viral infectivity. However, the impact of these individual functions on viral pathogenicity in general, and thymic T cell production in particular, remains elusive. Here, we review the observations from experimental models that have been used to study the pathogenic effect of HIV-1 Nef on the thymus. These in vitro and in vivo studies have led to a better understanding of Nef's mechanism of action, although there still exists discord as to the contribution of Nef-mediated disturbance of thymopoiesis in the pathogenesis of AIDS.

    Current HIV research 2006;4;1;57-64

  • The N-terminal 11 amino acids of human erythrocyte band 3 are critical for aldolase binding and protein phosphorylation: implications for band 3 function.

    Perrotta S, Borriello A, Scaloni A, De Franceschi L, Brunati AM, Turrini F, Nigro V, del Giudice EM, Nobili B, Conte ML, Rossi F, Iolascon A, Donella-Deana A, Zappia V, Poggi V, Anong W, Low P, Mohandas N and Della Ragione F

    Department of Pediatrics, Second University of Naples, Italy. silverio.perrotta@unina2.it

    The 911 amino acid band 3 (SLC4A1) is the major intrinsic membrane protein of red cells and is the principal Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of band 3 anchors the spectrin-based membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer through its interaction with ankyrin and also binds glycolytic enzymes and hemoglobin. We identified a son of a consanguineous marriage with severe anemia in association with marked deficiency of band 3 (12% +/- 4% of normal). Direct nucleotide sequencing of SLC4A1 gene demonstrated a single base substitution (T --> C) at position + 2 in the donor splice site of intron 2, resulting in the generation of a novel mutant protein. Biochemical characterization of the mutant protein showed that it lacked the first 11 N-terminal amino acids (band 3 Neapolis). The expression of the mutant protein resulted in the complete absence of membrane-bound aldolase, and the mutant band 3 could not be tyrosine phosphorylated. The ability of the malarial parasite P falciparum to invade these red cells was significantly decreased. The identification of a novel band 3 mutant and its structural and functional characterization enabled us to identify pivotal roles for the 11 N-terminal amino acids in several protein functions and, in turn, in red-cell physiology.

    Funded by: Telethon: TGM03Z02, TGM06S01

    Blood 2005;106;13;4359-66

  • Decreased Lyn expression and translocation to lipid raft signaling domains in B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Flores-Borja F, Kabouridis PS, Jury EC, Isenberg DA and Mageed RA

    William Harvey Institute, Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

    Objective: B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are hyperactive and produce anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) autoantibodies. The cause or causes of B cell defects in SLE are unknown. In this study, we determined the level and subcellular distribution of Lyn protein, a key negative regulator of B cell receptor signaling, and assessed whether altered Lyn expression is characteristic of B cells in the setting of SLE.

    Methods: Negative selection was used to isolate B lymphocytes from blood. Lipid raft signaling domains were purified from B cells obtained from 62 patients with SLE, 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 31 healthy controls, by gradient ultracentrifugation. The total Lyn protein level was determined by Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and fluorescein-activated cell sorting (FACS). The distribution of Lyn into lipid raft and nonlipid raft domains was determined by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Lyn content in B cell subpopulations was determined by FACS. In order to assess B lymphocyte activity, we used (3)H-thymidine incorporation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure spontaneous proliferation and IgG and cytokine production by B cells.

    Results: This study revealed that B lymphocytes from a majority of patients with SLE have a reduced level of Lyn and manifest altered translocation to lipid rafts. An investigation into the mechanisms of Lyn reduction suggested that increased ubiquitination is involved. This was evident from increased ubiquitination of Lyn and translocation of c-Cbl into lipid rafts. Studies of B cell responses showed that altered Lyn expression was associated with heightened spontaneous proliferation, anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, and increased interleukin-10 production.

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence for altered Lyn expression in B cells from a majority of patients with SLE. Altered Lyn expression in SLE may influence the B cell receptor signaling and B cell hyperactivity that are characteristic of the disease.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Arthritis and rheumatism 2005;52;12;3955-65

  • Thrombin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of HS1 in human platelets is sequentially catalyzed by Syk and Lyn tyrosine kinases and associated with the cellular migration of the protein.

    Brunati AM, Deana R, Folda A, Massimino ML, Marin O, Ledro S, Pinna LA and Donella-Deana A

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy.

    Thrombin stimulation of platelets triggers Tyr phosphorylation of several signaling proteins, most of which remain unidentified. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) undergoes a transient Tyr phosphorylation in human platelets stimulated with thrombin. The protein is synergistically phosphorylated by Syk and Lyn tyrosine kinases according to a sequential phosphorylation mechanism. By means of specific inhibitors (PP2, SU6656, and piceatannol) and phosphopeptide-specific antibodies, as well as by coimmunoprecipitation and binding competition experiments, we show that Syk acts as the primary kinase that phosphorylates HS1 at Tyr397 and that Syk phosphorylation is required for HS1 interaction with the Lyn SH2 domain. Upon docking to Syk-phosphorylated HS1, Lyn catalyzes the secondary phosphorylation of the protein at Tyr222. Once the secondary Tyr phosphorylation of HS1 is accomplished the protein dissociates from Lyn and undergoes a dephosphorylation process. HS1 Tyr phosphorylation does not occur when thrombin-induced actin assembly is inhibited by cytochalasin D even under conditions in which Syk and Lyn are still active. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis shows that the agonist promotes HS1 migration to the plasma membrane and that the inhibition of Lyn-mediated secondary phosphorylation of HS1 abrogates the subcellular translocation of the protein. All together these results indicate that HS1 Tyr phosphorylation catalyzed by Syk and Lyn plays a crucial role in the translocation of the protein to the membrane and is involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement triggered by thrombin in human platelets.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;22;21029-35

  • Activation of Src kinase Lyn by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 protein: implications for lymphomagenesis.

    Prakash O, Swamy OR, Peng X, Tang ZY, Li L, Larson JE, Cohen JC, Gill J, Farr G, Wang S and Samaniego F

    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, 1516 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA. oprakash@ochsner.org

    The K1 gene of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein bearing a functional immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Previously, we reported that the K1 protein induced plasmablastic lymphomas in K1 transgenic mice, and that these lymphomas showed enhanced Lyn kinase activity. Here, we report that systemic administration of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inhibitor Bay 11-7085 or an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody significantly reduced K1 lymphoma growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in KVL-1 cells, a cell line derived from a K1 lymphoma, inhibition of Lyn kinase activity by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 decreased VEGF induction, NF-kappaB activity, and the cell proliferation index by 50% to 75%. In contrast, human B-cell lymphoma BJAB cells expressing K1, but not the ITAM sequence-deleted mutant K1, showed a marked increase in Lyn kinase activity with concomitant VEGF induction and NF-kappaB activation, indicating that ITAM sequences were required for the Lyn kinase-mediated activation of these factors. Our results suggested that K1-mediated constitutive Lyn kinase activation in K1 lymphoma cells is crucial for the production of VEGF and NF-kappaB activation, both strongly implicated in the development of KSHV-induced lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-098412, CA-16672

    Blood 2005;105;10;3987-94

  • Expression pattern of intracellular leukocyte-associated proteins in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma.

    Marafioti T, Pozzobon M, Hansmann ML, Gaulard P, Barth TF, Copie-Bergman C, Roberton H, Ventura R, Martín-Subero JI, Gascoyne RD, Pileri SA, Siebert R, Hsi ED, Natkunam Y, Möller P and Mason DY

    Leukaemia Research Fund Immunodiagnostics Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Oxford, UK. teresa.marafioti@ndcls.ox.ac.uk

    Two microarray studies of mediastinal B cell lymphoma have shown that this disease has a distinct gene expression profile, and also that this is closest to the pattern seen in classical Hodgkin's disease. We reported previously an immunohistologic study in which the loss of intracellular B cell-associated signaling molecules in Reed-Sternberg cells was demonstrated, and in this study we have investigated the expression of the same components in more than 60 mediastinal B cell lymphomas. We report that these signaling molecules are frequently present, and in particular that Syk, BLNK and PLC-gamma2 (absent from Reed-Sternberg cells) are present in the majority of mediastinal B cell lymphomas. The overall pattern of B cell signaling molecules in this disease is therefore closer to that of diffuse large B cell lymphoma than to Hodgkin's disease, and is consistent with a common cell of origin as an explanation of the similar gene expression profiles.

    Leukemia 2005;19;5;856-61

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection.

    Joseph AM, Kumar M and Mitra D

    National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, India.

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Nef protein that was originally identified as a viral negative factor is a 27kDa myristoylated protein. However, this so called dispensable viral protein has emerged as one of the most important proteins for viral life cycle. Nef not only establishes the host cell environment suitable for viral replication and pathogenesis but also facilitates the progression of the infection into disease. Previous efforts have been focussed to explain how Nef down modulates host cell receptors like CD4 and MHC-1 molecules, thereby helping the virus to evade host defense and to increase viral infectivity. Nef also ably modulates specific processes like apoptosis in favour of viral life cycle other than being the stimulus for cell activation and signal transduction pathways. After much maligning over its reported positive or negative functions on the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter, the Nef protein is now perceived to enhance viral replication and infection through a combination of different effector functions. Recent reports emphasize a role for Nef in viral gene expression and place it in a prime position to oversee and optimize viral replication. Nef may do so by enhancing Tat mediated gene expression from the LTR by activating signalling pathways that result in a concomitant increase in the activation of general transcription factors, and also by mediating translocation of repression factors from the nucleus. Thus, Nef not only enhances infection but also plays an important role in viral replication and pathogenesis.

    Current HIV research 2005;3;1;87-94

  • ARAP3 is transiently tyrosine phosphorylated in cells attaching to fibronectin and inhibits cell spreading in a RhoGAP-dependent manner.

    I ST, Nie Z, Stewart A, Najdovska M, Hall NE, He H, Randazzo PA and Lock P

    Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Level 5 Clinical Sciences Building, Royal Melbourne Hospital, VIC 3050, Australia.

    ARAP3 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Rho and Arf GTPases that is implicated in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) signalling pathways controlling lamellipodia formation and actin stress fibre assembly. We have identified ARAP3 as a phosphorylated target of protein tyrosine kinases. In cells, ARAP3 was tyrosine phosphorylated when co-expressed with Src-family kinases (SFKs), upon stimulation with growth factors and during adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) substrate fibronectin. Adhesion-induced phosphorylation of ARAP3 was suppressed by selective inhibitors of Src-family kinases and PI 3-kinase and by a Src dominant interfering mutant. Inducible expression of ARAP3 in HEK293 epithelial cells resulted in increased cell rounding, membrane process formation and cell clustering on ECM substrates. In contrast, ARAP3 dramatically slowed the kinetics of cell spreading on fibronectin but had no effect on cell adhesion. These effects of ARAP3 required a functional Rho GAP domain and were associated with reduced cellular levels of active RhoA and Rac1 but did not require the sterile alpha motif (SAM) or Arf GAP domains. Mutation of two phosphorylation sites, Y1399 and Y1404, enhanced some ARAP3 activities, suggesting that ARAP3 may be negatively regulated by phosphorylation on these tyrosine residues. These results implicate ARAP3 in integrin-mediated tyrosine kinase signalling pathways controlling Rho GTPases and cell spreading.

    Journal of cell science 2004;117;Pt 25;6071-84

  • Role of protein tyrosine kinase p53/56lyn in diminished lipopolysaccharide priming of formylmethionylleucyl- phenylalanine-induced superoxide production in human newborn neutrophils.

    Yan SR, Byers DM and Bortolussi R

    Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Human newborns are more susceptible than adults to bacterial infection. With gram-negative bacteria, this may be due to a diminished response of newborn leukocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since protein tyrosine kinase inhibition abolishes LPS priming in adult cells, we hypothesized that protein tyrosine kinases may have a critical role in LPS priming of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and that newborn PMNs may have altered protein tyrosine kinase activities. In the present study, we investigated the role of src family protein tyrosine kinases in the LPS response of newborn PMNs compared to adult cells. In a respiratory assay, the LPS-primed increase in formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP)-triggered O2- release by adult PMNs was greatly decreased by PP1 [4-amino-5-(4-methyphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine], a src kinase inhibitor, to the level of untreated newborn PMNs, in which LPS failed to prime. LPS activated the src-like kinases p59hck (HCK) and p58fgr (FGR) in both adult and newborn PMNs but increased the activation of p53/56lyn (LYN) only in adult cells. In newborn PMNs, LYN was highly phosphorylated independent of LPS. We evaluated subcellular fractions of PMNs and found that the phosphorylated form of LYN was mainly in the Triton-extractable, cytosolic fraction in adult PMNs, while in newborn cells it was located mainly in Triton-insoluble, granule- and membrane-associated fractions. In contrast, the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38 were mainly detected in the cytosol in both adult and newborn PMNs. These data indicate a role for LYN in the regulation of LPS priming. The trapping of phosphorylated LYN in the membrane-granule fraction in newborn PMNs may contribute to the deficiency of newborn cells in responding to LPS stimulation.

    Infection and immunity 2004;72;11;6455-62

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cbl-mediated degradation of Lyn and Fyn induced by constitutive fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 activation supports osteoblast differentiation.

    Kaabeche K, Lemonnier J, Le Mée S, Caverzasio J and Marie PJ

    Laboratory of Osteoblast Biology and Pathology, INSERM U606, University Paris 7, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10, France.

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play an important regulatory role in skeletal development and bone formation. However, the FGF signaling mechanisms controlling osteoblast function are poorly understood. Here, we identified a role for the Src family members Lyn and Fyn in osteoblast differentiation promoted by constitutive activation of FGF receptor-2 (FGFR2). We show that the overactive FGFR2 S252W mutation induced decreased Src family kinase tyrosine phosphorylation and activity associated with decreased Lyn and Fyn protein expression in human osteoblasts. Pharmacological stimulation of Src family kinases or transfection with Lyn or Fyn vectors repressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) up-regulation induced by overactive FGFR2. Inhibition of proteasome activity restored normal Lyn and Fyn expression and ALP activity in FGFR2 mutant osteoblasts. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that Lyn, Fyn, and FGFR2 interacted with the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl and ubiquitin. Transfection with c-Cbl in which the RING finger was disrupted or with c-Cbl with a point mutation that abolishes the binding ability of the Cbl phosphotyrosine-binding domain restored Src kinase activity and Lyn, Fyn, and FGFR2 levels and reduced ALP up-regulation in mutant osteoblasts. Thus, constitutive FGFR2 activation induces c-Cbl-dependent Lyn and Fyn proteasome degradation, resulting in reduced Lyn and Fyn kinase activity, increased ALP expression, and FGFR2 down-regulation. This reveals a common Cbl-mediated negative feedback mechanism controlling Lyn, Fyn, and FGFR2 degradation in response to overactive FGFR2 and indicates a role for Cbl-dependent down-regulation of Lyn and Fyn in osteoblast differentiation induced by constitutive FGFR2 activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;35;36259-67

  • SHIP1 and Lyn Kinase Negatively Regulate Integrin alpha IIb beta 3 signaling in platelets.

    Maxwell MJ, Yuan Y, Anderson KE, Hibbs ML, Salem HH and Jackson SP

    Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Box Hill Hospital, Victoria 3128, Australia.

    Integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) plays a critical role in platelet function, promoting a broad range of functional responses including platelet adhesion, spreading, aggregation, clot retraction, and platelet procoagulant function. Signaling events operating downstream of this receptor (outside-in signaling) are important for these responses; however the mechanisms negatively regulating integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) signaling remain ill-defined. We demonstrate here a major role for the Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP1) and Src family kinase, Lyn, in this process. Our studies on murine SHIP1 knockout platelets have defined a major role for this enzyme in regulating integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3)-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) accumulation, necessary for a cytosolic calcium response and platelet spreading. SHIP1 phosphorylation and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) metabolism is partially regulated through Lyn kinase, resulting in an enhanced calcium flux and spreading response in Lyn-deficient mouse platelets. Analysis of platelet adhesion dynamics under physiological blood flow conditions revealed an important role for SHIP1 in regulating platelet adhesion on fibrinogen. Specifically, SHIP1-dependent PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) metabolism down-regulates the stability of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3)-fibrinogen adhesive bonds, leading to a decrease in the proportion of platelets forming shear-resistant adhesion contacts. These studies define a major role for SHIP1 and Lyn as negative regulators of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) adhesive and signaling function.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;31;32196-204

  • Amplification of MGC2177, PLAG1, PSMC6P, and LYN in a malignant mixed tumor of salivary gland detected by cDNA microarray with tyramide signal amplification.

    Tsang YT, Chang YM, Lu X, Rao PH, Lau CC and Wong KK

    Texas Children's Cancer Center, Cancer Genomics Group, MC3-3320, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 6621 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Gene amplifications have been observed in many different tumor cells, and many of these changes are related to tumor pathogenesis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using metaphase chromosomes can detect changes in chromosome copy number with a resolution of 10-20 Mb. Current advances in CGH analysis in a microarray format allow us to refine such changes down to the gene level. We applied microarray technology to detect novel gene amplification in a malignant mixed tumor of salivary gland. Besides detecting previously known gene amplifications (MDM2 and MYC), we identified four other highly amplified genes located at 8q11.2 approximately q13: MGC2177, PLAG1, PSMC6P, and LYN. The amplification was further validated with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2004;152;2;124-8

  • Trafficking of Lyn through the Golgi caveolin involves the charged residues on alphaE and alphaI helices in the kinase domain.

    Kasahara K, Nakayama Y, Ikeda K, Fukushima Y, Matsuda D, Horimoto S and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675, Japan.

    Src-family kinases, known to participate in signaling pathways of a variety of surface receptors, are localized to the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane through lipid modification. We show here that Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is biosynthetically transported to the plasma membrane via the Golgi pool of caveolin along the secretory pathway. The trafficking of Lyn from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane is inhibited by deletion of the kinase domain or Csk-induced "closed conformation" but not by kinase inactivation. Four residues (Asp346 and Glu353 on alphaE helix, and Asp498 and Asp499 on alphaI helix) present in the C-lobe of the kinase domain, which can be exposed to the molecular surface through an "open conformation," are identified as being involved in export of Lyn from the Golgi apparatus toward the plasma membrane but not targeting to the Golgi apparatus. Thus, the kinase domain of Lyn plays a role in Lyn trafficking besides catalysis of substrate phosphorylation.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;165;5;641-52

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • SRC-dependent outside-in signalling is a key step in the process of autoregulation of beta2 integrins in polymorphonuclear cells.

    Piccardoni P, Manarini S, Federico L, Bagoly Z, Pecce R, Martelli N, Piccoli A, Totani L, Cerletti C and Evangelista V

    Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale 1, 66030, Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy.

    In human PMN (polymorphonuclear cells), challenged by P-selectin, the beta2-integrin Mac-1 (macrophage antigen-1) promoted the activation of the SRC (cellular homologue of Rous sarcoma virus oncogenic protein) family members HCK (haematopoietic cell kinase) and LYN (an SRC family protein tyrosine kinase) and phosphorylation of a P-110 (110 kDa protein). SRC kinase activity in turn was necessary for macrophage antigen-1-mediated adhesion [Piccardoni, Sideri, Manarini, Piccoli, Martelli, de Gaetano, Cerletti and Evangelista (2001) Blood 98, 108-116]. This suggested that an SRC-dependent outside-in signalling strengthens the beta2-integrin interaction with the ligand. To support this hypothesis further, in the present study, we used the monoclonal antibody KIM127 or manganese to lock beta2 integrins in a high-affinity state, and homotypic PMN adhesion was analysed to monitor beta2-integrin adhesive function. KIM127 or manganese induced PMN homotypic adhesion and P-110 phosphorylation. Both these processes were abolished by blocking antibodies against the common beta2 chain, by a combination of antibodies against alphaL and alphaM or by inhibitors of SRC activity. Confocal microscopy showed that activation epitopes were expressed by beta2 integrins co-localized with patches of F-actin at the adhesion sites. Blockade of SRC kinases or of actin polymerization prevented clustering of activated integrins as well as F-actin accumulation. FACS analysis showed that SRC inhibitors modified neither basal nor manganese-induced KIM127 binding. An SRC-dependent outside-in signalling initiated by beta2 integrins was also required for adhesion triggered by interleukin-8. These results confirm the hypothesis that an SRC-dependent outside-in signalling triggered by high affinity and ligand binding is necessary to stabilize beta2-integrin-mediated adhesion. Allowing clustering of activated integrins, SRC might link the high-affinity with the high-avidity state. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 appears to be involved in this process.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;380;Pt 1;57-65

  • HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef.

    Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen AL, Pedersen SF and Duch M

    Department of Infectious Disease Q, Skejby Hospital, Denmark.

    During a progressive HIV-1 infection, the gradual decrease in functional CD4+ T(helper) cells leads to immunodeficiency and eventually death in the untreated patient. The virulence role of the lentiviral accessory gene nef was first reported from deletion studies in the macaque model, and research during the past decade has revealed a pluripotent protein capable of multiple points of interference with cellular mechanisms. Importantly, Nef has the capacity to modify the plasma membrane signalling by regulation of receptor/ligand endocytosis as well as to modulate cellular regulation such as apoptosis and lymphocyte activation. This effective defence against an apparent vigorous and specific immune response is crucial for the ability of HIV-1 to persist in the host. Here we review the multitude of functions exerted by Nef and discuss the functional domains of the protein in terms of cellular interaction partners and the effect of nef mutations in the course of AIDS disease progression.

    Current HIV research 2004;2;2;141-51

  • The hepatitis C virus NS5A protein binds to members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases and regulates kinase activity.

    Macdonald A, Crowder K, Street A, McCormick C and Harris M

    Division of Microbiology, School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural NS5A protein has been shown to associate with a variety of cellular signalling proteins. Of particular interest is the observation that a highly conserved C-terminal polyproline motif in NS5A was able to interact with the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains of the adaptor protein Grb2. As it has previously been shown that specific polyproline motifs can interact with a range of SH3 domains, we investigated whether NS5A was capable of interacting with other SH3 domain-containing proteins. We show here that NS5A interacts with the SH3 domains of members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases: a combination of in vitro binding assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between NS5A and Hck, Lck, Lyn and Fyn, but interestingly not Src itself. Mutational analysis confirmed that the polyproline motif responsible for binding to Grb2 also bound to the SH3 domains of Hck, Lck, Lyn and Fyn. Furthermore, a previously unidentified polyproline motif, adjacent to the first motif, was also able to mediate binding to the SH3 domain of Lyn. Using transient transfections and Huh-7 cells harbouring a persistently replicating subgenomic HCV replicon we demonstrate that NS5A bound to native Src-family kinases in vivo and differentially modulated kinase activity, inhibiting Hck, Lck and Lyn but activating Fyn. Lastly, we show that signalling pathways controlled by Src-family kinases are modulated in replicon cells. We conclude that the interactions between NS5A and Src-family kinases are physiologically relevant and may play a role in either virus replication or pathogenesis.

    The Journal of general virology 2004;85;Pt 3;721-9

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Identification and activation of Src family kinases in primary megakaryocytes.

    Lannutti BJ, Shim MH, Blake N, Reems JA and Drachman JG

    Puget Sound Blood Center, 921 Terry Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-1256, USA. brianl@psbc.org

    Objectives: We have recently shown that the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are activated by TPO stimulation in both primary megakaryocytic progenitors and a hematopoietic cells line (BaF3) expressing the TPO receptor (Mpl). In this study, we examine which of the eight Src family members are expressed in primary megakaryocytes (MKs) and determine which of these become activated in response to TPO.

    High-density oligonucleotide microarrays were used to compare the gene expression profiles of Src kinases from undifferentiated hematopoietic progenitors (CD34+/CD38(lo)) and after in vitro megakaryocytic differentiation. Western blot analysis of lysates from purified, mature murine MKs identified which of SFKs are present. Finally, in vitro kinase assays determined which of the SFKs in primary MKs are activated by TPO stimulation.

    Results: Array profiles demonstrate that Fyn, Lyn, Fgr, Hck, Src, and Yes are all expressed in cultured human MKs (Fyn, Lyn>Src, Yes, Fgr, Hck). Similarly, Western blots of murine MKs identified the same six SFKs (Fyn, Fgr, Hck, Lyn, Src, and Yes). Of these, only Fyn and Lyn demonstrate increased kinase activity after TPO stimulation. Interestingly, gene expression analysis indicates that, among the SFKs, Fyn expression is uniquely upregulated during MK development.

    Conclusion: These results provide the first direct evidence that two Src kinases are activated in primary MKs, Fyn and Lyn. The fact that only Fyn expression is significantly upregulated during MK differentiation suggests variable gene regulation. Specificity of the TPO signaling cascade is demonstrated by the selective activation of Fyn and Lyn.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL 65498

    Experimental hematology 2003;31;12;1268-74

  • The inositol 5'-phosphatase SHIP-1 and the Src kinase Lyn negatively regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced Akt activity.

    Baran CP, Tridandapani S, Helgason CD, Humphries RK, Krystal G and Marsh CB

    Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

    Upon encountering macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), human monocytes undergo a series of cellular signaling events leading to an increase in Akt activity. However, the regulation of these events is not completely understood. Because the inositol 5'-phosphatase SHIP-1 is an important regulator of intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, an important second messenger necessary for Akt activation, we hypothesized that SHIP-1 was involved in the regulation of M-CSF receptor (M-CSF-R)-induced Akt activation. In the human monocytic cell line, THP-1, SHIP-1 became tyrosine-phosphorylated following M-CSF activation in a Src family kinase-dependent manner. Transfection of 3T3-Fms cells, which express the human M-CSF-R, with wild-type SHIP-1 showed that SHIP-1 was necessary for the negative regulation of M-CSF-induced Akt activation. In THP-1 cells, SHIP-1 bound Lyn, independent of the kinase activity of Lyn, following M-CSF activation. Utilizing a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, we found that SHIP-1 bound to Lyn via the SHIP-1 Src homology 2 domain. Furthermore, transfection of THP-1 cells with a wild-type SHIP-1 construct reduced NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation of a reporter gene, whereas a SHIP-1 Src homology 2 domain construct resulted in an increase in NF-kappaB activation. Additionally, in 3T3-Fms cells, Lyn enhanced the ability of SHIP-1 to regulate Akt activation by stabilizing SHIP-1 at the cellular membrane. Finally, macrophages isolated from both SHIP-1- and Lyn-deficient mice exhibited enhanced Akt phosphorylation following M-CSF stimulation. These data provide the first evidence of the involvement of both SHIP-1 and Lyn in the negative regulation of M-CSF-R-induced Akt activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL70294, R01HL63800, R01HL66108, R01HL67176

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;40;38628-36

  • Attenuation of the activity of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4A5 by interaction with the immunophilin XAP2.

    Bolger GB, Peden AH, Steele MR, MacKenzie C, McEwan DG, Wallace DA, Huston E, Baillie GS and Houslay MD

    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84148, USA. Graeme.Bolger@ccc.uab.edu

    The cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) isoform PDE4A5 interacted with the immunophilin XAP2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interaction was confirmed in biochemical pull-down analyses. The interaction was specific, in that PDE4A5 did not interact with the closely related immunophilins AIPL1, FKBP51, or FKBP52. XAP2 also did not interact with other PDE4A isoforms or typical isoforms from the three other PDE4 subfamilies. Functionally, XAP2 reversibly inhibited the enzymatic activity of PDE4A5, increased the sensitivity of PDE4A5 to inhibition by the prototypical PDE4 inhibitor 4-[3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidinone (rolipram) and attenuated the ability of cAMP-dependent protein kinase to phosphorylate PDE4A5 in intact cells. XAP2 maximally inhibited PDE4A5 by approximately 60%, with an IC50 of 120 nm, and reduced the IC50 for rolipram from 390 nm to 70-90 nm. Co-expression of XAP2 and PDE4A5 in COS7 cells showed that they could be co-immunoprecipitated and also reduced both the enzymatic activity of PDE4A5 and its IC50 for rolipram. Native XAP2 and PDE4A5 could be co-immunoprecipitated from the brain. The isolated COOH-terminal half of XAP2 (amino acids 170-330), containing its tetratricopeptide repeat domain, but not the isolated NH2-terminal half (amino acids 1-169), containing the immunophilin homology region, similarly reduced PDE4A5 activity and its IC50 for rolipram. Mutation of Arg271 to alanine, in the XAP2 tetratricopeptide repeat region, attenuated its ability to both interact with PDE4A5 in two-hybrid assays and to inhibit PDE4A5 activity. Either the deletion of a specific portion of the unique amino-terminal region or specific mutations in the regulatory UCR2 domain of PDE4A5 attenuated its ability be inhibited by XAP2. We suggest that XAP2 functionally interacts with PDE4A5 in cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01-GM58553

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;35;33351-63

  • Clustering-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of nephrin by Src family kinases.

    Lahdenperä J, Kilpeläinen P, Liu XL, Pikkarainen T, Reponen P, Ruotsalainen V and Tryggvason K

    Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Background: Nephrin is a recently discovered protein of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. In the kidney, it is located at the slit diaphragm, which forms the decisive size-selective filter of glomerular ultrafiltration barrier and locates between the interdigitating foot processes of podocytes. Nephrin is mutated in congenital nephrosis of the Finnish type (NPHS1) and has been demonstrated to be an essential component of the slit diaphragm. Based on its domain structure, nephrin is likely to be a cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion protein that may have a signaling function. In this study, we hypothesized that the clustering of nephrin with antibodies on cell surface mimics the situation where the interaction between nephrin and its extracellular ligand(s) is altered.

    Methods: Nephrin was clustered on the surface of stably transfected HEK293 cells by a monoclonal antinephrin antibody and polyclonal secondary antibody. Clusters were visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Changes in protein phosphorylation were studied employing immunoprecipitations and Western blot analysis. A specific inhibitor and cotransfection experiments were used to investigate role of Src family kinases in nephrin phosphorylation.

    Results: Clustering of nephrin induced its own tyrosine phosphorylation. This phosphorylation was inhibited by PP2, an inhibitor of Src family kinases. Several members of Src family kinases were able to induce nephrin phosphorylation when cotransfected to HEK293 cells with nephrin. Moreover, the Src family kinase Fyn was consistently found to be coimmunoprecipitated with nephrin. Interestingly, clustering of nephrin induced also tyrosine phosphorylation of a 46 kD protein that was as well found to be coimmunoprecipitated with nephrin.

    Conclusion: Nephrin is a signaling protein phosphorylated by Src family kinases.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK54724

    Kidney international 2003;64;2;404-13

  • Src-mediated RGS16 tyrosine phosphorylation promotes RGS16 stability.

    Derrien A, Zheng B, Osterhout JL, Ma YC, Milligan G, Farquhar MG and Druey KM

    Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, NIAID/National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

    The amplitude of signaling evoked by stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors may be controlled in part by the GTPase accelerating activity of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. In turn, subcellular targeting, protein-protein interactions, or post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation may shape RGS activity and specificity. We found previously that RGS16 undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation on conserved tyrosine residues in the RGS box. Phosphorylation on Tyr(168) was mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We show here that endogenous RGS16 is phosphorylated after epidermal growth factor stimulation of MCF-7 cells. In addition, p60-Src or Lyn kinase phosphorylated recombinant RGS16 in vitro, and RGS16 underwent phosphorylation in the presence of constitutively active Src (Y529F) in EGFR(-) CHO-K1 cells. Blockade of endogenous Src activity by selective inhibitors attenuated RGS16 phosphorylation induced by pervanadate or receptor stimulation. Furthermore, the rate of RGS16 degradation was reduced in cells expressing active Src or treated with pervanadate or a G protein-coupled receptor ligand (CXCL12). Induction of RGS16 tyrosine phosphorylation was associated with increased RGS16 protein levels and enhanced GAP activity in cell membranes. These results suggest that Src mediates RGS16 tyrosine phosphorylation, which may promote RGS16 stability.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;18;16107-16

  • Felic (CIP4b), a novel binding partner with the Src kinase Lyn and Cdc42, localizes to the phagocytic cup.

    Dombrosky-Ferlan P, Grishin A, Botelho RJ, Sampson M, Wang L, Rudert WA, Grinstein S and Corey SJ

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

    Through its Src homology 3 (SH3) and SH2 domains, the Src kinase Lyn interacts with a small number of phosphoproteins, such as Shc, Cbl, and Vav, which regulate cell cycle and the cytoskeleton. Using Lyn's Unique, SH3, and SH2 domains as bait in a yeast 2-hybrid screen, we isolated a novel gene product with features of a scaffolding protein. We named it Felic because it contains a domain homologous to the tyrosine kinase Fes and the cytoskeletal protein ezrin and forms a Lyn interaction with the GTPase Cdc42 (Felic). Felic was expressed in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. Because it represents an alternative splice product related to the Cdc42-interacting protein 4, CIP4, we also refer to Felic as CIP4b. Felic contains an SH3 recognition site RXPXXP and multiple tyrosine residues. In insulin or serum-stimulated HEK293 cells, Felic became tyrosine phosphorylated. Like CIP4, Felic associated with Cdc42 in its activated form only. Unlike CIP4, Felic does not possess a C-terminal SH3 domain. Coprecipitation studies show that Felic bound to Lyn or activated forms of Cdc42. Overexpression of Felic or CIP4 inhibited NIH 3T3 cell invasiveness in a Matrigel assay. Because Lyn and Cdc42 are involved in phagocytosis, we examined the distribution of Felic in RAW macrophages during particle ingestion. Felic was recruited more efficiently than CIP4 to the phagocytic cups. Altogether, these data suggest that CIP4/Felic constitute a novel family of cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins, integrating Src and Cdc42 pathways. The absence of an SH3 domain in Felic provides a structural basis for functional differences.

    Blood 2003;101;7;2804-9

  • The p54 cleaved form of the tyrosine kinase Lyn generated by caspases during BCR-induced cell death in B lymphoma acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis.

    Luciano F, Herrant M, Jacquel A, Ricci JE and Auberger P

    INSERM U526 Activation des Cellules Hematopoietiques, Physiopathologie de la Survie et de la Mort Cellulaires et Infections Virales, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, IFR50, Faculté de Médecine, 06107 Nice-Cédex 2, France.

    Engagement of the B cell receptor antigen (BCR) triggers apoptosis on immature B cell lines. We report here that BCR triggering leads to caspase activation followed by Lyn cleavage and induction of apoptosis. The cleavage process is mitochondrion-dependent and involves caspases 9 and 7. Stable expression of the cleaved form of Lyn (Lyn-Delta-N) in Ramos B cells impairs BCR-mediated apoptosis as judged by loss of Delta(psi)m, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Activation of the main survival pathways upon BCR-triggering was unaltered in both cell variants. However, the PI3-K inhibitor Ly294002 resensitizes Lyn-Delta-N cells to apoptosis. Selected cDNA expression arrays revealed that anti-IgM modulates the expression of approximately 20 genes in both cell variants. Among them, only c-Myc was found to be differentially regulated, which suggests a role for c-Myc in the B cell apoptotic response. Interestingly, c-Myc expression decreased more rapidly in Lyn-Delta-N compared with Lyn-WT cells during the first hours of anti-IgM stimulation. Nevertheless, rapid down-regulation of c-Myc following BCR engagement seems to correlate with the resistance of B cells to apoptosis. Thus, the soluble form of Lyn generated by caspases following BCR triggering acts as an inhibitor of B lymphocyte death likely through the modulation of c-Myc expression.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2003;17;6;711-3

  • HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication.

    Greenway AL, Holloway G, McPhee DA, Ellis P, Cornall A and Lidman M

    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Cnr Commercial and Punt Roads, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. greenway@burnet.edu.au

    HIV-1 has at its disposal numerous proteins encoded by its genome which provide the required arsenal to establish and maintain infection in its host for a considerable number of years. One of the most important and enigmatic of these proteins is Nef. The Nef protein of HIV-1 plays a fundamental role in the virus life cycle. This small protein of approximately 27 kDa is required for maximal virus replication and disease progression. The mechanisms by which it is able to act as a positive factor during virus replication is an area of intense research and although some controversy surrounds Nef much has been gauged as to how it functions. Its ability to modulate the expression of key cellular receptors important for cell activation and control signal transduction elements and events by interacting with numerous cellular kinases and signalling molecules, including members of the Src family kinases, leading to an effect on host cell function is likely to explain at least in part its role during infection and represents a finely tuned mechanism where this protein assists HIV-1 to control its host.

    Journal of biosciences 2003;28;3;323-35

  • Regulation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel by tyrosine phosphorylation. SRC family kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV4 on TYR-253 mediates its response to hypotonic stress.

    Xu H, Zhao H, Tian W, Yoshida K, Roullet JB and Cohen DM

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University and the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA.

    The recently identified transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family member, TRPV4 (formerly known as OTRPC4, VR-OAC, TRP12, and VRL-2) is activated by hypotonicity. It is highly expressed in the kidney as well as blood-brain barrier-deficient hypothalamic nuclei responsible for systemic osmosensing. Apart from its gating by hypotonicity, little is known about TRPV4 regulation. We observed that hypotonic stress resulted in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV4 in a heterologous expression model and in native murine distal convoluted tubule cells in culture. This tyrosine phosphorylation was sensitive to the inhibitor of Src family tyrosine kinases, PP1, in a dose-dependent fashion. TRPV4 associated with Src family kinases by co-immunoprecipitation studies and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and this interaction required an intact Src family kinase SH2 domain. One of these kinases, Lyn, was activated by hypotonic stress and phosphorylated TRPV4 in an immune complex kinase assay and an in vitro kinase assay using recombinant Lyn and TRPV4. Transfection of wild-type Lyn dramatically potentiated hypotonicity-dependent TRPV4 tyrosine phosphorylation whereas dominant negative-acting Lyn modestly inhibited it. Through mutagenesis studies, the site of tonicity-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was mapped to Tyr-253, which is conserved across all species from which TRPV4 has been cloned. Importantly, point mutation of Tyr-253 abolished hypotonicity-dependent channel activity. In aggregate, these data indicate that hypotonic stress results in Src family tyrosine kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the tonicity sensor TRPV4 at residue Tyr-253 and that this residue is essential for channel function in this context. This is the first example of direct regulation of TRP channel function through tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52494

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;13;11520-7

  • Identification of UNC119 as a novel activator of SRC-type tyrosine kinases.

    Cen O, Gorska MM, Stafford SJ, Sur S and Alam R

    Division of Allergy and Immunology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health Asthma and Allergic Diseases Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Lyn, an Src-type tyrosine kinase, is associated with the interleukin (IL)-5 receptor in eosinophils. The mechanism of its activation is unknown. Through yeast two-hybrid screening we have cloned and characterized a new signaling molecule, Unc119, that associates with IL-5Ralpha and Src family tyrosine kinases. Unc119 induces the catalytic activity of these kinases through interaction with Src homology 2 and 3 domains. IL-5 stimulation of eosinophils increases Unc119 association with Lyn and induces its catalytic activity. Lyn is important for eosinophil survival. Eosinophils that are transduced with Unc119 have increased Lyn activity and demonstrate prolonged survival in the absence of IL-5. Inhibition of Unc119 down-regulates eosinophil survival. To our knowledge Unc119 is the first receptor-associated activator of Src family tyrosine kinases.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI P01 46004, AI50179; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES06676

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8837-45

  • DF3/MUC1 signaling in multiple myeloma cells is regulated by interleukin-7.

    Li Y, Chen W, Ren J, Yu WH, Li Q, Yoshida K and Kufe D

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The human DF3/MUC1 transmembrane protein is aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma cells and other B cell malignancies. The regulation of MUC1 in B cells and its potential function as a signaling molecule are unknown. The present results demonstrate that interleukin-7 (IL-7) stimulates MUC1 expression in multiple myeloma cells. The results also demonstrate the IL-7 induces binding of MUC1 to the Lyn tyrosine kinase. The MUC1 C-terminal subunit binds directly to Lyn through interactions with the Lyn SH3 and SH2 domains. Activation of Lyn in response to IL-7 stimulation results in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the MUC1 C-terminal subunit. In vitro and in vivo studies show that Lyn phosphorylates MUC1, at least in large part, on a YEKV site in the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail. The functional significance of the MUC1-Lyn interaction is supported by the demonstration that Lyn-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1 on YEKV induces binding of MUC1 and the beta-catenin signaling protein. In concert with these results, IL-7 treatment is associated with binding of MUC1 to beta-catenin and targeting of the MUC1-beta-catenin complex to the nucleus. These findings indicate that IL-7 regulates MUC1 expression and function in multiple myeloma cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA097098, CA100707

    Cancer biology & therapy 2003;2;2;187-93

  • The role of C-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of SHP-1 explored via expressed protein ligation.

    Zhang Z, Shen K, Lu W and Cole PA

    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 plays a variety of roles in the "negative" regulation of cell signaling. The molecular basis for the regulation of SHP-1 is incompletely understood. Whereas SHP-1 has previously been shown to be phosphorylated on two tail tyrosine residues (Tyr(536) and Tyr(564)) by several protein-tyrosine kinases, the effects of these phosphorylation events have been difficult to address because of the intrinsic instability of the linkages within a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. Using expressed protein ligation, we have generated semisynthetic SHP-1 proteins containing phosphotyrosine mimetics at the Tyr(536) and Tyr(564) sites. Two phosphonate analogues were installed, phosphonomethylenephenylalanine (Pmp) and difluorophosphonomethylenephenylalanine (F(2)Pmp). Incorporation of Pmp at the 536 site led to 4-fold stimulation of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity whereas incorporation at the 564 site led to no effect. Incorporation of F(2)Pmp at the 536 site led to 8-fold stimulation of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and 1.6-fold at the 564 site. A combination of size exclusion chromatography, phosphotyrosine peptide stimulation studies, and site-directed mutagenesis led to the structural model in which tyrosine phosphorylation at the 536 site engages the N-Src homology 2 domain in an intramolecular fashion relieving basal inhibition. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation at the 564 site has the potential to engage the C-Src homology 2 domain intramolecularly, which can modestly and indirectly influence catalytic activity. The finding that phosphonate modification at each of the 536 and 564 sites can promote interaction with the Grb2 adaptor protein indicates that the intramolecular interactions fostered by post-translational modifications of tyrosine are not energetically strong and susceptible to intermolecular competition.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA74305

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;7;4668-74

  • BCR-ABL independence and LYN kinase overexpression in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells selected for resistance to STI571.

    Donato NJ, Wu JY, Stapley J, Gallick G, Lin H, Arlinghaus R and Talpaz M

    Department of Bioimmunotherapy, University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. ndonato@mdanderson.org

    Clinical studies have shown that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 effectively controls BCR-ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, disease progression while on STI571 therapy has been reported, suggesting de novo or intrinsic resistance to BCR-ABL-targeted therapy. To investigate possible mediators of acquired STI571 resistance, K562 cells resistant to 5 microM STI571 (K562-R) were cloned and compared to the parental cell population. K562-R cells had reduced BCR-ABL expression and limited activation of BCR-ABL signaling cascades (Stat 5, CrkL, MAPK). STI571 failed to activate caspase cascades or to suppress expression of survival genes (bcl-xL) in resistant cells. Gene sequencing and tyrosine kinase activity measurements demonstrated that K562-R cells retained wild-type and active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase that was inhibitable by in vitro incubation with STI571, suggesting that BCR-ABL was not coupled to proliferation or survival of K562-R cells. The src-related kinase LYN was highly overexpressed and activated in K562-R cells, and its inhibition reduced proliferation and survival of K562-R cells while having limited effects of K562 cells. Specimens taken from patients with advanced CML that progressed on STI571 therapy also were analyzed for LYN kinase expression, and they were found to be elevated to a level similar to that of K562-R cells. Comparison of samples from patients taken prior to and following STI571 failure suggested that expression and/or activation of LYN/HCK occurs during disease progression. Together, these results suggest that acquired STI571 resistance may be associated with BCR-ABL independence and mediated in part through overexpression of other tyrosine kinases.

    Blood 2003;101;2;690-8

  • CD45 tyrosine phosphatase inhibits erythroid differentiation of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells associated with selective inactivation of Lyn.

    Harashima A, Suzuki M, Okochi A, Yamamoto M, Matsuo Y, Motoda R, Yoshioka T and Orita K

    Fujisaki Cell Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Labs, and the Kurashiki Medical Center, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan. fcch@hayashibara.co.jp

    CD45 is a membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates Src family kinases and Janus kinases (JAKs). To clarify the role of CD45 in hematopoietic differentiation, we examined the effects of anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody NU-L(PAN) on the proliferation and differentiation of umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells. NU-L(PAN) showed a prominent inhibition of the proliferation of CD34(+) cells induced by the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MS-5 or erythropoietin (EPO). However, NU-L(PAN) did not affect the proliferation induced by interleukin 3. NU-L(PAN) also inhibited MS-5-induced or EPO-induced erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells. The cells stimulated with EPO in the presence of NU-L(PAN) morphologically showed differentiation arrest at the stage of basophilic erythroblasts after 11 days of culture, whereas the cells treated with EPO without NU-L(PAN) differentiated into mature red blood cells. The Src family kinase Lyn and JAK2 were phosphorylated when erythroblasts obtained after 4 days of culture of CD34(+) cells in the presence of EPO were restimulated with EPO. Overnight NU-L(PAN) treatment before addition of EPO reduced the phosphorylation of Lyn but not that of JAK2. Simultaneously, the enhancement of Lyn kinase activity after restimulation with EPO was reduced by NU-L(PAN) treatment. These results indicate selective inactivation of Lyn by CD45 activated with NU-L(PAN) and could partly explain the inhibitory mechanism on erythropoiesis exhibited by EPO. These findings suggest that CD45 may play a pivotal role in erythropoiesis.

    Blood 2002;100;13;4440-5

  • Lyn kinase is activated following thrombopoietin stimulation of the megakaryocytic cell line B1647.

    Santini V, Scappini B, Grossi A, Gozzini A, Bonsi L, Pagliai G, Rossi Ferrini P and Bagnara GP

    Dept. of Hematology, University of Florence, Policlinico di Careggi, viale Morgagni 85, Italy. santini@unifi.it

    B1647 is a cell line derived from bone marrow cells of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (M2) with a complete erythro-megakaryocytic phenotype and bears both k and p isoforms of c-mpl. Interestingly, spontaneous B1647 cell proliferation is significantly potentiated by thrombopoietin (TPO).

    We aimed to evaluate the proliferative signal transduction events following the activation of c-mpl and we stimulated B1647 cells with TPO 40 ng/mL for 3, 7, 15 and 30 minutes; cells were then lysed and whole lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies.

    Results: In our hands, TPO stimulation induced phosphorylation of several substrate proteins in B1647 cells. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation from background spontaneous activation was transient, maximal after 10 minutes and declined to reach constitutive levels after 30 minutes. In particular, protein substrates between 50 and 140 kDa appeared to be selectively phosphorylated by TPO. We demonstrated that Jak2, Stat3 and Shc were activated in B1647 cells after TPO, as already shown for different cell lines by other authors. Moreover, Lyn kinase activation was detected. Grb2 co-immunoprecipitated with phosphorylated proteins. The phosphorylation of Syk kinase was not demonstrated, whereas Vav was activated by TPO.

    The pattern of protein phosphorylation determined in B1647 cells by TPO testifies the role of this cytokine in sustaining cell growth and indicates Lyn tyrosine kinase as a possible target protein in transduction of the TPO proliferative signal.

    Haematologica 2002;87;12;1242-7

  • Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibits nuclear export of the p53 tumor suppressor.

    Ren X, Cao C, Zhu L, Yoshida K, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum R and Kufe D

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The p53 tumor suppressor is activated in the cellular response to stress. Mdm2 inhibits p53-dependent transactivation and promotes degradation of p53 by the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway. The present studies demonstrate that p53 binds directly to the nuclear Lyn tyrosine kinase. Lyn increases p53 levels and stimulates p53-mediated transcription by a kinase-independent mechanism. The results also demonstrate that Lyn increases nuclear levels of ubiquitinated p53 by inhibiting export of p53 to the cytoplasm. In concert with these results, Lyn reverses Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53 and increases p53-dependent apoptosis. Our findings support a previously undefined role for nuclear Lyn in both activation and Mdm2-mediated regulation of p53.

    Cancer biology & therapy 2002;1;6;703-8

  • c-Cbl is involved in Met signaling in B cells and mediates hepatocyte growth factor-induced receptor ubiquitination.

    Taher TE, Tjin EP, Beuling EA, Borst J, Spaargaren M and Pals ST

    Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase Met are key regulators of epithelial motility and morphogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the HGF/Met pathway also plays a role in B cell differentiation, whereas uncontrolled Met signaling may lead to B cell neoplasia. These observations prompted us to explore HGF/Met signaling in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that HGF induces strong tyrosine phosphorylation of the proto-oncogene product c-Cbl in B cells and increases Cbl association with the Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn and Lyn, as well as with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and CrkL. In addition, we demonstrate that c-Cbl mediates HGF-induced ubiquitination of Met. This requires the juxtamembrane tyrosine Y1001 (Y2) of Met, but not the multifunctional docking site (Y14/15) or any additional C-terminal tyrosine residues (Y13-16). In contrast to wild-type c-Cbl, the transforming mutants v-Cbl and 70Z/3 Cbl, which lack the ubiquitin ligase RING finger domain, suppress Met ubiquitination. Our findings identify c-Cbl as a negative regulator of HGF/Met signaling in B cells, mediating ubiquitination and, consequently, proteosomal degradation of Met, and suggest a role for Cbl in Met-mediated tumorigenesis.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2002;169;7;3793-800

  • QM, a putative tumor suppressor, regulates proto-oncogene c-yes.

    Oh HS, Kwon H, Sun SK and Yang CH

    Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

    The QM gene encodes a 24.5 kDa ribosomal protein L10 known to be highly homologous to a Jun-binding protein (Jif-1), which inhibits the formation of Jun-Jun dimers. Here we have carried out screening with the c-Yes protein and found that a QM homologous protein showed interactions with c-Yes and other Src family members. We have found that two different regions of QM protein were associated with the SH3 domain of c-Yes. The QM protein does not contain canonical SH3 binding motifs or previously reported amino acid fragments showing interaction with SH3 domains. Several c-Yes kinase activity assays indicated that the QM protein reduced c-Yes kinase activity by 70% and that this suppression is related not only to the two SH3 binding regions but also to the C-terminal region of QM. Moreover, our autophosphorylation assays clarified that this regulation resulted from the inhibition of c-Yes autophosphorylation. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the QM proteins and c-Yes are able to interact in various tumor cell lines in vivo. The increases of the c-Yes protein and mRNA levels were detected when the QM was transfected. These results suggest that the QM protein might be a regulator for various signal transduction pathways involving SH3 domain-containing membrane proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;39;36489-98

  • Activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 by tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Ozdener F, Dangelmaier C, Ashby B, Kunapuli SP and Daniel JL

    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.

    Phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) has been implicated in collagen-induced signal transduction in platelets and antigen-dependent signaling in B-lymphocytes. It has been suggested that tyrosine kinases activate PLCgamma2. We expressed the full-length cDNA for human PLCgamma2 in bacteria and purified the recombinant enzyme. The recombinant enzyme was Ca(2+)-dependent with optimal activity in the range of 1 to 10 microM Ca(2+). In vitro phosphorylation experiments with recombinant PLCgamma2 and recombinant Lck, Fyn, and Lyn tyrosine kinases showed that phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 led to activation of the recombinant enzyme. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the role of specific tyrosine residues in activation of PLCgamma2. A mutant form of PLCgamma2, in which all three tyrosines at positions 743, 753, and 759 in the SH2-SH3 linker region were replaced by phenylalanines, exhibited decreased Lck-induced phosphorylation and completely abolished the Lck-dependent activation of PLCgamma2. Individual mutations of these tyrosine residues demonstrated that tyrosines 753 and 759, but not 743, were responsible for Lck-induced activation of PLCgamma2. To confirm these results, we procured a phosphospecific antibody to a peptide containing phosphorylated tyrosines corresponding to residues 753 and 759. This antibody recognized phosphorylated wild-type PLCgamma2 on Western blots but did not interact with unphosphorylated PLCgamma2 or with PLCgamma2 containing mutated tyrosine residues at 753 and 759. Using this antibody, we showed in intact platelets that collagen, a PLCgamma2-dependent agonist, induces phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 at Y753 and Y759. These studies demonstrate the importance of these two tyrosine residues in regulating the activity of PLCgamma2.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL60683

    Molecular pharmacology 2002;62;3;672-9

  • Repression of c-Cbl leads to enhanced G-CSF Jak-STAT signaling without increased cell proliferation.

    Wang L, Rudert WA, Loutaev I, Roginskaya V and Corey SJ

    Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Engagement of the Granulocyte-Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) receptor activates non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases Lyn and Jak2. We found that Lyn-deficient DT40 cells that express the G-CSF receptor (DT40GR) do not demonstrate G-CSF-induced mitogenic signaling. Lyn associates with and phosphorylates a small set of molecules, including c-Cbl. c-Cbl is an adaptor involved in cell growth and cytoskeletal reorganization, predominantly in hematopoietic cells. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis, we found that c-Cbl directly couples Lyn to PI 3-kinase. We also found that expression of the c-CblY731F mutant, which uncouples PI 3-kinase, resulted in the inhibition of G-CSF-induced proliferative signaling in DT40GR cells. As a complementary strategy, we sought to analyse the effects of c-Cbl deficiency in DT40GR cells. We isolated, cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA for chicken c-Cbl and constructed antisense vectors. Antisense inhibition of c-Cbl expression in DT40GR cells led to enhanced Jak-STAT activation following G-CSF stimulation. Yet, this enhancement of Jak-STAT activation was associated with decreased G-CSF-induced PI 3-kinase activity and DNA synthesis. PI 3-kinase activity correlated with DNA synthesis and physiological levels of c-Cbl. Together, these data suggest that physiologic level of c-Cbl provides a growth stimulatory pathway for G-CSF and that enhanced Jak-STAT activation is not sufficient for G-CSF-induced growth.

    Oncogene 2002;21;34;5346-55

  • Activation of Pyk2/RAFTK induces tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein via Src-family kinases.

    Nakamura T, Yamashita H, Nagano Y, Takahashi T, Avraham S, Avraham H, Matsumoto M and Nakamura S

    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan.

    alpha-Synuclein (alpha S) is a neuronal protein that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The present report demonstrates that the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2/RAFTK is involved in cell stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha S. Hyperosmotic stress induced tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha S via Pyk2/RAFTK at tyrosine residue 125. Pyk2/RAFTK-mediated phosphorylation of alpha S was primarily achieved with Src-family kinases. In addition, osmotic stress-induced phosphorylation of alpha S was dependent on Pyk2/RAFTK activation. Accordingly, such results indicate that Pyk2/RAFTK lies upstream of Src-family kinases in the signaling cascade by which osmotic stress induces tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha S.

    FEBS letters 2002;521;1-3;190-4

  • Association of Fyn and Lyn with the proline-rich domain of glycoprotein VI regulates intracellular signaling.

    Suzuki-Inoue K, Tulasne D, Shen Y, Bori-Sanz T, Inoue O, Jung SM, Moroi M, Andrews RK, Berndt MC and Watson SP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom. katsue.inoue@pharm.ox.ac.uk

    The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor (FcR) gamma-chain complex, a key activatory receptor for collagen on platelet surface membranes, is constitutively associated with the Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn. Molecular cloning of GPVI has revealed the presence of a proline-rich domain in the sequence of GPVI cytoplasmic tail which has the consensus for interaction with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of Fyn and Lyn. A series of in vitro experiments demonstrated the ability of the SH3 domains of both Src kinases to bind the proline-rich domain of GPVI. Furthermore, depletion of the proline-rich domain in GPVI (Pro(-)-GPVI) prevented binding of Fyn and Lyn and markedly reduced phosphorylation of FcR gamma-chain in transiently transfected COS-7 cells, but did not affect the association of the gamma-chain with GPVI. Jurkat cells stably transfected with wild type GPVI show robust increases in tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular Ca2+ in response to the snake venom convulxin that targets GPVI. Importantly, convulxin is not able to activate cells transfected with Pro(-)-GPVI, even though the association with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing chains is maintained. These findings demonstrate that the proline-rich domain of GPVI mediates the association with Fyn/Lyn via their SH3 domain and that this interaction initiates activation signals through GPVI.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;24;21561-6

  • Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase through B-cell antigen receptor in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Kawauchi K, Ogasawara T and Yasuyama M

    Department of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Daini Hospital, Japan. ochamegm@dnh.twmu.ac.jp

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells express on their surface membranes immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgD, both of which normally function as B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs). However, in contrast to normal B-cells, in B-CLL cells several important signaling pathways, such as the activation of protein tyrosine kinase via BCR, are defective. We have examined whether the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and Akt kinase, are functional in B-CLL cells, because these kinases play critical roles in activation in response to BCR stimulation, tumor cell growth, and survival. In B-CLL cells, BCR cross-linking neither induced activation nor enhanced the activities of Lyn, Syk, p21ras, JNK, p38 MAPK, or Akt kinases, whereas p38 MAPK and Akt were constitutively active. In contrast, BCR cross-linking resulted in ERK activation, although the activation in quiescent cells was case dependent. These results suggest that some signaling pathways, such as the activation of ERK through BCR, are functional in B-CLL cells despite the extensive impairment of signaling pathways.

    International journal of hematology 2002;75;5;508-13

  • The adapter molecule Gab2 regulates Fc epsilon RI-mediated signal transduction in mast cells.

    Xie ZH, Ambudkar I and Siraganian RP

    Receptors and Signal Transduction Section, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The recently cloned scaffolding molecule Gab2 can assemble multiple molecules involved in signaling pathways. Bone marrow-derived mast cells isolated from Gab2(-/-) mice have defective signaling probably due to the lack of the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase). In this study, we investigated the role of Gab2 using the rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell line mast cells. Fc epsilon RI aggregation induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab2 and translocation of a significant fraction of it from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. As in other cells, Gab2 was found to associate with several signaling molecules including Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2, Grb2, Lyn, and phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma). The association of Gab2 with Lyn and PLC gamma were enhanced after receptor aggregation. Overexpression of Gab2 in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell line cells inhibited the Fc epsilon RI-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the subunits of the receptor, and the phosphorylation and/or activation of Syk and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Downstream events such as calcium mobilization, degranulation, and induction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene transcripts were decreased in Gab2 overexpressing cells, although Akt phosphorylation as a measure of PI3-kinase activation was unaffected. These results suggest that in addition to the positive effects mediated by PI3-kinase that are apparent in Gab2(-/-) mast cells, Gab2 by interacting with Lyn and PLC gamma may have negative regulatory effects on Fc epsilon RI-induced mast cell signaling and functions.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2002;168;9;4682-91

  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Src family kinases are required for phosphorylation and membrane recruitment of Dok-1 in c-Kit signaling.

    Liang X, Wisniewski D, Strife A, Shivakrupa, Clarkson B and Resh MD

    Cell Biology Program and the Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Dok-1 is an adaptor protein that is a substrate for Bcr-Abl and other tyrosine protein kinases. The presence of pleckstrin homology and phosphotyrosine binding domains as well as multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites suggests that Dok-1 is involved in protein-protein and/or protein-lipid interactions. Here we show that stimulation of Mo7 hematopoietic cells with c-Kit ligand (KL) induces phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane recruitment of Dok-1. Addition of the K-Ras membrane-targeting motif to Dok-1 generated a constitutively membrane-bound Dok-1 protein whose tyrosine phosphorylation was independent of PI 3-kinase. Membrane localization of Dok-1 was required for its ability to function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Additional experiments revealed that Dok-1 associated with the juxtamembrane region and C-terminal tail of c-Kit. Lyn promoted phosphorylation of c-Kit and association of c-Kit and Dok-1. Both Lyn and Tec were capable of phosphorylating Dok-1. However, the use of primary bone marrow mast cells from normal and Lyn-deficient mice demonstrated that Lyn is required for KL-dependent Dok-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that activation of PI 3-kinase by KL promotes binding of the Dok pleckstrin homology domain and Dok-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane where Dok-1 is phosphorylated by Src and/or Tec family kinases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA64593

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;16;13732-8

  • Requirements of src family kinase activity associated with CD45 for myeloma cell proliferation by interleukin-6.

    Ishikawa H, Tsuyama N, Abroun S, Liu S, Li FJ, Taniguchi O and Kawano MM

    Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, 1-1-1 Minami-kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan.

    Specific intracellular signals mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor complexes, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, are considered to be responsible for inducing a variety of cellular responses. In multiple myeloma, IL-6 only enhanced the proliferation of CD45+ tumor cells that harbored the IL-6-independent activation of src family kinases even though STAT3 and ERK1/2 could be activated in response to IL-6 in both CD45+ and CD45(minus sign) cells. Furthermore, the IL-6-induced proliferation of CD45+ U266 myeloma cells was significantly suppressed by Lyn-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or a selective src kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that the activation of both STAT3 and ERK1/2 is not enough for IL-6-induced proliferation of myeloma cell lines that require src family kinase activation independent of IL-6 stimulation. Thus, the activation of the src family kinases associated with CD45 expression is a prerequisite for the proliferation of myeloma cell lines by IL-6. We propose a mechanism for IL-6-induced cell proliferation that is strictly dependent upon the cellular context in myelomas.

    Blood 2002;99;6;2172-8

  • Lyn tyrosine kinase is important for IL-5-stimulated eosinophil differentiation.

    Stafford S, Lowell C, Sur S and Alam R

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555. Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143.

    IL-5 plays a pivotal role in growth and differentiation of eosinophils. The signal transduction mechanism of IL-5Ralpha is largely unknown. We have demonstrated that IL-5 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of IL-5Ralpha in eosinophils. To identify IL-5Ralpha-associated tyrosine kinases, we have examined the expression of Src family tyrosine kinases in eosinophils. Among the Src family members, Lyn, Hck, Fgr, and Lck are present in eosinophils, and, among these four kinases, only Lyn is associated with the IL-5Ralpha under basal conditions. We also confirm the association of Janus kinase (Jak)2 with IL-5Ralpha. Lyn kinase phosphorylates both IL-5Ralpha and betacR in vitro. The importance of Lyn kinase for eosinophil differentiation was studied using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Lyn antisense oligodeoxynucleotide blocks eosinophil differentiation from stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. The Jak2 inhibitor tyrphostin AG490 also inhibits eosinophil differentiation. The importance of Lyn for eosinophil differentiation was further studied using Lyn knockout mice. The IL-5-stimulated eosinophil differentiation from bone marrow cells is significantly inhibited in Lyn(-/-) mice as compared with that in control mice. We conclude that both Lyn and Jak2 play an essential role in IL-5Ralpha signaling, leading to eosinophil differentiation. The effect of Lyn appears to be relatively specific for the eosinophilic lineage.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: P01 AI46004, R01 AI50179

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2002;168;4;1978-83

  • Multiple phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein by protein tyrosine kinase Syk prevents eosin-induced aggregation.

    Negro A, Brunati AM, Donella-Deana A, Massimino ML and Pinna LA

    Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica and Centro di Studio delle Biomembrane del C.N.R., University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

    The presence of aggregated alpha-synuclein molecules is a common denominator in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is an outstanding substrate for the protein tyrosine kinase p72syk (Syk), which phosphorylates three tyrosyl residues in its C-terminal domain (Y-125, Y-133, and Y-136), as revealed from experiments with mutants where these residues have been individually or multiply replaced by phenylalanine. In contrast, only Y-125 is phosphorylated by Lyn and c-Fgr. Eosin-induced multimerization is observed with wild-type alpha-syn, either phosphorylated or not by Lyn, and with all its Tyr to Phe mutants but not with the protein previously phosphorylated by Syk. Syk-mediated phosphorylation also counteracts alpha-syn assembly into filaments as judged from the disappearance of alpha-syn precipitated upon centrifugation at 100,000 x g. We also show that Syk and alpha-syn colocalize in the brain, and upon cotransfection in Chinese hamster ovary cells, alpha-syn becomes Tyr-phosphorylated by Syk. Moreover, Syk and alpha-syn interact with each other as judged from the mammalian two-hybrid system approach. These data suggest that Syk or tyrosine kinase(s) with similar specificity may play an antineurodegenerative role by phosphorylating a-syn, thereby preventing its aggregation.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2002;16;2;210-2

  • BANK regulates BCR-induced calcium mobilization by promoting tyrosine phosphorylation of IP(3) receptor.

    Yokoyama K, Su Ih IH, Tezuka T, Yasuda T, Mikoshiba K, Tarakhovsky A and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    B-cell activation mediated through the antigen receptor is dependent on activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as Lyn and Syk and subsequent phosphorylation of various signaling proteins. Here we report on the identification and characterization of the B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats (BANK), a novel substrate of tyrosine kinases. BANK is expressed in B cells and is tyrosine phosphorylated upon B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation, which is mediated predominantly by Syk. Overexpres sion of BANK in B cells leads to enhancement of BCR-induced calcium mobilization. We found that both Lyn and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) associate with the distinct regions of BANK and that BANK promotes Lyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of IP(3)R. Given that IP(3)R channel activity is up-regulated by its tyrosine phosphorylation, BANK appears to be a novel scaffold protein regulating BCR-induced calcium mobilization by connecting PTKs to IP(3)R. Because BANK expression is confined to functional BCR-expressing B cells, BANK-mediated calcium mobilization may be specific to foreign antigen-induced immune responses rather than to signaling required for B-cell development.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;1-2;83-92

  • Gab3, a new DOS/Gab family member, facilitates macrophage differentiation.

    Wolf I, Jenkins BJ, Liu Y, Seiffert M, Custodio JM, Young P and Rohrschneider LR

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA.

    Using the FDC-P1 cell line expressing the exogenous macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor, Fms, we have analyzed the role of a new mammalian DOS/Gab-related signaling protein, called Gab3, in macrophage cell development of the mouse. Gab3 contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, multiple potential sites for tyrosine phosphorylation and SH2 domain binding, and two major polyproline motifs potentially interacting with SH3 domains. Among the growing family of Gab proteins, Gab3 exhibits a unique and overlapping pattern of expression in tissues of the mouse compared with Gab1 and Gab2. Gab3 is more restricted to the hematopoietic tissues such as spleen and thymus but is detectable at progressively lower levels within heart, kidney, uterus, and brain. Like Gab2, Gab3 is tyrosine phosphorylated after M-CSF receptor stimulation and associates transiently with the SH2 domain-containing proteins p85 and SHP2. Overexpression of exogenous Gab3 in FD-Fms cells dramatically accelerates macrophage differentiation upon M-CSF stimulation. Unlike Gab2, which shows a constant mRNA expression level after M-CSF stimulation, Gab3 expression is initially absent or low in abundance in FD cells expressing the wild-type Fms, but Gab3 mRNA levels are increased upon M-CSF stimulation. Moreover, M-CSF stimulation of FD-FmsY807F cells (which grow but do not differentiate) fails to increase Gab3 expression. These results suggest that Gab3 is important for macrophage differentiation and that differentiation requires the early phosphorylation of Gab2 followed by induction and subsequent phosphorylation of Gab3.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40987, R01 CA040987

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;1;231-44

  • Lyn/CD22/SHP-1 and their importance in autoimmunity.

    Blasioli J and Goodnow CC

    Medical Genome Centre, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

    Current directions in autoimmunity 2002;5;151-60

  • RGS16 function is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Derrien A and Druey KM

    Molecular Signal Transduction Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA.

    Galpha(i)-coupled receptor stimulation results in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation and MAPK activation. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins) inhibit G protein-dependent signal transduction by accelerating Galpha(i) GTP hydrolysis, shortening the duration of G protein effector stimulation. RGS16 contains two conserved tyrosine residues in the RGS box, Tyr(168) and Tyr(177), which are predicted sites of phosphorylation. RGS16 underwent phosphorylation in response to m2 muscarinic receptor or EGFR stimulation in HEK 293T or COS-7 cells, which required EGFR kinase activity. Mutational analysis suggested that RGS16 was phosphorylated on both tyrosine residues (Tyr(168) Tyr(177)) after EGF stimulation. RGS16 co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR, and the interaction did not require EGFR activation. Purified EGFR phosphorylated only recombinant RGS16 wild-type or Y177F in vitro, implying that EGFR-mediated phosphorylation depended on residue Tyr(168). Phosphorylated RGS16 demonstrated enhanced GTPase accelerating (GAP) activity on Galpha(i). Mutation of Tyr(168) to phenylalanine resulted in a 30% diminution in RGS16 GAP activity but completely eliminated its ability to regulate G(i)-mediated MAPK activation or adenylyl cyclase inhibition in HEK 293T cells. In contrast, mutation of Tyr(177) to phenylalanine had no effect on RGS16 GAP activity but also abolished its regulation of G(i)-mediated signal transduction in these cells. These data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates RGS16 function and that EGFR may potentially inhibit Galpha(i)-dependent MAPK activation in a feedback loop by enhancing RGS16 activity through tyrosine phosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48532-8

  • Src family kinases mediate receptor-stimulated, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent, tyrosine phosphorylation of dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides-1 in endothelial and B cell lines.

    Stephens LR, Anderson KE and Hawkins PT

    Inositide Laboratory, Signalling Programme, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge CB2 4AT, United Kingdom. len.stephens@bbsrc.ac.uk

    DAPP-1 (dual-adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides-1) is a broadly distributed pleckstrin homology (PH) and Src homology 2 domain containing protein that can bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine 139 and internalised in response to activation of type I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP-1 appears important for appropriate intracellular targeting and creates a potential binding site for Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins. In endothelial cells overexpressing wild-type platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGFbeta) receptors, which express Bmx and Src as their major Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) family and Src family tyrosine kinases, respectively, PDGF can stimulate PI3K-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP-1. Transient overexpression of Src most effectively, compared with Bmx and Syk, augments basal and PDGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP-1, whereas overexpression of dominant-negative Src, but not dominant-negative Bmx, inhibits PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of DAPP-1. Cells expressing mutant PDGFbeta (Y579F/Y581F) receptors (which fail to bind and activate Src-type kinases) fail to tyrosine phosphorylate DAPP-1 in response to PDGF. We show that in DT40 chicken B cell lines, antibody stimulation leads to PI3K-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP-1 that is lost in Lyn- or Syk-deficient cell lines but not Btk-deficient cell lines. PI3K-dependent activation of PKB is only lost in Syk-deficient lines. Finally, in vitro we find lipid-modified Src to be the most effective DAPP-1 tyrosine kinase (versus Syk, Lyn, Btk, and Bmx); phosphorylation of DAPP-1 but not Src autophosphorylation is stimulated approximately 10-fold by PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) (IC(50) = 150 nm) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate but not by their nonbiological diastereoisomers and depends on PH domain mediated binding of DAPP-1 to PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)-containing membranes. We conclude that Src family kinases are responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation of DAPP-1 in vivo and that PI3K regulation is at the level of PH domain-mediated translocation of DAPP-1 to PI3K products in the membrane.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;46;42767-73

  • Phosphorylation of human N-myristoyltransferase by N-myristoylated SRC family tyrosine kinase members.

    Rajala RV, Datla RS, Carlsen SA, Anderson DH, Qi Z, Wang JH and Sharma RK

    Department of Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the cotranslational and/or posttranslational transfer of myristate to the amino terminal glycine residue of a number of important proteins especially the non-receptor tyrosine kinases whose activity is important for tumorigenesis. Human NMT was found to be phosphorylated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase family members of Lyn, Fyn and Lck and dephosphorylated by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin. Deletion of 149 amino acids from the N-terminal end resulted in the absence of phosphorylation suggesting that the phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal end of NMT. Furthermore, a site-directed mutagenesis study indicated that substitution of tyrosine 100 with phenylalanine served NMT as a poor substrate for the Lyn kinase. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the amino-terminal region encompassing tyrosine 100 of NMT served as a good substrate for the Lyn and Fyn kinases. Our studies also indicated that NMT was found to interact with Lyn through its N-terminal end in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating the cross-talk between NMT and their myristoylated protein substrates in signaling pathways.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;288;1;233-9

  • PKCbeta modulates antigen receptor signaling via regulation of Btk membrane localization.

    Kang SW, Wahl MI, Chu J, Kitaura J, Kawakami Y, Kato RM, Tabuchi R, Tarakhovsky A, Kawakami T, Turck CW, Witte ON and Rawlings DJ

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1752, USA.

    Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) result in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice. While targeted disruption of the protein kinase C-beta (PKCbeta) gene in mice results in an immunodeficiency similar to xid, the overall tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk is significantly enhanced in PKCbeta-deficient B cells. We provide direct evidence that PKCbeta acts as a feedback loop inhibitor of Btk activation. Inhibition of PKCbeta results in a dramatic increase in B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated Ca2+ signaling. We identified a highly conserved PKCbeta serine phosphorylation site in a short linker within the Tec homology domain of Btk. Mutation of this phosphorylation site led to enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane association of Btk, and augmented BCR and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in B and mast cells, respectively. These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby reversible translocation of Btk/Tec kinases regulates the threshold for immunoreceptor signaling and thereby modulates lymphocyte activation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD37091, R01 HD037091

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;20;5692-702

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of p190 RhoGAP by Fyn regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    Wolf RM, Wilkes JJ, Chao MV and Resh MD

    Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    During development of the central nervous system, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiate into mature myelinating cells. The molecular signals that promote this process, however, are not well defined. One molecule that has been implicated in oligodendrocyte differentiation is the Src family kinase Fyn. In order to probe the function of Fyn in this system, a yeast two hybrid screen was performed. Using Fyn as bait, p190 RhoGAP was isolated in the screen of an oligodendrocyte cDNA library. Coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays verified that p190 RhoGAP bound to the Fyn SH2 domain. Phosphorylation of p190 required active Fyn tyrosine kinase and was increased threefold upon differentiation of primary oligodendrocytes. Moreover, complex formation between p190 and p120 RasGAP occurred in differentiated oligodendrocytes. p190 RhoGAP activity is known to regulate the RhoGDP:RhoGTP ratio. Indeed, expression of dominant negative Rho in primary oligodendrocytes caused a hyperextension of processes. Conversely, constitutively activated Rho caused reduced process formation. These findings define a pathway in which Fyn activity regulates the phosphorylation of p190, leading to an increase in RhoGAP activity with a subsequent increase in RhoGDP, which in turn, regulates the morphological changes that accompany oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07739, GM57966; PHS HHS: N559904

    Journal of neurobiology 2001;49;1;62-78

  • CrkL is recruited through its SH2 domain to the erythropoietin receptor and plays a role in Lyn-mediated receptor signaling.

    Arai A, Kanda E, Nosaka Y, Miyasaka N and Miura O

    Department of Hematology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 113, Japan.

    The erythropoietin (Epo) receptor transduces its signals by activating physically associated tyrosine kinases, mainly Jak2 and Lyn, and thereby inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of various substrates including the Epo receptor (EpoR) itself. We previously demonstrated that, in Epo-stimulated cells, an adapter protein, CrkL, becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated, physically associates with Shc, SHP-2, and Cbl, and plays a role in activation of the Ras/Erk signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that Epo induces binding of CrkL to the tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR and SHIP1 in 32D/EpoR-Wt cells overexpressing CrkL. In vitro binding studies showed that the CrkL SH2 domain directly mediates the EpoR binding, which was specifically inhibited by a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to the amino acid sequences at Tyr(460) in the cytoplasmic domain of EpoR. The CrkL SH2 domain was also required for tyrosine phosphorylation of CrkL in Epo-stimulated cells. Overexpression of Lyn induced constitutive phosphorylation of CrkL and activation of Erk, whereas that of a Lyn mutant lacking the tyrosine kinase domain attenuated the Epo-induced phosphorylation of CrkL and activation of Erk. Furthermore, Lyn, but not Jak2, phosphorylated CrkL on tyrosine in in vitro kinase assays. Together, the present study suggests that, upon Epo stimulation, CrkL is recruited to the EpoR through interaction between the CrkL SH2 domain and phosphorylated Tyr(460) in the EpoR cytoplasmic domain and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by receptor-associated Lyn to activate the downstream signaling pathway leading to the activation of Erk and Elk-1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;35;33282-90

  • Interaction between growth arrest-DNA damage protein 34 and Src kinase Lyn negatively regulates genotoxic apoptosis.

    Grishin AV, Azhipa O, Semenov I and Corey SJ

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. grishin@pitt.edu

    Genotoxic stresses activate intracellular signaling molecules, which lead to growth arrest, DNA repair, and/or apoptosis. Among these molecules are the growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 (GADD34) and the Src-related protein tyrosine kinase Lyn. Here, we report that these two proteins physically and functionally interact to regulate DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Multiple isolates of GADD34 and the related murine protein MyD116 were identified as binding partners of Lyn in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The specific interaction was confirmed by in vitro association of GADD34 with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain of Lyn, as well as coimmunoprecipitation of GADD34 and Lyn from mammalian cells. GADD34 was tyrosine-phosphorylated in vivo in a Lyn-dependent manner. Lyn efficiently phosphorylated affinity-purified GADD34 in vitro. Lyn negatively regulated the proapoptotic function of GADD34 in a kinase-dependent manner. Expression of wild-type, but not kinase-inactive, Lyn weakened promotion of apoptosis by GADD34 following treatment with methyl-methanesulfonate or ionizing radiation in HEK293 and HeLa cells. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with the Src-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 strengthened promotion of apoptosis by GADD34. We propose that Lyn regulates the proapoptotic function of GADD34 by binding and phosphorylating it.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;18;10172-7

  • B cell adaptor containing src homology 2 domain (BASH) links B cell receptor signaling to the activation of hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1.

    Tsuji S, Okamoto M, Yamada K, Okamoto N, Goitsuka R, Arnold R, Kiefer F and Kitamura D

    Division of Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Science University of Tokyo, Chiba 278-0022, Japan.

    The B cell adaptor containing src homology 2 domain (BASH; also termed BLNK or SLP-65), is crucial for B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated activation, proliferation, and differentiation of B cells. BCR-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation of BASH creates binding sites for signaling effectors such as phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma)2 and Vav, while the function of its COOH-terminal src homology 2 domain is unknown. We have now identified hematopoietic progenitor kinase (HPK)1, a STE20-related serine/threonine kinase, as a protein that inducibly interacts with the BASH SH2 domain. BCR ligation induced rapid tyrosine-phosphorylation of HPK1 mainly by Syk and Lyn, resulting in its association with BASH and catalytic activation. BCR-mediated activation of HPK1 was impaired in Syk- or BASH-deficient B cells. The functional SH2 domain of BASH and Tyr-379 within HPK1 which we identified as a Syk-phosphorylation site were both necessary for interaction of both proteins and efficient HPK1 activation after BCR stimulation. Furthermore, HPK1 augmented, whereas its kinase-dead mutant inhibited IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) activation by BCR engagement. These results reveal a novel BCR signaling pathway leading to the activation of HPK1 and subsequently IKKbeta, in which BASH recruits tyrosine-phosphorylated HPK1 into the BCR signaling complex.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2001;194;4;529-39

  • Cleavage of Fyn and Lyn in their N-terminal unique regions during induction of apoptosis: a new mechanism for Src kinase regulation.

    Luciano F, Ricci JE and Auberger P

    INSERM U526, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer. IFR50, Faculté de Médecine, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice-Cédex 2, France.

    The members of the Src kinase family are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, but some of them such as Blk, Hck, Fgr, Lck and Lyn are found primarily in hematopoietic cells. In the present study, we have undertaken experiments to test whether Src kinase cleavage and relocation is a general mechanism during induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that Fyn and Lyn are efficiently cleaved in their unique region in hematopoietic cells undergoing apoptosis. Fyn cleavage occurred in Fas-stimulated Jurkat T cells but Fyn and Lyn were also processed in the SKW6.4 B cell line. Inhibition of caspases by Z-VAD-fmk or Ac-DEVD-CHO totally prevented Fyn and Lyn cleavage in both intact cells and in vitro. Fyn and Lyn but not Lck, Src and Hck were processed in vitro by human recombinant caspase 3 and by cellular extracts prepared from Fas-stimulated cells. Single mutation of Asp 19 or Asp 18 in the unique N-terminal domains of Fyn and Lyn respectively abolished their cleavage and relocation into the cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. When immunoprecipitated from COS cells N-terminal deleted Src kinases exhibited increased enzymatic kinase activity toward enolase. Thus, cleavage of Fyn and Lyn during induction of apoptosis represents a new mechanism for the regulation of Src kinases that may have important functional and physiological consequences.

    Oncogene 2001;20;36;4935-41

  • PRAM-1 is a novel adaptor protein regulated by retinoic acid (RA) and promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-RA receptor alpha in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    Moog-Lutz C, Peterson EJ, Lutz PG, Eliason S, Cavé-Riant F, Singer A, Di Gioia Y, Dmowski S, Kamens J, Cayre YE and Koretzky G

    Unité INSERM 417, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, 184 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France.

    The t(15;17) translocation, found in 95% of acute promyelocytic leukemia, encodes a promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) fusion protein. Complete remission of acute promyelocytic leukemia can be obtained by treating patients with all-trans retinoic acid, and PML-RARalpha plays a major role in mediating retinoic acid effects in leukemia cells. A main model proposed for acute promyelocytic leukemia is that PML-RARalpha exerts its oncogenic effects by repressing the expression of retinoic acid-inducible genes critical to myeloid differentiation. By applying subtraction cloning to acute promyelocytic leukemia cells, we identified a retinoic acid-induced gene, PRAM-1 (PML-RARalpha target gene encoding an Adaptor Molecule-1), which encodes a novel adaptor protein sharing structural homologies with the SLAP-130/fyb adaptor. PRAM-1 is expressed and regulated during normal human myelopoiesis. In U937 myeloid precursor cells, PRAM-1 expression is inhibited by expression of PML-RARalpha in the absence of ligand and de novo superinduced by retinoic acid. PRAM-1 associates with other adaptors, SLP-76 and SKAP-55HOM, in myeloid cell lines and with protein tyrosine kinase lyn. By providing the first evidence that PML-RARalpha dysregulates expression of an adaptor protein, our data open new insights into signaling events that are disrupted during transformation by PML-RARalpha and induced by retinoic acid during de novo differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;25;22375-81

  • B cell receptor signaling involves physical and functional association of FAK with Lyn and IgM.

    Mlinaric-Rascan I and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation induces phosphorylation of a number of proteins, leading to functional activation of B lymphocytes. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we show that FAK is tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated following BCR stimulation. We also demonstrate constitutive association of FAK with the Src-family kinase Lyn and with components of the BCR. Association of Lyn with FAK which was not correlated with BCR-induced activation of both kinases, appeared to be mediated via the binding of Lyn to the COOH-terminal part of the FAK molecule. Our results indicate that FAK is a component of the BCR complex and that it participates in BCR signaling.

    FEBS letters 2001;498;1;26-31

  • Detergent-resistant membrane domains are required for mast cell activation but dispensable for tyrosine phosphorylation upon aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE.

    Yamashita T, Yamaguchi T, Murakami K and Nagasawa S

    Division of Hygienic Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan. yamashit@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

    Aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FceRI) on mast cells results in the rapid phosphorylation of tyrosines on the beta and gamma chains of the receptor by the Src family kinase Lyn, which initiates the signaling cascades leading to secretion of inflammatory mediators. The detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have been implicated in FcepsilonRI signaling because aggregated receptors emigrate to DRMs that are enriched in certain signaling components. We evaluated the role of DRMs in FcepsilonRI signaling by disruption of DRMs using a cholesterol-binding agent, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD). While treatment of rat basophilic leukemia cells with MBCD inhibits degranulation and Ca(2+) mobilization upon aggregation of FcepsilonRI, MBCD hardly affects the aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI as well as other signaling molecules such as phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1). MBCD delocalizes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate from DRMs, which may prevent MBCD-treated cells from producing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by means of activated PLC-gamma1. These data suggest an indispensable role for DRMs in the Ca(2+) response rather than tyrosine phosphorylation, and support a model of receptor phosphorylation in which aggregated FcepsilonRI is tyrosine phosphorylated outside DRMs by constitutively associated Src family kinase Lyn via a transphosphorylation mechanism.

    Journal of biochemistry 2001;129;6;861-8

  • CD24 induces apoptosis in human B cells via the glycolipid-enriched membrane domains/rafts-mediated signaling system.

    Suzuki T, Kiyokawa N, Taguchi T, Sekino T, Katagiri YU and Fujimoto J

    Department of Pathology, National Children's Medical Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD24 protein is a B cell differentiation Ag that is expressed on mature resting B cells but disappears upon Ag stimulation. We used Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells, which are thought to be related to germinal center B cells, to examine the biological effect of Ab-mediated CD24 cross-linking on human B cells and observed 1) induction of apoptosis in BL cells mediated by cross-linking of CD24; and 2) synergism between the cross-linking of CD24 and that of the B cell receptor for Ag in the effect on apoptosis induction. We also observed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases following CD24 cross-linking, suggesting that CD24 mediates the intracellular signaling that leads to apoptosis in BL cells. Although CD24 has no cytoplasmic portion to transduce signals intracellularly, analysis of biochemically separated glycolipid-enriched membrane (GEM) fractions indicated enhanced association of CD24 and Lyn protein tyrosine kinase in GEM as well as increased Lyn kinase activity after CD24 cross-linking, suggesting that CD24 mediates intracellular signaling via a GEM-dependent mechanism. Specific microscopic cocapping of CD24 and Lyn, but not of other kinases, following CD24 cross-linking supported this idea. We further observed that apoptosis induction by cross-linking is a common feature shared by GEM-associated molecules expressed on BL cells, including GPI-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipids. CD24-mediated apoptosis in BL cells may provide a model for the cell death mechanism initiated by GEM-associated molecules, which is closely related to B cell receptor for Ag-mediated apoptosis.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;166;9;5567-77

  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 causes differential signalling mediated by proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in THP-1 cells.

    Yamasaki M, Arai H, Ashida N, Ishii K and Kita T

    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has a crucial role in atherogenesis and inflammation. However, MCP-1-mediated signalling pathways in monocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated the role of tyrosine kinases such as proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) in MCP-1-mediated signal transduction in the monocytic cell line THP-1. Pyk2 was tyrosine phosphorylated very quickly after stimulation with MCP-1. We found that Lyn, Shc and paxillin were also tyrosine phosphorylated by MCP-1. We examined the association of these molecules by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis. The association of Pyk2 with Lyn was dependent on stimulation with MCP-1 and on tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. Phosphorylation of p38 was also dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2. However, the association of Pyk2 with paxillin and Grb2 was not affected by stimulation with MCP-1. Phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase) was not affected by overexpression of kinase-negative Pyk2. Our results indicate that Pyk2 forms a complex with paxillin, Grb2 and Lyn in THP-1 cells. However, Pyk2 is not always involved in MCP-1-mediated signalling pathways.

    The Biochemical journal 2001;355;Pt 3;751-6

  • Protein kinase C theta is expressed in mast cells and is functionally involved in Fcepsilon receptor I signaling.

    Liu Y, Graham C, Parravicini V, Brown MJ, Rivera J and Shaw S

    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    We investigated possible expression and function in mast cells of protein kinase C (PKC) theta, a member of the PKC family with demonstrated function in a limited range of cell types. We found that PKC theta is expressed in bone marrow-derived mast cells and in the RBL-2H3 mast cell line. PKC theta underwent translocation to the membrane in response to Fcepsilon receptor I (FcepsilonR I) activation. Receptor activation induced phosphorylation of PKC theta. The tyrosine phosphorylation of PKC theta is delayed relative to PKC delta and coincides temporally with PKC theta association with c-src family members Lyn and SRC: Studies of RBL-2H3 cells transduced with PKC theta constructs indicated a role for PKC theta in receptor-induced activation of extracellular regulated kinases, interleukin-3 gene transcription, and degranulation in response to antigen stimulation. These studies extend the known functions of PKCtheta to another important immune cell type and indicate the concurrent participation of multiple PKCs in the FcepsilonR I-mediated response of mast cells.

    Journal of leukocyte biology 2001;69;5;831-40

  • BLNK mediates Syk-dependent Btk activation.

    Baba Y, Hashimoto S, Matsushita M, Watanabe D, Kishimoto T, Kurosaki T and Tsukada S

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Btk is a critical molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-coupled signaling, and its activity is regulated by Lyn and Syk. Although the molecular mechanism of Lyn-dependent Btk activation has been investigated, that of Syk-dependent Btk activation has remained unidentified. We have demonstrated that BLNK mediates Syk-dependent Btk activation. In a reconstitution cell system, coexpression of BLNK allows Syk to phosphorylate Btk on its tyrosine 551, leading to the enhancement of Btk activity. This phosphorylation depends on the interaction of Btk and BLNK by means of the Btk-Src homology 2 domain. The existence of such an activation mechanism is supported by the observation that the BCR-induced Btk phosphorylation and activation are significantly reduced in BLNK-deficient B cells as well as in Syk-deficient B cells. Although previous observations have identified the function of BLNK as the linker that integrates the action of Btk and Syk into downstream effectors such as phospholipase Cgamma2, our present study indicates another function of BLNK that connects the activity of Syk to that of Btk.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;5;2582-6

  • Activated Fyn phosphorylates alpha-synuclein at tyrosine residue 125.

    Nakamura T, Yamashita H, Takahashi T and Nakamura S

    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minamiku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

    alpha-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein of unknown function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To gain insight into the functions of alpha-synuclein, we sought protein kinases that phosphorylate alpha-synuclein in the central nervous system. In contrast to Lyn, PYK2, FAK, MAPK/ERK1, SAPK/JNK, and Cdk5, only Fyn could phosphorylate alpha-synuclein. In addition, A30P and A53T mutations did not affect the phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein by Fyn. Mutation analysis revealed that activated Fyn phosphorylates specifically tyrosine residue 125 of alpha-synuclein. The distribution of alpha-synuclein and Fyn expression was similar in various parts of the brain and was colocalized in subcellular structures. Since Fyn regulates various signal transduction pathways in the central nervous system and plays an essential role in the neuronal cell differentiation, survival, and plasticity, results of this paper indicate that phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein might be involved in one of the Fyn-mediated signaling pathways in neuronal cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;280;4;1085-92

  • The SH2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 down-regulates activation of Lyn and Lyn-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD19 receptor in B cells.

    Somani AK, Yuen K, Xu F, Zhang J, Branch DR and Siminovitch KA

    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    SHP-1 is a cytosolic tyrosine phosphatase implicated in down-regulation of B cell antigen receptor signaling. SHP-1 effects on the antigen receptor reflect its capacity to dephosphorylate this receptor as well as several inhibitory comodulators. In view of our observation that antigen receptor-induced CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation is constitutively increased in B cells from SHP-l-deficient motheaten mice, we investigated the possibility that CD19, a positive modulator of antigen receptor signaling, represents another substrate for SHP-1. However, analysis of CD19 coimmunoprecipitable tyrosine phosphatase activity in CD19 immunoprecipitates from SHP-1-deficient and wild-type B cells revealed that SHP-1 accounts for only a minor portion of CD19-associated tyrosine phosphatase activity. As CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation is modulated by the Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase, Lyn activity was evaluated in wild-type and motheaten B cells. The results revealed both Lyn as well as CD19-associated Lyn kinase activity to be constitutively and inducibly increased in SHP-1-deficient compared with wild-type B cells. The data also demonstrated SHP-1 to be associated with Lyn in stimulated but not in resting B cells and indicated this interaction to be mediated via Lyn binding to the SHP-1 N-terminal SH2 domain. These findings, together with cyanogen bromide cleavage data revealing that SHP-1 dephosphorylates the Lyn autophosphorylation site, identify Lyn deactivation/dephosphorylation as a likely mechanism whereby SHP-1 exerts its influence on CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation and, by extension, its inhibitory effect on B cell antigen receptor signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;3;1938-44

  • The C-terminus of NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1) contains a novel binding site for protein phosphatase-1 that is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation and RNA binding.

    Beullens M, Vulsteke V, Van Eynde A, Jagiello I, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Campus Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (NIPP1; 351 residues) is a nuclear RNA-binding protein that also contains in its central domain two contiguous sites of interaction with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1(C)). We show here that mutation of these phosphatase-interaction sites did not completely abolish the ability of NIPP1 to bind and inhibit PP1(C). This could be accounted for by an additional inhibitory phosphatase-binding site in the C-terminal region (residues 311-351), with an inhibitory core corresponding to residues 331-337. Following mutation of all three PP1(C)-binding sites in the central and C-terminal domains, NIPP1 no longer interacted with PP1(C). Remarkably, while both NIPP1 domains inhibited the phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1(C) independently, mutation of either domain completely abolished the ability of NIPP1 to inhibit the dephosphorylation of myelin basic protein. The inhibitory potency of the C-terminal site of NIPP1 was decreased by phosphorylation of Tyr-335 and by the addition of RNA. Tyr-335 could be phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase Lyn, but only in the presence of RNA. In conclusion, NIPP1 contains two phosphatase-binding domains that function co-operatively but which are controlled independently. Our data are in agreement with a shared-site model for the interaction of PP1(C) with its regulatory subunits.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;352 Pt 3;651-8

  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of EVL, a Mena/VASP relative, regulates its interaction with actin and SH3 domains.

    Lambrechts A, Kwiatkowski AV, Lanier LM, Bear JE, Vandekerckhove J, Ampe C and Gertler FB

    Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Department of Medical Protein Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ghent University, Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Gent, Belgium.

    Proteins of the Ena/VASP family are implicated in processes that require dynamic actin remodeling such as axon guidance and platelet activation. In this work, we explored some of the pathways that likely regulate actin dynamics in part via EVL (Ena/VASP-like protein). Two isoforms, EVL and EVL-I, were highly expressed in hematopoietic cells of thymus and spleen. In CD3-activated T-cells, EVL was found in F-actin-rich patches and at the distal tips of the microspikes that formed on the activated side of the T-cells. Like the other family members, EVL localized to focal adhesions and the leading edge of lamellipodia when expressed in fibroblasts. EVL was a substrate for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and this phosphorylation regulated several of the interactions between EVL and its ligands. Unlike VASP, EVL nucleated actin polymerization under physiological conditions, whereas phosphorylation of both EVL and VASP decreased their nucleating activity. EVL bound directly to the Abl, Lyn, and nSrc SH3 domains; the FE65 WW domain; and profilin, likely via its proline-rich core. Binding of Abl and nSrc SH3 domains, but not profilin or other SH3 domains, was abolished by cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of EVL. We show strong cooperative binding of two profilin dimers on the polyproline sequence of EVL. Additionally, profilin competed with the SH3 domains for binding to partially overlapping binding sites. These data suggest that the function of EVL could be modulated in a complex manner by its interactions with multiple ligands and through phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide dependent kinases.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM58801

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36143-51

  • Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells.

    van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B and von Lindern M

    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. vandijk@hema.fgg.eur.nl

    Stem cell factor (SCF) has an important role in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration of hematopoietic cells. SCF exerts its effects by binding to cKit, a receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) by cKit was previously shown to contribute to many SCF-induced cellular responses. Therefore, PI3-K-dependent signaling pathways activated by SCF were investigated. The PI3-K-dependent activation and phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Tec and the adapter molecule p62Dok-1 are reported. The study shows that Tec and Dok-1 form a stable complex with Lyn and 2 unidentified phosphoproteins of 56 and 140 kd. Both the Tec homology and the SH2 domain of Tec were identified as being required for the interaction with Dok-1, whereas 2 domains in Dok-1 appeared to mediate the association with Tec. In addition, Tec and Lyn were shown to phosphorylate Dok-1, whereas phosphorylated Dok-1 was demonstrated to bind to the SH2 domains of several signaling molecules activated by SCF, including Abl, CrkL, SHIP, and PLCgamma-1, but not those of Vav and Shc. These findings suggest that p62Dok-1 may function as an important scaffold molecule in cKit-mediated signaling.

    Blood 2000;96;10;3406-13

  • Phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta on distinct tyrosine residues regulates specific cellular functions.

    Kronfeld I, Kazimirsky G, Lorenzo PS, Garfield SH, Blumberg PM and Brodie C

    Gonda (Goldschmied) Medical Diagnosis Research Center, Faculty of Life-Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.

    Protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) inhibits proliferation and decreases expression of the differentiation marker glutamine synthetase (GS) in C6 glioma cells. Here, we report that distinct, specific tyrosine residues on PKCdelta are involved in these two responses. Transfection of cells with PKCdelta mutated at tyrosine 155 to phenylalanine caused enhanced proliferation in response to 12-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, whereas GS expression resembled that for the PKCdelta wild-type transfectant. Conversely, transfection with PKCdelta mutated at tyrosine 187 to phenylalanine resulted in increased expression of GS, whereas the rate of proliferation resembled that of the PKCdelta wild-type transfectant. The tyrosine phosphorylation of PKCdelta and the decrease in GS expression induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were abolished by the Src kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2. In response to PDGF, Fyn associated with PKCdelta via tyrosine 187. Finally, overexpression of dominant negative Fyn abrogated the decrease in GS expression and reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation of PKCdelta induced by PDGF. We conclude that the tyrosine phosphorylation of PKCdelta and its association with tyrosine kinases may be an important point of divergence in PKC signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;45;35491-8

  • IL-2 induces the association of IL-2Rbeta, lyn, and MAP kinase ERK-1 in human neutrophils.

    Wei S, Liu JH, Epling-Burnette PK, Jiang K, Zhong B, Elkabani ME, Pearson EW and Djeu JY

    H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tampa 33612, USA. Wei@moffitt.usf.edu

    IL-2, first identified as a T cell growth factor, has been proven to activate many cell types including polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN3). However, the mechanisms involved in PMN activation, especially the signaling pathways used by the IL-2R, are currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that IL-2 has the ability to induce protein tyrosine kinases in human PMN, and we provide the first evidence that lyn kinase is activated and physically associated with MAP kinase/ERK1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-IL-2Rbeta and Western blotting with anti-p53/56lym revealed that lyn protein was present in IL-2R precipitates and that the association of lyn with IL-2Rbeta was markedly elevated by IL-2 stimulation. Furthermore the activity of lyn kinase, evaluated by an in vitro kinase assay with enolase as a substrate, increased following IL-2 stimulation. Another important finding was that, upon IL-2 activation, MAPK/ERK1 was also phosphorylated in PMN. A direct association between lyn and ERK1 was initially demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation/Western blotting and then definitively proven by the use of a GST-ERK1 fusion protein. We showed that ERK1 binds lyn only in IL-2 stimulated PMN, but not in unstimulated PMN. These results suggest that IL-2 can promote the association of lyn protein tyrosine kinase with IL-2Rbeta as well as the direct binding of MAPK/ERK1 to lyn. The signaling pathway utilized by human PMN in response to IL-2 may thus involve the association of lyn with IL-2Rbeta and the activation process also triggers the recruitment and activation of a specific ERK.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46820

    Immunobiology 2000;202;4;363-82

  • Latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein-Barr virus binds WW domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases that ubiquitinate B-cell tyrosine kinases.

    Winberg G, Matskova L, Chen F, Plant P, Rotin D, Gish G, Ingham R, Ernberg I and Pawson T

    Karolinska Institutet, Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center (MTC), SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

    The latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the maintenance of viral latency and appears to function in part by inhibiting B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. The N-terminal cytoplasmic region of LMP2A has multiple tyrosine residues that upon phosphorylation bind the SH2 domains of the Syk tyrosine kinase and the Src family kinase Lyn. The LMP2A N-terminal region also has two conserved PPPPY motifs. Here we show that the PPPPY motifs of LMP2A bind multiple WW domains of E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, including AIP4 and KIAA0439, and demonstrate that AIP4 and KIAA0439 form physiological complexes with LMP2A in EBV-positive B cells. In addition to a C2 domain and four WW domains, these proteins have a C-terminal Hect catalytic domain implicated in the ubiquitination of target proteins. LMP2A enhances Lyn and Syk ubiquitination in vivo in a fashion that depends on the activity of Nedd4 family members and correlates with destabilization of the Lyn tyrosine kinase. These results suggest that LMP2A serves as a molecular scaffold to recruit both B-cell tyrosine kinases and C2/WW/Hect domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases. This may promote Lyn and Syk ubiquitination in a fashion that contributes to a block in B-cell signaling. LMP2A may potentiate a normal mechanism by which Nedd4 family E3 enzymes regulate B-cell signaling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;22;8526-35

  • Collagen, convulxin, and thrombin stimulate aggregation-independent tyrosine phosphorylation of CD31 in platelets. Evidence for the involvement of Src family kinases.

    Cicmil M, Thomas JM, Sage T, Barry FA, Leduc M, Bon C and Gibbins JM

    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom.

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) is a 130-kDa glycoprotein receptor present on the surface of platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, certain T-lymphocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. CD31 is involved in adhesion and signal transduction and is implicated in the regulation of a number of cellular processes. These include transendothelial migration of leukocytes, integrin regulation, and T-cell function, although its function in platelets remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of the platelet agonists collagen, convulxin, and thrombin to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of CD31. Furthermore, we show that this event is independent of platelet aggregation and secretion and is accompanied by an increase in surface expression of CD31. A kinase capable of phosphorylating CD31 was detected in CD31 immunoprecipitates, and its activity was increased following activation of platelets. CD31 tyrosine phosphorylation was reduced or abolished by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, suggesting a role for these enzymes. In accordance with this, each of the Src family members expressed in platelets, namely Fyn, Lyn, Src, Yes, and Hck, was shown to co-immunoprecipitate with CD31. The involvement of Src family kinases in this process was confirmed through the study of mouse platelets deficient in Fyn.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;35;27339-47

  • Sequential phosphorylation of protein band 3 by Syk and Lyn tyrosine kinases in intact human erythrocytes: identification of primary and secondary phosphorylation sites.

    Brunati AM, Bordin L, Clari G, James P, Quadroni M, Baritono E, Pinna LA and Donella-Deana A

    Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica and Centro di Studio delle Biomembrane del C.N.R., University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

    Treatment of intact human erythrocytes with pervanadate induces Tyr (Y)-phosphorylation of the transmembrane protein band 3; in parallel, the activity of the immunoprecipitated tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn is increased. When erythrocytes are incubated with pervanadate together with PP1, a specific inhibitor of Src kinases, including Lyn, the Y-phosphorylation of band 3 is only partially reduced. Indeed, the PP1-resistant phosphorylation of band 3 precedes and is a prerequisite for its coimmunoprecipitation with Lyn, which interacts with the phosphoprotein via the SH2 domain of the enzyme, as proven by binding competition experiments. Upon recruitment to primarily phosphorylated band 3, Lyn catalyzes the secondary phosphorylation of the transmembrane protein. These data are consistent with the view that band 3 is phosphorylated in intact erythrocytes by both PP1-resistant (most likely Syk) and PP1-inhibited (most likely Lyn) tyrosine kinases according to a sequential phosphorylation process. Similar radiolabeled peptide maps are obtained by tryptic digestion of (32)P-band 3 isolated from either pervanadate-treated erythrocytes or red cell membranes incubated with exogenous Syk and Lyn. It has also been demonstrated by means of mass spectrometry that the primary phosphorylation of band 3 occurs at Y8 and Y21, while the secondary phosphorylation affects Y359 and Y904. (Blood. 2000;96:1550-1557)

    Blood 2000;96;4;1550-7

  • Engagement of the human pre-B cell receptor generates a lipid raft-dependent calcium signaling complex.

    Guo B, Kato RM, Garcia-Lloret M, Wahl MI and Rawlings DJ

    The Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, USA.

    Pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression is critical for B lineage development. The signaling events initiated by the pre-BCR, however, remain poorly defined. We demonstrate that lipid rafts are the major functional compartment for human pre-B cell activation. A fraction of pre-BCR was constitutively raft associated, and receptor engagement enhanced this association. These events promoted Lyn activation and Igbeta phosphorylation and led to the generation of a raft-associated signaling module composed of tyrosine phosphorylated Lyn, Syk, BLNK, PI3K, Btk, VAV, and PLCgamma2. Formation of this module was essential for pre-BCR calcium signaling. Together, these observations directly link the previously identified genetic requirement for the components of this module in B lineage development with theirfunctional role(s) in human preBCR signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81140; NICHD NIH HHS: HHD37091

    Immunity 2000;13;2;243-53

  • Role for Lyn tyrosine kinase as a regulator of stress-activated protein kinase activity in response to DNA damage.

    Yoshida K, Weichselbaum R, Kharbanda S and Kufe D

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The cellular response to DNA damage includes activation of the nuclear Lyn protein tyrosine kinase. Using cells deficient in Lyn expression, the present studies demonstrate that Lyn is required in part for induction of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) in the response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) and other genotoxic agents. By contrast, exposure of Lyn-deficient cells to ara-C, ionizing radiation, or cisplatin had no effect on activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Similar findings were obtained in cells stably expressing a kinase-inactive, dominant-negative Lyn(K-R) mutant. Coexpression studies demonstrate that Lyn, but not Lyn(K-R), induces SAPK activity. In addition, the results demonstrate that Lyn activates SAPK by an MKK7-dependent, SEK1-independent mechanism. As MEKK1 functions upstream to MKK7 and SAPK, the finding that a dominant-negative MEKK1(K-M) mutant blocks Lyn-induced SAPK activity supports involvement of the MEKK1-->MKK7 pathway. The results also demonstrate that inhibition of Lyn-induced SAPK activity abrogates the apoptotic response of cells to genotoxic stress. These findings indicate that activation of SAPK by DNA damage is mediated in part by Lyn and that the Lyn-->MEKK1-->MKK7-->SAPK pathway is functional in the induction of apoptosis by genotoxic agents.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29431, CA55241, CA75216, R01 CA029431

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;15;5370-80

  • Characterization of the human B cell RAG-associated gene, hBRAG, as a B cell receptor signal-enhancing glycoprotein dimer that associates with phosphorylated proteins in resting B cells.

    Verkoczy LK, Guinn Ba and Berinstein NL

    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto M4N 3N5, Ontario, Canada.

    Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the hBRAG (human B cell RAG-associated gene) protein were generated to characterize hBRAG at the biochemical level. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation experiments with these antibody reagents demonstrate that this protein can be expressed in B cells as a membrane-integrated glycoprotein disulfide-linked dimer. However, both glycosylated and unglycosylated isoforms of hBRAG are detectable with these reagents. Additionally, their use in cell surface biotinylation and flow cytometry reveals subcellular hBRAG pools both at cell surface and intracellular locations. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with hBRAG antisera detected the association of hBRAG with phosphorylated proteins in resting B cells, including the protein tyrosine kinase Hck, which is subsequently dephosphorylated upon B cell receptor (BCR) ligation. Consistent with its cell surface expression and possible link to BCR signaling, experiments in which alpha-hBRAG antibodies were used to generate early activation signals suggest a modest but specific element of tyrosine phosphorylation occurring through a putative hBRAG receptor. Additional experiments also suggest that hBRAG may be involved in positively enhancing BCR ligation-mediated early activation events. Collectively, these results are consistent with a function for hBRAG as a B cell surface signaling receptor molecule. Coupled with the earlier observation that hBRAG expression correlates with early and late B cell-specific RAG expression, we submit that hBRAG may mediate regulatory signals key to B cell development and/or regulation of B cell-specific RAG expression.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;28;20967-79

  • CD19 regulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase activation in B lymphocytes through processive amplification.

    Fujimoto M, Fujimoto Y, Poe JC, Jansen PJ, Lowell CA, DeFranco AL and Tedder TF

    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    CD19 regulates constitutive and antigen receptor-induced signaling thresholds in B lymphocytes through its unique cytoplasmic domain. Herein, we demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism where interactions between CD19 and Lyn amplify basal and antigen receptor-induced Src family kinase activation. Lyn expression was required for CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation in primary B cells. Experiments with purified proteins demonstrated that CD19-Y513 was Lyn's initial phosphorylation and binding site. This led to processive phosphorylation of CD19-Y482, which recruited a second Lyn molecule, allowing for transphosphorylation and amplification of Lyn activation. In vivo, CD19 deficiency impaired, and CD19 overexpression enhanced, Lyn kinase activity. Thus, CD19 functions as a specialized adapter protein for the amplification of Src family kinases that is crucial for intrinsic and antigen receptor-induced signal transduction.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA54464, CA81776; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL54476

    Immunity 2000;13;1;47-57

  • CD22 forms a quaternary complex with SHIP, Grb2, and Shc. A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux.

    Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Jansen PJ, Miller AS and Tedder TF

    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    CD22 is a cell surface molecule that regulates signal transduction in B lymphocytes. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CD22 recruits numerous cytoplasmic effector molecules including SHP-1, a potent phosphotyrosine phosphatase that down-regulates B cell antigen receptor (BCR)- and CD19-generated signals. Paradoxically, B cells from CD22-deficient mice generate augmented intracellular calcium responses following BCR ligation, yet proliferation is decreased. To understand further the mechanisms through which CD22 regulates BCR-dependent calcium flux and proliferation, interactions between CD22 and effector molecules involved in these processes were assessed. The adapter proteins Grb2 and Shc were found to interact with distinct and specific regions of the CD22 cytoplasmic domain. Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate-5'-phosphatase (SHIP) also bound phosphorylated CD22, but binding required an intact CD22 cytoplasmic domain. All three molecules were bound to CD22 when isolated from BCR-stimulated splenic B cells, indicating the formation of a CD22.Grb2.Shc.SHIP quaternary complex. Therefore, SHIP associating with CD22 may be important for SHIP recruitment to the cell surface where it negatively regulates calcium influx. Although augmented calcium responses in CD22-deficient mice should facilitate enhanced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, BCR ligation did not induce JNK activation in CD22-deficient B cells. These data demonstrate that CD22 functions as a molecular "scaffold" that specifically coordinates the docking of multiple effector molecules, in addition to SHP-1, in a context necessary for BCR-dependent SHIP activity and JNK stimulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-54464, CA-81776

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;23;17420-7

  • Molecular cloning of the mouse APS as a member of the Lnk family adaptor proteins.

    Iseki M, Takaki S and Takatsu K

    Department of Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Engagement of cell-surface receptors leads to activation of protein tyrosine kinases, which in turn phosphorylate various downstream enzymes and adaptor proteins. Lnk is an adaptor protein that appears to be involved in signal transduction in lymphocytes, and forms an adaptor protein family with SH2-B. We tried to identify another member of the adaptor protein family and isolated the mouse APS (adaptor molecule containing PH and SH2 domains). APS contains a proline-rich region, PH and SH2 domains, and a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site at the C-terminal, and the overall structure resembles those of Lnk and SH2-B. APS is expressed in brain, kidney, muscle, and mature B cells in spleen. Mouse APS gene consists of 8 coding exons and is deduced to map to chromosome 5. APS is tyrosine phosphorylated at the C-terminal phosphorylation site conserved among the Lnk family adaptor proteins by stimulation of IL-5 or IL-3 as well as by crosslinking of B cell receptor complex. These results suggest that APS is a member of the Lnk family adaptor protein and likely plays a role in signaling in B cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;272;1;45-54

  • Substrate recognition by the Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase. NMR structure of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling region of the B cell antigen receptor.

    Gaul BS, Harrison ML, Geahlen RL, Burton RA and Post CB

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1333, USA.

    The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) plays a central role in transmembrane signal transduction in hematopoietic cells by mediating responses leading to proliferation and differentiation. An initial signaling event following activation of the B cell antigen receptor is phosphorylation of the CD79a (Ig-alpha) ITAM by Lyn, a Src family protein-tyrosine kinase. To elucidate the structural basis for recognition between the ITAM substrate and activated Lyn kinase, the structure of an ITAM-derived peptide bound to Lyn was determined using exchange-transferred nuclear Overhauser NMR spectroscopy. The bound substrate structure has an irregular helix-like character. Docking based on the NMR data into the active site of the closely related Lck kinase strongly favors ITAM binding in an orientation similar to binding of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase rather than that of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. The model of the complex provides a rationale for conserved ITAM residues, substrate specificity, and suggests that substrate binds only the active conformation of the Src family tyrosine kinase, unlike the ATP cofactor, which can bind the inactive form.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA37372; NIGMS NIH HHS: K04GM00661, R01GM39478; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;21;16174-82

  • Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), a novel ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein, binds the protein tyrosine kinase csk and is involved in regulation of T cell activation.

    Brdicka T, Pavlistová D, Leo A, Bruyns E, Korínek V, Angelisová P, Scherer J, Shevchenko A, Hilgert I, Cerný J, Drbal K, Kuramitsu Y, Kornacker B, Horejsí V and Schraven B

    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic.

    According to a recently proposed hypothesis, initiation of signal transduction via immunoreceptors depends on interactions of the engaged immunoreceptor with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs). In this study, we describe a novel GEM-associated transmembrane adaptor protein, termed phosphoprotein associated with GEMs (PAG). PAG comprises a short extracellular domain of 16 amino acids and a 397-amino acid cytoplasmic tail containing ten tyrosine residues that are likely phosphorylated by Src family kinases. In lymphoid cell lines and in resting peripheral blood alpha/beta T cells, PAG is expressed as a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein and binds the major negative regulator of Src kinases, the tyrosine kinase Csk. After activation of peripheral blood alpha/beta T cells, PAG becomes rapidly dephosphorylated and dissociates from Csk. Expression of PAG in COS cells results in recruitment of endogenous Csk, altered Src kinase activity, and impaired phosphorylation of Src-specific substrates. Moreover, overexpression of PAG in Jurkat cells downregulates T cell receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. These findings collectively suggest that in the absence of external stimuli, the PAG-Csk complex transmits negative regulatory signals and thus may help to keep resting T cells in a quiescent state.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;191;9;1591-604

  • Dok-3, a novel adapter molecule involved in the negative regulation of immunoreceptor signaling.

    Lemay S, Davidson D, Latour S and Veillette A

    McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3G 1Y6.

    Adapters are typically viewed as molecules coordinating the recruitment of positive effectors of cell signaling. Herein, we report the identification of Dok-3, a novel adapter molecule belonging to the Dok family. Our studies show that Dok-3 is highly expressed in several hemopoietic cell types, including B cells and macrophages. It undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation in response to immunoreceptor-mediated cellular activation, seemingly as a result of the action of Src family kinases. This phosphorylation induces the binding of Dok-3 to at least two inhibitory molecules, the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP and the protein tyrosine kinase Csk. We also demonstrate that augmented expression of wild-type Dok-3 in a B-cell line results in an inhibition of immunoreceptor-mediated nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) activation and cytokine release, while introduction of a Dok-3 mutant with impaired ability to associate with SHIP and Csk enhances B-cell responsiveness. Taken together, these results indicate that Dok-3 is an adapter involved in the recruitment of inhibitory molecules and that it may play a significant role in the negative regulation of immunoreceptor signaling in hemopoietic cells such as B cells and macrophages.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;8;2743-54

  • Affinity of Src family kinase SH3 domains for HIV Nef in vitro does not predict kinase activation by Nef in vivo.

    Briggs SD, Lerner EC and Smithgall TE

    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA.

    Nef is an HIV accessory protein required for high-titer viral replication and AIDS progression. Previous studies have shown that the SH3 domains of Hck and Lyn bind to Nef via proline-rich sequences in vitro, identifying these Src-related kinases as potential targets for Nef in vivo. Association of Nef with Hck causes displacement of the intramolecular interaction between the SH3 domain and the SH2-kinase linker, leading to kinase activation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether interaction with Nef induces activation of other Src family kinases (Lyn, Fyn, Src, and Lck) following coexpression with Nef in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Coexpression with Nef induced Hck kinase activation and fibroblast transformation, consistent with previous results. In contrast, coexpression of Nef with Lyn was without effect, despite equivalent binding of Nef to full-length Lyn and Hck. Furthermore, Nef was found to suppress the kinase and transforming activities of Fyn, the SH3 domain of which exhibits low affinity for Nef. Coexpression with Nef did not alter c-Src or Lck tyrosine kinase or transforming activity in this system. Differential modulation of Src family members by Nef may produce unique downstream signals depending on the profile of Src kinases expressed in a given cell type.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81398; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL10097

    Biochemistry 2000;39;3;489-95

  • Interaction of folate receptor with signaling molecules lyn and G(alpha)(i-3) in detergent-resistant complexes from the ovary carcinoma cell line IGROV1.

    Miotti S, Bagnoli M, Tomassetti A, Colnaghi MI and Canevari S

    Unit of Molecular Therapies, Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. miotti@istitutotumori.mi.it.

    Using as a model the ovary carcinoma cell line IGROV1, we analyzed the partitioning of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored folate receptor into lipid rafts based on its relative detergent insolubility, with a focus on physically and functionally associated signaling molecules. A variable amount (40-60%) of folate receptor was found in low-density Triton X-100 insoluble complexes together with subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and the src-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases p53-56 lyn. In the same fraction the structural component of caveolae, caveolin, was not detected at the protein level, although the corresponding mRNA was detected in trace amounts. Comodulation of folate receptor and signalling molecules was observed in the detergent-insoluble complexes during cell proliferation or induced by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment or by interaction with anti-folate receptor monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, complexes of folate receptor, lyn and the G(&agr;)(i-3) subunit were immunoprecipitated using either anti-folate receptor or anti-lyn antibodies. In vitro kinase assay of the immunoprecipitates revealed stimulation of phosphorylation of common and specific proteins. In particular, the p53 form of lyn appeared to be enriched and phosphorylated in the anti-folate receptor MOv19 monoclonal antibody immunoprecipitate, whereas a 40 kDa band common to anti-folate receptor and anti-lyn immunoprecipitates was the phosphorylated form of the G(&agr;)(i-3) subunit. These findings point to the functional interaction between folate receptor and associated signaling molecules.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 Pt 2;349-57

  • Regulated association between the tyrosine kinase Emt/Itk/Tsk and phospholipase-C gamma 1 in human T lymphocytes.

    Perez-Villar JJ and Kanner SB

    Immunology, Inflammation, and Pulmonary Drug Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA. perezvillar@bms.com

    The Emt/Itk/Tsk tyrosine kinase is involved in intracellular signaling events induced by several lymphocyte surface receptors. Modulation of TCR/CD3-induced phospholipase-C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) activity by the tyrosine kinase Emt/Itk/Tsk has been demonstrated based on studies of Itk-deficient murine T lymphocytes. Here we report a TCR/CD3-regulated association between Emt and PLC gamma 1 in both normal and leukemic T cells. In addition, this association was enhanced following independent ligation of the CD2, CD4, or CD28 costimulatory molecules, but not of CD5 or CD6 surface receptors, correlating to the induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Emt. Before Ab-induced T cell activation, we found that the Emt-SH3 domain was crucial for the constitutive Emt/PLC gamma 1 association; however, upon TCR/CD3 engagement, the Emt-SH2 domain was more efficient in mediating the enhanced Emt/PLC gamma 1 interaction. Furthermore, the PLC gamma 1-SH3 domain, but not the two PLC gamma 1-SH2 domains, contributed to formation of the protein complex. Thus, we describe a regulated interaction between Emt and PLC gamma 1, and based on our studies with individual Emt and PLC gamma 1 SH2/SH3 domains, we propose a mechanism for this association.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;163;12;6435-41

  • Functional interaction between SHPTP1 and the Lyn tyrosine kinase in the apoptotic response to DNA damage.

    Yoshida K, Kharbanda S and Kufe D

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase is activated in the cellular response to DNA-damaging agents. Here we demonstrate that Lyn associates constitutively with the SHPTP1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase. The SH3 domain of Lyn interacts directly with SHPTP1. The results show that Lyn phosphorylates SHPTP1 at the C-terminal Tyr-564 site. Lyn-mediated phosphorylation of SHPTP1 stimulates SHPTP1 tyrosine phosphatase activity. We also demonstrate that treatment of cells with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other genotoxic agents induces Lyn-dependent phosphorylation and activation of SHPTP1. The significance of the Lyn-SHPTP1 interaction is supported by the demonstration that activation of Lyn contributes in part to the apoptotic response to ara-C treatment and that SHPTP1 attenuates this response. These findings support a functional interaction between Lyn and SHPTP1 in the response to DNA damage.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29431

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;49;34663-8

  • The conserved core of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef is essential for association with Lck and for enhanced viral replication in T-lymphocytes.

    Cheng H, Hoxie JP and Parks WP

    Department of Microbiology and Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    The Nef protein of the primate lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), is a myristylated protein associated with increased viral replication and enhanced pathogenicity. Both the potentiation of T-lymphocyte activation and the enhanced serine-phosphorylation of HIV-1 capsid by Nef correlate with increased viral replication. We report the functional interactions of the Nef proteins with Src kinases. The Nef proteins from HIV-1 and SIV bind to Lck as well as Hck, Lyn, and Fyn. The SH3 and SH2 domains of Lck are sufficient for coprecipitation with non-tyrosine-phosphorylated Nef proteins. The conserved core region of HIV-1 Nef is essential for the interaction with Lck and is also important for enhanced HIV-1 replication in T-lymphocytes. In addition, we show that SIV and HIV-1 Nef proteins are differentially tyrosine-phosphorylated. The kinase-active Lck tyrosine-phosphorylates SIVmac239 Nef but does not phosphorylate HIV-1 Nef. These data suggest that the association of Nef and Lck is central to the enhanced viral replication of HIV-1 and SIV in T-lymphocytes.

    Virology 1999;264;1;5-15

  • Mechanisms of G2 arrest in response to overexpression of p53.

    Taylor WR, DePrimo SE, Agarwal A, Agarwal ML, Schönthal AH, Katula KS and Stark GR

    Department of Molecular Biology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Overexpression of p53 causes G2 arrest, attributable in part to the loss of CDC2 activity. Transcription of cdc2 and cyclin B1, determined using reporter constructs driven by the two promoters, was suppressed in response to the induction of p53. Suppression requires the regions -287 to -123 of the cyclin B1 promoter and -104 to -74 of the cdc2 promoter. p53 did not affect the inhibitory phosphorylations of CDC2 at threonine 14 or tyrosine 15 or the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase that activates CDC2 by phosphorylating it at threonine 161. Overexpression of p53 may also interfere with the accumulation of CDC2/cyclin B1 in the nucleus, required for cells to enter mitosis. Constitutive expression of cyclin B1, alone or in combination with the constitutively active CDC2 protein T14A Y15F, did not reverse p53-dependent G2 arrest. However, targeting cyclin B1 to the nucleus in cells also expressing CDC2 T14A Y15F did overcome this arrest. It is likely that several distinct pathways contribute to p53-dependent G2 arrest.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-49345, R01 GM049345

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;11;3607-22

  • The unique N-terminal domain of the cAMP phosphodiesterase PDE4D4 allows for interaction with specific SH3 domains.

    Beard MB, O'Connell JC, Bolger GB and Houslay MD

    Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Glasgow, UK.

    Of the five PDE4D isoenzymes, only the PDE4D4 cAMP specific phosphodiesterase was able to bind to SH3 domains. Only PDE4D4 and PDE4A5, but not any other PDE4A, B, C and D isoforms expressed in rat brain, bound to src, lyn and fyn kinase SH3 domains. Purified PDE4D4 could bind to purified lyn SH3. PDE4D4 and PDE4A5 both exhibited selectivity for binding the SH3 domains of certain proteins. PDE4D4 did not bind to WW domains. We suggest that an important function of the unique N-terminal region of PDE4D4 may be to allow for association with certain SH3 domain-containing proteins.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    FEBS letters 1999;460;1;173-7

  • SHP-1 regulates Lck-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase phosphorylation and activity.

    Cuevas B, Lu Y, Watt S, Kumar R, Zhang J, Siminovitch KA and Mills GB

    Division of Medicine, and the Cell Growth Regulation Laboratory, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Ligation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) activates the Src family tyrosine kinase p56 Lck, which, in turn, phosphorylates a variety of intracellular substrates. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 are two Lck substrates that have been implicated in TCR signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that SHP-1 co-immunoprecipitates with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K in Jurkat T cells, and that this association is increased by ligation of the TCR complex. Co-expression of SHP-1 and PI3K with a constitutively activated form of Lck in COS7 cells demonstrated the carboxyl-terminal SH2 domain of PI3K to inducibly associate with the full-length SHP-1 protein. By contrast, a truncated SHP-1 mutant lacking the Lck phosphorylation site (Tyr(564)) failed to bind p85. Wild-type but not catalytically inactive SHP-1 induced dephosphorylation of p85. Furthermore, expression of SHP-1 decreased PI3K enzyme activity in anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates and phosphorylation of serine 473 in Akt, a process dependent on PI3K activity. These results indicate the presence of a functional interaction between PI3K and SHP-1 and suggest that PI3K signaling, which has been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and many other biological activities, can be regulated by SHP-1 in T lymphocytes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71418

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;39;27583-9

  • Lyn is activated during late G1 of stem-cell-factor-induced cell cycle progression in haemopoietic cells.

    Mou S and Linnekin D

    Intramural Research and Support Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

    Stem cell factor (SCF) binds the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit and is critical in haemopoiesis. Recently we found that the Src family member Lyn is highly expressed in SCF-responsive cells, associates with c-Kit and is activated within minutes of the addition of SCF. Here we show that SCF activates Lyn a second time, hours later, during SCF-induced cell cycle progression. In cells arrested at specific phases of the cell cycle with the drugs mimosine, aphidicolin and nocodazole, maximal Lyn kinase activity occurred in late G(1) and through the G(1)/S transition. Similarly, kinetic studies of SCF-induced cell cycle progression found that activation of Lyn preceded the G(1)/S transition and was maintained into early S-phase. Activation of Lyn was paralleled by two events critical for the G(1)/S transition, increases in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Lyn was associated with Cdk2; Cdk2-associated Lyn was heavily phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues both in vitro and in situ during S-phase. Inhibition of Lyn activity with PP1 disrupted association with Cdk2 and decreased the numbers of cells entering S-phase. The degree of phosphorylation of Rb in PP1-treated cells suggested an increased number of cells arrested in the middle of G(1). These findings demonstrate that SCF activates the Src family member Lyn before the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle and suggest that Lyn is involved in SCF-induced cell cycle progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-56000

    The Biochemical journal 1999;342 ( Pt 1);163-70

  • Independent SH2-binding sites mediate interaction of Dok-related protein with RasGTPase-activating protein and Nck.

    Lock P, Casagranda F and Dunn AR

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and the Cooperative Research Center for Cellular Growth Factors, P. O. Box 2008, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3050, Australia. Peter.Lock@Ludwig.edu.au

    A murine embryonic cDNA library was screened for potential substrates of the Src family kinase, Lyn, using a phosphorylation-screening strategy. One cDNA that we identified encodes Dok-related protein (DokR), a protein with homology to p62(dok) (Dok), and members of the insulin receptor substrate-1 family of proteins. Analysis of murine tissue extracts with DokR-specific antisera revealed that DokR protein is expressed at highest levels in lymphoid tissues. Co-expression of a FLAG epitope-tagged form of DokR (FLAG-DokR) with Lyn in embryonic kidney 293T cells resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of FLAG-DokR on tyrosine residues and consequential physical association with RasGTPase-activating protein (GAP) and the Nck adaptor protein. Stimulation of BaF/3 hematopoietic cells co-expressing the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and FLAG-DokR with EGF also induced phosphorylation of FLAG-DokR and promoted its association with GAP. Immunoprecipitation experiments using DokR-specific antibodies revealed an interaction between endogenous DokR and a 150-kDa protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in EGF-stimulated BaF/3 cells. The molecular basis of the interactions involving DokR with GAP and Nck was investigated using a novel glutathione S-transferase fusion protein binding assay and/or site-directed mutagenesis. Tandem SH2-binding sites containing Tyr-276 and Tyr-304 were shown to mediate binding of DokR to GAP, whereas Tyr-351 mediated the binding of DokR to Nck. These results suggest that DokR participates in numerous signaling pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;32;22775-84

  • CD45 negatively regulates lyn activity by dephosphorylating both positive and negative regulatory tyrosine residues in immature B cells.

    Katagiri T, Ogimoto M, Hasegawa K, Arimura Y, Mitomo K, Okada M, Clark MR, Mizuno K and Yakura H

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo, Japan.

    Using CD45-deficient clones from the immature B cell line, WEHI-231, we previously demonstrated that CD45 selectively dephosphorylates the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase Lyn and inhibits its kinase activity. To further define the mechanisms of CD45 action on Lyn, we metabolically labeled Lyn from CD45-positive and -negative WEHI-231 cells and analyzed cyanogen bromide fragments by SDS-PAGE analysis. Phosphoamino acid analysis confirmed that Lyn is tyrosine phosphorylated with little serine or threonine phosphorylation. In CD45-negative cells, two bands at 8.2 and 4.1 kDa were phosphorylated in the absence of B cell Ag receptor (BCR) ligation. The 8.2-kDa band corresponded to a fragment containing the positive regulatory site (Tyr397), as assessed by its size and its phosphorylation in an in vitro kinase assay. The 4.1-kDa band was phosphorylated by COOH-terminal Src kinase, suggesting that it contains the COOH-terminal negative regulatory site (Tyr508). CD45 was also shown to dephosphorylate autophosphorylated Lyn in vitro. Thus, CD45 dephosphorylates not only the negative but also the positive regulatory tyrosine residues of Lyn. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitations using anti-Igalpha Ab demonstrated that Lyn associated with the resting BCR was constitutively phosphorylated and activated in CD45-negative cells. In the parental cells, both regulatory sites were phosphorylated on BCR ligation. Taken collectively, these results suggest that CD45 keeps both BCR-associated and total cytoplasmic pools of Lyn in an inactive state, and a mechanism by which Lyn is activated by relative reduction of CD45 effect may be operative on BCR ligation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;163;3;1321-6

  • Evidence that phospholipase C-gamma2 interacts with SLP-76, Syk, Lyn, LAT and the Fc receptor gamma-chain after stimulation of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI in human platelets.

    Gross BS, Melford SK and Watson SP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, UK.

    Platelet activation by collagen is mediated by the sequential tyrosine phosphorylation of the Fc receptor gamma-chain (FcR gamma-chain), which is part of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI, the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase C-gamma2 (PLC-gamma2). In this study tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins that associate with PLC-gamma2 after stimulation by a collagen-related peptide (CRP) were characterized using glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins of PLC-gamma2 Src homology (SH) domains and by immunoprecipitation of endogenous PLC-gamma2. The majority of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins that associate with PLC-gamma2 bind to its C-terminal SH2 domain. These were found to include PLC-gamma2, Syk, SH2-domain-containing leucocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76), Lyn, linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and the FcR gamma-chain. Direct association was detected between PLC-gamma2 and SLP-76, and between PLC-gamma2 and LAT upon CRP stimulation of platelets by far-Western blotting. FcR gamma-chain and Lyn were found to co-immunoprecipitate with PLC-gamma2 as well as with unidentified 110-kDa and 75-kDa phosphoproteins. The absence of an in vivo association between Syk and PLC-gamma2 in platelets is in contrast with that for PLC-gamma1 and Syk in B cells. The in vivo function of PLC-gamma2 SH2 domains was examined through measurement of Ca2+ increases in mouse megakaryocytes that had been microinjected with recombinant proteins. This revealed that the C-terminal SH2 domain is involved in the regulation of PLC-gamma2. These data indicate that the C-terminal SH2 domain of PLC-gamma2 is important for PLC-gamma2 regulation through possible interactions with SLP-76, Syk, Lyn, LAT and the FcR gamma-chain.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    European journal of biochemistry 1999;263;3;612-23

  • Selective association of the tyrosine kinases Src, Fyn, and Lyn with integrin-rich actin cytoskeletons of activated, nonaggregated platelets.

    Bertagnolli ME, Hudson LA and Stetsenko GY

    Department of Chemistry, Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, 99258, USA. bertagnolli@gonzaga.edu

    Integrin-mediated interactions between cytoskeletal proteins and extracellular fibrinogen are required for platelet adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that the major platelet integrin, alpha(IIb)beta(3), becomes incorporated into the actin cytoskeleton of platelets in an activation-dependent, aggregation-independent manner. To determine if regulatory molecules are also associated with these integrin-rich cytoskeletal complexes, we examined actin cytoskeletons for the presence of kinases and phosphoproteins. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that the tyrosine kinases Src, Fyn, and Lyn are specifically associated with actin cytoskeletons of activated, nonaggregated platelets. However, as noted by others, the cytoskeletal association of focal adhesion kinase depends on platelet aggregation. Actin cytoskeletons isolated from (32)P-labeled platelets also contain a number of phosphorylated proteins. Interestingly, an approximately 18-kDa phosphoprotein was uniquely present in activated platelet cytoskeletons. Collectively, our results demonstrate that actin cytoskeletons of activated, nonaggregated platelets contain not only integrins, but also kinases and phosphoproteins that could regulate platelet adhesion and transmembrane communication.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;260;3;790-8

  • cbl-3: a new mammalian cbl family protein.

    Keane MM, Ettenberg SA, Nau MM, Banerjee P, Cuello M, Penninger J and Lipkowitz S

    Genetics Department, Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda Naval Hospital, Maryland 20889, USA.

    We have cloned a new human gene, cbl-3, which encodes a protein with marked homology to the cbl family of proteins. The predicted protein encoded by this gene retains the conserved phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB) in the N-terminal and the zinc finger but is significantly shorter (MW 52.5 kDa) than the other mammalian cbl proteins. The protein lacks the extensive proline rich domain and leucine zipper seen in c-cbl and cbl-b and structurally most resembles the C. elegans and Drosophila cbl proteins. The gene is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in the aerodigestive tract, prostate, adrenal gland, and salivary gland. The protein is phosphorylated and recruited to the EGFR upon EGF stimulation and inhibits EGF stimulated MAP kinase activation. In comparison to the other mammalian cbl proteins (e.g. cbl-b), cbl-3 interacts with a restricted range of proteins containing Src Homology 3 regions. An alternatively spliced form of the cbl-3 protein was also identified which deletes a critical region of the PTB domain and which does not interact with the EGFR nor inhibit EGF stimulated MAP kinase activation. These data demonstrate that cbl-3, a novel mammalian cbl protein, is a regulator of EGFR mediated signal transduction.

    Oncogene 1999;18;22;3365-75

  • A common signaling pathway via Syk and Lyn tyrosine kinases generated from capping of the sialomucins CD34 and CD43 in immature hematopoietic cells.

    Tada J, Omine M, Suda T and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Cell Differentiation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan.

    The sialomucin CD34 is a useful marker for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. However, the role of CD34 remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the functions of CD34 and another sialomucin CD43 coexpressed on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Stimulation of undifferentiated hematopoietic KG1a cells with anti-CD34 or anti-CD43 induced homotypic cytoadhesion, accompanied by formation of a long-lived cap of CD34 and CD43 respectively, which colocalized with F-actin. Stimulation with either antibody specifically increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the identical set of proteins of Lyn, Syk, pp60, pp69, and pp77 at the capping site. These events were similar to those observed in monocytic U937 cells ectopically expressing CD34. After stimulation of KG1a cells, coimmunoprecipitation of Lyn with pp69 and pp77 and of Syk with pp37 was detected in the membrane fraction. Blockade of antibody-induced cap formation by treatment with cytochalasin D leads to inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and pp77 and homotypic cytoadhesion. Moreover, normal human CD34(+) bone marrow cells showed cap formation of CD34 or CD43 after stimulation. These results suggest that crosslinking of either CD34 or CD43 activates the same signaling pathway for cytoadhesion through Lyn, Syk, and the novel tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins within hematopoiesis.

    Blood 1999;93;11;3723-35

  • Nitric oxide inhibits thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in human platelets.

    Pigazzi A, Heydrick S, Folli F, Benoit S, Michelson A and Loscalzo J

    Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute and Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    Although nitric oxide (NO) has potent antiplatelet actions, the signaling pathways affected by NO in the platelet are poorly understood. Since NO can induce platelet disaggregation and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation renders aggregation irreversible, we tested the hypothesis that NO exerts its antiplatelet effects at least in part by inhibiting PI3-kinase. The results demonstrate that the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (S-NO-glutathione) inhibits the stimulation of PI3-kinase associated with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and of p85/PI3-kinase associated with the SRC family kinase member LYN following the exposure of platelets to thrombin receptor-activating peptide. The activation of LYN-associated PI3-kinase was unrelated to changes in the amount of PI3-kinase physically associated with LYN signaling complexes but did require the activation of LYN and other tyrosine kinases. The cyclic GMP-dependent kinase activator 8-bromo-cyclic GMP had similar effects on PI3-kinase activity, consistent with a model in which the cyclic nucleotide mediates the effects of NO. Additional studies showed that wortmannin and S-NO-glutathione have additive inhibitory effects on thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation and the surface expression of platelet activation markers. These data provide evidence of a distinct and novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of NO on platelet function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL48976, HL53919, HL55993; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;20;14368-75

  • CD45 regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of CD22 and its association with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.

    Greer SF and Justement LB

    Department of Microbiology, Division of Developmental and Clinical Immunology, University of Alabama, Birminghamp55294, USA.

    Cross-linking of CD45 induced capping and physical sequestration from CD22 leading to an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of CD22 and SHP-1 recruitment. Additionally, CD22 isolated from a CD45-deficient B cell line exhibited increased basal/inducible tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced recruitment of SHP-1 compared with CD22 isolated from CD45-positive parental cells. Subsequent experiments were performed to determine whether enhanced SHP-1 recruitment to CD22 is responsible for attenuation of receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in CD45-deficient cells. Catalytically inactive SHP-1 expressed in CD45-deficient cells interacted with CD22 and decreased phosphatase activity in CD22 immunoprecipitates to levels that were comparable to those in CD45-positive cells. Expression of catalytically inactive SHP-1 restored intracellular mobilization of Ca2+ in response to MHC class II cross-linking, but did not affect B cell Ag receptor- or class II-mediated Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. These results indicate that CD45 regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of CD22 and binding of SHP-1. The data further indicate that enhanced recruitment and activation of SHP-1 in CD45-deficient cells affect intracellular mobilization of Ca2+, but are not responsible for abrogation of receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI07051, AI36401, T32 AI007051; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46524

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;162;9;5278-86

  • Association with the SRC family tyrosyl kinase LYN triggers a conformational change in the catalytic region of human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4A4B. Consequences for rolipram inhibition.

    McPhee I, Yarwood SJ, Scotland G, Huston E, Beard MB, Ross AH, Houslay ES and Houslay MD

    Division of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, IBLS, Davidson Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    The cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) HSPDE 4A4B(pde46) selectively bound SH3 domains of SRC family tyrosyl kinases. Such an interaction profoundly changed the inhibition of PDE4 activity caused by the PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram and mimicked the enhanced rolipram inhibition seen for particulate, compared with cytosolic pde46 expressed in COS7 cells. Particulate pde46 co-localized with LYN kinase in COS7 cells. The unique N-terminal and LR2 regions of pde46 contained the sites for SH3 binding. Altered rolipram inhibition was triggered by SH3 domain interaction with the LR2 region. Purified LYN SH3 and human PDE4A LR2 could be co-immunoprecipitated, indicating a direct interaction. Protein kinase A-phosphorylated pde46 remained able to bind LYN SH3. pde46 was found to be associated with SRC kinase in the cytosol of COS1 cells, leading to aberrant kinetics of rolipram inhibition. It is suggested that pde46 may be associated with SRC family tyrosyl kinases in intact cells and that the ensuing SH3 domain interaction with the LR2 region of pde46 alters the conformation of the PDE catalytic unit, as detected by altered rolipram inhibition. Interaction between pde46 and SRC family tyrosyl kinases highlights a potentially novel regulatory system and point of signaling system cross-talk.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;17;11796-810

  • Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) inhibits BCR-induced activation of Syk and Btk by SHP-1.

    Maeda A, Scharenberg AM, Tsukada S, Bolen JB, Kinet JP and Kurosaki T

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Liver Research, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Japan.

    Coligation of paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) with B cell antigen receptor (BCR) blocks antigen-induced B cell activation. This inhibition is mediated in part by recruitment of SHP-1 and SHP-2 to the phosphorylated ITIMs in the cytoplasmic domain of PIR-B; however the molecular target(s) of these phosphatases remain elusive. Here we show that PIR-B ligation inhibits the BCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Igalpha/Igbeta, Syk, Btk and phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of SHP-1 prevents the PIR-B-mediated inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, Btk, and PLC-gamma2. Dephosphorylation of Syk and Btk mediated by SHP-1 leads to a decrease of their kinase activity, which in turn inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2. Furthermore, we define a requirement for Lyn in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of PIR-B. Based on these results, we propose a model of PIR-B-mediated inhibitory signaling in which coligation of PIR-B and BCR results in phosphorylation of ITIMs by Lyn, subsequent recruitment of SHP-1, and a resulting inhibition of the BCR-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation by dephosphorylation of Syk and Btk.

    Oncogene 1999;18;14;2291-7

  • Molecular features underlying the sequential phosphorylation of HS1 protein and its association with c-Fgr protein-tyrosine kinase.

    Brunati AM, Donella-Deana A, James P, Quadroni M, Contri A, Marin O and Pinna LA

    Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Centro di Studio delle Biomembrane del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and Centro Ricerca Interdipartimentale Biotecnologie Innovative, University of Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy.

    The hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein HS1 was shown to undergo a process of sequential phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo, which is synergistically mediated by Syk and Src family protein-tyrosine kinases and essential for B cell antigen receptor-mediated apoptosis. We have now identified tyrosine 222 as the HS1 residue phosphorylated by the Src family protein kinases c-Fgr and Lyn, and we show that a truncated form of HS1 (HS1-208-401) lacking the N-terminal putative DNA binding region and the C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain is still able to undergo all the steps of sequential phosphorylation as efficiently as full-length HS1. We also show that a stable association of phospho-HS1 with c-Fgr through its SH2 domain requires previous autophosphorylation of the kinase and is prevented by subsequent phosphorylation of Tyr-222. Kinetic studies with HS1 and its truncated forms previously phosphorylated by Syk and with a peptide substrate reproducing the sequence around tyrosine 222 support the view that efficient phosphorylation of HS1 by Src family protein kinases entirely relies on TyrP-SH2 domain interaction with negligible, if any, contribution of local specificity determinants. Our data indicate that the proline-rich region of HS1 bordered by tyrosyl residues affected by Syk and Src family kinases represents a functional domain designed to undergo a process of sequential phosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;11;7557-64

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk following stimulation of the collagen receptor in platelets.

    Gross BS, Lee JR, Clements JL, Turner M, Tybulewicz VL, Findell PR, Koretzky GA and Watson SP

    Department of Pharmacology, Mansfield Road, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom. barbara.gross@users.jesus.ox.ac.uk

    Collagen-related peptide (CRP), a collagen homologue, induces platelet activation through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway, leading to sequential tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc receptor (FcR) gamma-chain, Syk, and phospholipase C-gamma2. Here we report that CRP and the platelet low affinity immune receptor FcgammaRIIA stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the T cell adapter SLP-76, whereas the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin induces only minor tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that SLP-76 has a specific role downstream of receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate association of SLP-76 with SLAP-130, Vav, Fyn, Lyn, and the FcR gamma-chain in CRP-stimulated platelets. Several of these proteins, including SLP-76, undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in in vitro kinase assays performed on SLP-76 immunoprecipitates. Tyrosine phosphorylation of all of these proteins in the in vitro kinase assay was abrogated by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1, suggesting that it is mediated by either Fyn or Lyn. The physiological significance of this is uncertain, however, since tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 in vivo is not altered in either Fyn- or Lyn-deficient platelets. CRP stimulation of Syk-deficient platelets demonstrated that in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk. The absence of Syk in the SLP-76 immunoprecipitates raises the possibility that another protein is responsible for bringing SLP-76 to Syk. Candidates for this include those proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with SLP-76, including the FcR gamma-chain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 and Ca2+ mobilization is markedly attenuated in SLP-76-deficient platelets following CRP stimulation, suggesting that the adapter plays a critical role in the regulation of the phospholipase. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SLAP-130 in response to CRP is also inhibited in SLP-76-deficient platelets, placing it downstream of SLP-76. This work identifies SLP-76 as an important adapter molecule that is regulated by Syk and lies upstream of SLAP-130 and PLC-gamma2 in CRP-stimulated platelets.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;9;5963-71

  • The mapping of the Lyn kinase binding site of the common beta subunit of IL-3/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL-5 receptor.

    Adachi T, Pazdrak K, Stafford S and Alam R

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

    It has been shown that a membrane-proximal region within common beta (betac) receptor of IL-3/granulocyte-macrophage CSF/IL-5 (amino acids 450-517) is important for Lyn binding. We have shown previously that Lyn kinase is physically associated with the IL-5R betac subunit in unstimulated cells. The result suggests that this association involves binding modules that are not activation or phosphorylation dependent. The objective of this study was to map the exact Lyn binding site on betac. Using overlapping and/or sequential peptides derived from betac 450-517, we narrowed down the Lyn binding site to nine amino acid residues, betac 457-465. The P-->A mutation in this region abrogated the binding to Lyn, indicating a critical role of proline residues. We created a cell-permeable Lyn-binding peptide by N-stearation. This cell-permeable peptide blocked the association of Lyn, but not Jak2 with betac in situ. We also investigated the betac binding site of Lyn kinase. Our results suggest that the N-terminal unique domain of Lyn kinase is important for binding to betac receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular identification of the Lyn binding site of betac receptor. This finding may help develop specific inhibitors of Lyn-coupled signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI35713

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;162;3;1496-501

  • PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A.

    Tezuka T, Umemori H, Akiyama T, Nakanishi S and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    Fyn, a member of the Src-family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK), is implicated in learning and memory that involves N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. In this study, we examined how Fyn participates in synaptic plasticity by analyzing the physical and functional interaction between Fyn and NMDA receptors. Results showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A, one of the NMDA receptor subunits, was reduced in fyn-mutant mice. NR2A was tyrosine-phosphorylated in 293T cells when coexpressed with Fyn. Therefore, NR2A would be a substrate for Fyn in vivo. Results also showed that PSD-95, which directly binds to and coclusters with NMDA receptors, promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A. Different regions of PSD-95 associated with NR2A and Fyn, respectively, and so PSD-95 could mediate complex formation of Fyn with NR2A. PSD-95 also associated with other Src-family PTKs, Src, Yes, and Lyn. These results suggest that PSD-95 is critical for regulation of NMDA receptor activity by Fyn and other Src-family PTKs, serving as a molecular scaffold for anchoring these PTKs to NR2A.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;2;435-40

  • The AMPA receptor interacts with and signals through the protein tyrosine kinase Lyn.

    Hayashi T, Umemori H, Mishina M and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. The ionotropic glutamate receptors are classified into two groups, NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) receptors. The AMPA receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that mediates the fast component of excitatory postsynaptic currents in the central nervous system. Here we report that AMPA receptors function not only as ion channels but also as cell-surface signal transducers by means of their interaction with the Src-family non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Lyn. In the cerebellum, Lyn is physically associated with the AMPA receptor and is rapidly activated following stimulation of the receptor. Activation of Lyn is independent of Ca2+ and Na+ influx through AMPA receptors. As a result of activation of Lyn, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway is activated, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA is increased in a Lyn-kinase-dependent manner. Thus, AMPA receptors generate intracellular signals from the cell surface to the nucleus through the Lyn-MAPK pathway, which may contribute to synaptic plasticity by regulating the expression of BDNF.

    Nature 1999;397;6714;72-6

  • ASAP1, a phospholipid-dependent arf GTPase-activating protein that associates with and is phosphorylated by Src.

    Brown MT, Andrade J, Radhakrishna H, Donaldson JG, Cooper JA and Randazzo PA

    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

    Membrane trafficking is regulated in part by small GTP-binding proteins of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family. Arf function depends on the controlled exchange and hydrolysis of GTP. We have purified and cloned two variants of a 130-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate (PIP2)-dependent Arf1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which we call ASAP1a and ASAP1b. Both contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a zinc finger similar to that found in another Arf GAP, three ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a proline-rich region with alternative splicing and SH3 binding motifs, eight repeats of the sequence E/DLPPKP, and an SH3 domain. Together, the PH, zinc finger, and ANK repeat regions possess PIP2-dependent GAP activity on Arf1 and Arf5, less activity on Arf6, and no detectable activity on Arl2 in vitro. The cDNA for ASAP1 was independently identified in a screen for proteins that interact with the SH3 domain of the tyrosine kinase Src. ASAP1 associates in vitro with the SH3 domains of Src family members and with the Crk adapter protein. ASAP1 coprecipitates with Src from cell lysates and is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in cells expressing activated Src. Both coimmunoprecipitation and tyrosine phosphorylation depend on the same proline-rich class II Src SH3 binding site required for in vitro association. By directly interacting with both Arfs and tyrosine kinases involved in regulating cell growth and cytoskeletal organization, ASAP1 could coordinate membrane remodeling events with these processes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA41072, CA62598, F32 CA062598, R01 CA041072, R37 CA041072

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;12;7038-51

  • RA70 is a src kinase-associated protein expressed ubiquitously.

    Kouroku Y, Soyama A, Fujita E, Urase K, Tsukahara T and Momoi T

    Division of Development and Differentiation, National Institute of Neuroscience, NCNP, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502, Japan.

    RA70, which is expressed during neuronal differentiation of P19 EC, is highly homologous to human src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP55). Here we isolated human full-length RA70 cDNA. Unlike SKAP55, which is specifically expressed in thymus and T cells, RA70 was expressed ubiquitously in various tissues including lung, skeletal muscle, and spleen, and in various cell lines including human monocytic leukemia (U937) cells, but RA70 was undetectable in thymus and T cell lymphoma (Jurkat) cells. RA70 as well as SKAP55 proved to be a protein with molecular weight 55 kDa associated with SH2 domain of Fyn. Interaction between RA70 and src family kinases, Fyn, Hck and Lyn, was detected during monocytes/macrophage-differentiation of U937 cells. Thus, like SKAP55, RA70 is an adaptor protein of the src family kinases. RA70 may play an essential role in the src signaling pathway in various cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;252;3;738-42

  • Syk- and Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of Syk on multiple tyrosines following B cell activation includes a site that negatively regulates signaling.

    Keshvara LM, Isaacson CC, Yankee TM, Sarac R, Harrison ML and Geahlen RL

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

    The Syk protein tyrosine kinase is an essential component of the B cell Ag receptor signaling pathway. Syk is phosphorylated on tyrosine following B cell activation. However, the sites that are modified and the kinases responsible for these modifications have yet to be determined. To approach this problem, we used a mapping strategy based on the electrophoretic separation of peptides on alkaline polyacrylamide gels to identify the tryptic phosphopeptides derived from metabolically labeled Syk. In this work, we report that Syk from activated B cells is phosphorylated principally on six tyrosines: one located between the tandem SH2 domains (Tyr130); three in the linker region (Tyr317, Tyr342, and Tyr346); and two in the catalytic domain (Tyr519 and Tyr520). The linker region sites are the primary targets of the Src family protein tyrosine kinase, Lyn, and include a site that negatively (Tyr317) regulates receptor signaling. Efficient phosphorylation of the catalytic domain and inter-SH2 domain tyrosines is catalyzed primarily by Syk itself, but only occurs to an appreciable extent in cells that express Lyn. We propose that these sites are phosphorylated following the binding of Syk to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09634, CA37372

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1998;161;10;5276-83

  • Regulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase by the Lyn tyrosine kinase.

    Kumar S, Pandey P, Bharti A, Jin S, Weichselbaum R, Weaver D, Kufe D and Kharbanda S

    Department of Adult Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Src-like protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn is activated by ionizing radiation and certain other DNA-damaging agents, whereas the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), consisting of the catalytic subunits (DNA-PKcs) and Ku DNA-binding components, requires DNA double-stranded breaks for activation. Here we demonstrate that Lyn associates constitutively with DNA-PKcs. The SH3 domain of Lyn interacts directly with DNA-PKcs near a leucine zipper homology domain. We also show that Lyn phosphorylates DNA-PKcs but not Ku in vitro. The interaction between Lyn and DNA-PKcs inhibits DNA-PKcs activity and the ability of DNA-PKcs to form a complex with Ku/DNA. These results support the hypothesis that there are functional interactions between Lyn and DNA-PKcs in the response to DNA damage.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55241, CA75216

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;40;25654-8

  • Src family tyrosine kinases associate with and phosphorylate CTLA-4 (CD152).

    Miyatake S, Nakaseko C, Umemori H, Yamamoto T and Saito T

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Tokyo, Minato-ku, 108-8639, Japan. sho@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    CTLA-4 (CD152) transduces inhibitory signals for T cell activation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine residue (Y)-165 in the cytoplasmic region of CTLA-4 play an important role in the signal transduction and in the cell surface. While signaling molecules such as SHP-2 and the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase associate with this tyrosine residue through SH2 domains upon phosphorylation, the adapter complex AP-2 interacts with the same tyrosine when dephosphorylated, leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CTLA-4. We searched for the tyrosine kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of CTLA-4. Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn, Lyn, and Lck associate with CTLA-4 and phosphorylate both Y-165 and Y-182 that are mainly responsible for interaction with Fyn through its SH2 domain. SHP-2 associates with CTLA-4, in a Fyn-dependent manner. Our observations show that src family tyrosine kinases associate with and phosphorylate CTLA-4 and thereby have an important role in the signal transduction and the endocytosis of CTLA-4.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;249;2;444-8

  • T cell receptor (TCR) interacting molecule (TRIM), a novel disulfide-linked dimer associated with the TCR-CD3-zeta complex, recruits intracellular signaling proteins to the plasma membrane.

    Bruyns E, Marie-Cardine A, Kirchgessner H, Sagolla K, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Autschbach F, Bensussan A, Meuer S and Schraven B

    Institute for Immunology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The molecular mechanisms regulating recruitment of intracellular signaling proteins like growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), phospholipase Cgamma1, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) to the plasma membrane after stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR)- CD3-zeta complex are not very well understood. We describe here purification, tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, molecular cloning, and biochemical characterization of a novel transmembrane adaptor protein which associates and comodulates with the TCR-CD3-zeta complex in human T lymphocytes and T cell lines. This protein was termed T cell receptor interacting molecule (TRIM). TRIM is a disulfide-linked homodimer which is comprised of a short extracellular domain of 8 amino acids, a 19-amino acid transmembrane region, and a 159-amino acid cytoplasmic tail. In its intracellular domain, TRIM contains several tyrosine-based signaling motifs that could be involved in SH2 domain-mediated protein-protein interactions. Indeed, after T cell activation, TRIM becomes rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and then associates with the 85-kD regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase via an YxxM motif. Thus, TRIM represents a TCR-associated transmembrane adaptor protein which is likely involved in targeting of intracellular signaling proteins to the plasma membrane after triggering of the TCR.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1998;188;3;561-75

  • Interferon alpha activates the tyrosine kinase Lyn in haemopoietic cells.

    Uddin S, Grumbach IM, Yi T, Colamonici OR and Platanias LC

    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago and West Side Veterans Affairs Hospital, 60607-7173, USA.

    We investigated whether the src-family tyrosine kinase Lyn is involved in the generation of interferon alpha (IFN alpha) signals in haemopoietic cells. In vitro kinase assays using IFN alpha-sensitive cells of B-cell origin demonstrated the presence of IFN alpha-dependent kinase activity in anti-Lyn immunoprecipitates. Further studies demonstrated that Lyn associates via its src homology 2 (SH2) domain with the Janus family tyrosine kinase Tyk-2. This interaction was IFN alpha-dependent and involved direct binding of the SH2 domain of Lyn to the IFN alpha-activated form of Tyk-2. Thus, during binding of IFN alpha to its receptor in malignant haemopoietic cells, Lyn is engaged in an IFN alpha-signalling pathway, probably downstream of Tyk-2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA73381; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM54709

    British journal of haematology 1998;101;3;446-9

  • The B cell surface protein CD72 recruits the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 upon tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Adachi T, Flaswinkel H, Yakura H, Reth M and Tsubata T

    Department of Immunology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.

    Activation signals of lymphocytes are negatively regulated by the membrane molecules carrying the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM). Upon tyrosine phosphorylation, ITIMs recruit SH2-containing phosphatases such as SHP-1, resulting in down-modulation of cell activation. We showed that the cytoplasmic domain of the CD72 molecule carries an ITIM and is associated in vitro with SHP-1 upon tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, cross-linking of B cell Ag receptor (BCR) enhances both tyrosine phosphorylation of CD72 and association of CD72 with SHP-1 in B cell line WEHI-231. These results indicate that CD72 recruits SHP-1 upon tyrosine phosphorylation induced by BCR signaling, suggesting that CD72 is a negative regulator of BCR signaling.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1998;160;10;4662-5

  • Lyn physically associates with the erythropoietin receptor and may play a role in activation of the Stat5 pathway.

    Chin H, Arai A, Wakao H, Kamiyama R, Miyasaka N and Miura O

    First Department of Internal Medicine and School of Allied Health Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a crucial role in signaling from the receptor for erythropoietin (Epo), although the Epo receptor (EpoR) lacks the tyrosine kinase domain. We have previously shown that the Jak2 tyrosine kinase couples with the EpoR to transduce a growth signal. In the present study, we demonstrate that Lyn, a Src family tyrosine kinase, physically associates with the EpoR in Epo-dependent hematopoietic cell lines, 32D/EpoR-Wt and F36E. Coexpression experiments in COS7 cells further showed that Lyn induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the EpoR and that both LynA and LynB, alternatively spliced forms of Lyn, bind with the membrane-proximal 91-amino acid region of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain. In vitro binding studies using GST-Lyn fusion proteins further showed that the Src homology (SH)-2 domain of Lyn specifically binds with the tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR in lysate from Epo-stimulated cells, whereas the tyrosine kinase domain of Lyn binds with the unphosphorylated EpoR. Far-Western blotting and synthetic phosphopeptide competition assays further indicated that the Lyn SH2 domain directly binds to the tyrosine-phosphorylated EpoR, most likely through its interaction with phosphorylated Y-464 or Y-479 in the carboxy-terminal region of the EpoR. In vitro binding studies also demonstrated that the Lyn SH2 domain directly binds to tyrosine-phosphorylated Jak2. In vitro reconstitution experiments in COS7 cells further showed that Lyn induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5, mainly on Y-694, and activates the DNA-binding and transcription-activating abilities of Stat5. In agreement with this, Lyn enhanced the Stat5-dependent transcriptional activation when overexpressed in 32D/EpoR-Wt cells. In addition, Lyn was demonstrated to phosphorylate the EpoR and Stat5 on tyrosines in vitro. These results suggest that Lyn may play a role in activation of the Jak2/Stat5 and other signaling pathways by the EpoR.

    Blood 1998;91;10;3734-45

  • Inhibition of p130cas tyrosine phosphorylation by calyculin A.

    Qiu W, Cobb RR and Scholz W

    Department of Biology, Tanabe Research Laboratories, San Diego, California, USA.

    P130cas is a dominant tyrosine phosphorylated protein in v-src-and v-crk-transformed cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation also occurs in response to integrin-mediated cell adhesion. P130cas has a unique structure with multiple SH2 and SH3 binding sites, which makes it a candidate docking protein that might be involved in several signal transduction pathways. Little is known about how p130cas itself is regulated. In this report we present evidence that tyrosine phosphorylated p130cas was rapidly dephosphorylated in several lymphatic cell lines after treatment with calyculin A, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor. A similar result was obtained with okadaic acid, but higher concentrations and longer incubation times were required. Constitutive phosphorylation as well as receptor-cross linking-induced p130cas phosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, the p130cas-Crk association was disrupted by treatment of cells with calyculin A. However, the p130cas-Lyn association was not affected. These results suggest that calyculin A specifically affects SH2 domain-mediated protein-protein interactions and that Lyn does not bind to a susceptible SH2 domain. Furthermore, the data presented is consistent with the existence of a calyculin A-sensitive phosphatase or tyrosine kinase that may be a critical regulator of p130cas tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Journal of leukocyte biology 1998;63;5;631-5

  • Asymmetrical phosphorylation and function of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction.

    Pao LI, Famiglietti SJ and Cambier JC

    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

    CD79a and CD79b function as transducers of B cell antigen receptor signals via a cytoplasmic sequence, termed the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs contain two conserved tyrosines that may become phosphorylated upon receptor aggregation and bind distinct effectors by virtue of the distinct preference of phosphotyrosyl-containing sequences for SH2 domains. To explore the function of CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines, we created membrane molecules composed of MHC class II I-Ak extracellular and transmembrane domains, and CD79a or CD79b cytoplasmic domains in which one or both of the ITAM tyrosines were mutated to phenylalanine. Functional analysis revealed that both ITAM tyrosines are required for ligand-induced Syk phosphorylation. However CD79a-ITAM and CD79b-ITAM tyrosine phosphorylations were asymmetrical, with >80% of phosphorylation occurring on the N-terminal tyrosine (Y-E-G-L). Thus, these findings suggest that following receptor ligation, only a minor proportion of phosphorylated ITAMs are doubly phosphorylated and thus can engage Syk. Only the N-terminal ITAM tyrosine of CD79a was required for ligand-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor and a subset of downstream substrates, including p62, p110, and Shc, and for Ca2+ mobilization. However, responses mediated through CD79b exhibited a greater dependence on the presence of both tyrosines. Neither tyrosine in CD79a or CD79b appeared absolutely essential for Src family kinase phosphorylation. These results indicate that phosphorylations of the tyrosines in CD79a and CD79b occur with very different stoichiometry, and the respective tyrosyl residues have distinct functions.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1998;160;7;3305-14

  • Expression and activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Tec in human B cells.

    Kitanaka A, Mano H, Conley ME and Campana D

    Department of Hematology-Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

    The tyrosine kinase Tec belongs to a new group of structurally related nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that also includes Btk and Itk. Previous studies have suggested that these kinases have lineage-specific roles, with Tec being involved mainly in the regulation of cytokine-mediated myeloid cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we investigated expression and activation of Tec in human B-lymphoid cell lines representing different stages of B-cell maturation, including pro-B (RS4;11, 380, REH), pre-B (NALM6), and mature B (Ramos, and one Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]-transformed lymphoblastoid line) cells. Like Btk, Tec protein was expressed in all B-cell lines tested. Tec was also highly expressed in two EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid lines derived from patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) lacking Btk expression, as well as in tonsillar lymphoid cells. In surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells (Ramos), ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) with anti-IgM antibodies caused marked tyrosine phosphorylation of Tec and increased Tec tyrosine kinase activity. Likewise, cross-linking of CD19 with a monoclonal antibody in BCR-negative pro-B (RS4;11, 380) and pre-B (NALM6) cells induced Tec tyrosine phosphorylation and increased Tec autophosphorylation, as well as Btk activation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Tec, but not of Btk, was detectable in RS4;11 cells after CD38 ligation, suggesting that these kinases are regulated differently. We conclude that Tec is expressed and can be stimulated throughout human B-cell differentiation, implying that this tyrosine kinase plays a role in B-cell development and activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30-CA21765, R01-CA58297

    Blood 1998;91;3;940-8

  • Physical and functional association of Fc alpha R with protein tyrosine kinase Lyn.

    Gulle H, Samstag A, Eibl MM and Wolf HM

    Institute of Immunology, University of Vienna, Austria.

    In this report, we show that the Src family nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) Lyn associates with aggregated IgA Fc receptor (Fc alpha R) in the monocytic cell line THP-1. Receptor aggregation and subsequent immunoprecipitation of receptor complexes with huIgA adsorbed to nitrocellulose particles shows that Lyn associates with Fc alpha R by a mechanism sensitive to short treatment with the Src family-selective inhibitor PP1. However, interaction of Lyn with IgG Fc receptor (Fc gamma R) in THP-1 cells was unaffected by short treatment with the PTK inhibitor. Cross-linking of Fc alpha R induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including p72Syk, which appears to be a major target of early PTK activity. Unexpectedly, in vitro kinase assays showed that Fc alpha R aggregation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk did not result in upregulation of Syk activity. Despite the lack of enhanced Syk kinase activity, downstream signaling after Fc alpha R cross-linking was functional and induced the release of significant amounts of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8. The induction of cytokine release was completely blocked by PP1, thus confirming the biological significance of the association of Lyn with aggregated Fc alpha R. Our data show that early signal transduction after Fc alpha R cross-linking as well as Fc alpha R-mediated activation of cellular effector functions depends on Src family kinase activity. The Src-family PTK involved in Fc alpha R-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation appears to be Lyn, which coprecipitated with aggregated Fc alpha R complexes.

    Blood 1998;91;2;383-91

  • Lyn associates with the juxtamembrane region of c-Kit and is activated by stem cell factor in hematopoietic cell lines and normal progenitor cells.

    Linnekin D, DeBerry CS and Mou S

    Laboratory of Leukocyte Biology, Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA. linnekin@ncifcrf.gov

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine critical for normal hematopoiesis. The receptor for SCF is c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase. Our laboratory is interested in delineating critical components of the SCF signal transduction pathway in hematopoietic tissue. The present study examines activation of Src family members in response to SCF. Stimulation of cell lines as well as normal progenitor cells with SCF rapidly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src family member Lyn. Peak responses were noted 10-20 min after SCF treatment, and phosphorylation of Lyn returned to basal levels 60-90 min after stimulation. SCF also induced increases in Lyn kinase activity in vitro. Lyn coimmunoprecipitated with c-Kit, and studies with GST fusion proteins demonstrated that Lyn readily associated with the juxtamembrane region of c-Kit. Treatment of cells with either Lyn antisense oligonucleotides or PP1, a Src family inhibitor, resulted in dramatic inhibition of SCF-induced proliferation. These data demonstrate that SCF rapidly activates Lyn and suggest that Lyn is critical in SCF-induced proliferation in hematopoietic cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;43;27450-5

  • A novel association of Fc receptor gamma-chain with glycoprotein VI and their co-expression as a collagen receptor in human platelets.

    Tsuji M, Ezumi Y, Arai M and Takayama H

    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Clinical Sciences for Pathological Organs, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawaramachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01, Japan.

    The mechanism by which occupancy of collagen receptors is coupled to platelet activation has been uncertain. Our group previously demonstrated that glycoprotein (GP) VI, an uncharacterized platelet membrane protein, is specifically required for collagen-platelet interaction leading to activation of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk. Since collagen stimulation of platelets has recently been found to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc receptor (FcR) gamma-chain, a signal-generating subunit of FcR, we further investigated the relationships between FcR gamma-chain and GPVI in human platelets. Our present study revealed the following. FcR gamma-chain was physically and stably associated with GPVI in human platelets; both FcR gamma-chain and GPVI were proportionally absent in GPVI-deficient platelets; GPVI cross-linking or collagen stimulation of platelets resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of GPVI-associated FcR gamma-chain accompanied by Syk association and activation. These findings strongly suggest that the associated complex of GPVI and FcR gamma-chain is a collagen receptor featuring the signaling through immune receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;38;23528-31

  • Influence of tyrosine phosphorylation on protein interaction with FcgammaRIIa.

    Ibarrola I, Vossebeld PJ, Homburg CH, Thelen M, Roos D and Verhoeven AJ

    Central Laboratory of the Netherlands Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, University of Amsterdam.

    The cytoplasmic tail of Fc(gamma)RIIa present on human neutrophils shares with other antigen receptors a common amino acid sequence called ITAM (Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motif). After receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues within this motif become phosphorylated. We prepared a recombinant fusion protein of the cytoplasmic tail of Fc(gamma)RIIa (containing the ITAM) with glutathione-S-Transferase (GST-CT) to characterize the phosphorylation of Fc(gamma)RIIa and its ability to interact with other proteins involved in signal transduction. The GST-CT became phosphorylated in the presence of Lyn, Hck and Syk (immunoprecipitated from human neutrophils), but not in the presence of Fgr. Of the active kinases, only Lyn (mainly present in the membrane fraction) was found to associate with the GST-CT in the absence of ATP. This association was also observed in immunoprecipitates of Fc(gamma)RIIa from resting neutrophils, suggesting that Lyn might be the kinase responsible for the initial Fc(gamma)RIIa phosphorylation. Moreover, we observed specific association of Syk and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase after incubation of the GST-CT with neutrophil cytosol. This interaction was dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the GST-CT. Substitution of 269Tyr by Phe almost completely abolished tyrosine phosphorylation of the fusion protein. Substitution of either 253Tyr or 269Tyr eliminated Syk binding, but only 253Tyr appeared to be essential for p85 binding. We hypothesize that, upon activation, the membrane-associated Lyn is responsible for the initial tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc(gamma)RIIa, thus creating a docking site for Syk and PI 3-kinase.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1997;1357;3;348-58

  • Molecular cloning of SKAP55, a novel protein that associates with the protein tyrosine kinase p59fyn in human T-lymphocytes.

    Marie-Cardine A, Bruyns E, Eckerskorn C, Kirchgessner H, Meuer SC and Schraven B

    Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Institute of Immunology, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. m71@ix.urz.uni-heidelberg/de

    In human T-lymphocytes the Src family protein tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) associates with three phosphoproteins of 43, 55, and 85 kDa (pp43, pp55, and pp85). Employing a GST-Fyn-Src homology 2 (SH2) domain fusion protein pp55 was purified from lysates of Jurkat T-cells. Molecular cloning of the pp55 cDNA reveals that the pp55 gene codes for a so far nondescribed polypeptide of 359 amino acids that comprises a pleckstrin homology domain, a C-terminal SH3 domain, as well as several potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites, among which one fulfills the criteria to bind Src-like SH2 domains with high affinity. Consistent with this observation, pp55 selectively binds to isolated SH2 domains of Lck, Lyn, Src, and Fyn but not to the SH2 domains of ZAP70, Syk, Shc, SLP-76, Grb2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and c-abl in vitro. Based on these properties the protein was termed SKAP55 (src kinase-associated phosphoprotein of 55 kDa). Northern blot analysis shows that SKAP55 mRNA is preferentially expressed in lymphatic tissues. SKAP55 is detected in resting human T-lymphocytes as a constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated protein that selectively interacts with p59(fyn). These data suggest that SKAP55 represents a novel adaptor protein likely involved in Fyn-mediated signaling in human T-lymphocytes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;26;16077-80

  • Identification of novel human WW domain-containing proteins by cloning of ligand targets.

    Pirozzi G, McConnell SJ, Uveges AJ, Carter JM, Sparks AB, Kay BK and Fowlkes DM

    Cytogen Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey 08540-5309, USA. gpirozzi@mru3.cytogen.com

    A recently described protein module consisting of 35-40 semiconserved residues, termed the WW domain, has been identified in a number of diverse proteins including dystrophin and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Two putative ligands of YAP, termed WBP-1 and WBP-2, have been found previously to contain several short peptide regions consisting of PPPPY residues (PY motif) that mediate binding to the WW domain of YAP. Although the function(s) of the WW domain remain to be elucidated, these observations strongly support a role for the WW domain in protein-protein interactions. Here we report the isolation of three novel human cDNAs encoding a total of nine WW domains, using a newly developed approach termed COLT (cloning of ligand targets), in which the rapid cloning of modular protein domains is accomplished by screening cDNA expression libraries with specific peptide ligands. Two of the new genes identified appear to be members of a family of proteins, including Rsp5 and Nedd-4, which have ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. In addition, we demonstrate that peptides corresponding to PY and PY-like motifs present in several known signaling or regulatory proteins, including RasGAP, AP-2, p53BP-2 (p53-binding protein-2), interleukin-6 receptor-alpha, chloride channel CLCN5, and epithelial sodium channel ENaC, can selectively bind to certain of these novel WW domains.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;23;14611-6

  • Thrombspondin acts via integrin-associated protein to activate the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3.

    Chung J, Gao AG and Frazier WA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Integrin-associated protein (IAP or CD47) is a receptor for the cell/platelet-binding domain (CBD) of thrombospondin-1 (TS1), the most abundant protein of platelet alpha granules. Although it associates with alphaIIbbeta3, IAP has no known function in platelets. TS1, the CBD, and an IAP agonist peptide (4N1K) from the CBD of TS1 activate the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3, resulting in platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, stimulation of platelet aggregation, and enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Furthermore, 4N1K peptide selectively stimulates the phosphorylation of LYN and SYK and their association with FAK. The phosphorylation of SYK is blocked by pertussis toxin, implicating a Gi-like heterotrimeric G protein. IAP solublized from membranes of unstimulated platelets binds specifically to an affinity column of 4N1K peptide. Both alphaIIb and beta3 integrin subunits and c-Src bind along with IAP. This complex of proteins is also detected with immunoprecipitation. Activation of platelets with the agonist peptide 4N1K results in the association of FAK with the IAP-alphaIIbbeta3 complex. Thus an important function of TS1 in platelets is that of a secreted costimulator of alphaIIbbeta3 whose unique properties result in its localization to the platelet surface and the fibrin clot.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;23;14740-6

  • Translocation of the Csk homologous kinase (Chk/Hyl) controls activity of CD36-anchored Lyn tyrosine kinase in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    Hirao A, Hamaguchi I, Suda T and Yamaguchi N

    Department of Cell Differentiation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Japan.

    Chk/Hyl is a recently isolated non-receptor tyrosine kinase with greatest homology to a ubiquitous negative regulator of Src family kinases, Csk. To understand the significance of co-expression of Chk and Csk in platelets, we examined the subcellular localization of each protein. Chk, but not Csk, was completely translocated from the Triton X-100-soluble to the Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction within 10 s of thrombin stimulation. Chk and Lyn, but not Csk and c-Src, co-fractionated in the higher density lysate fractions of resting platelets, with Chk being found to localize close to CD36 (membrane glycoprotein IV)-anchored Lyn. The kinase activity of co-fractionated Lyn was suppressed 3-fold. In vitro phosphorylation assays showed that Chk suppressed Lyn activity by phosphorylating its C-terminal negative regulatory tyrosine. Upon stimulation of platelets with thrombin, the rapid and complete translocation of Chk away from Lyn caused concomitant activation of Lyn. This activation was accompanied by dephosphorylation of Lyn at its C-terminal negative regulatory tyrosine in cooperation with a protein tyrosine phosphatase. These results suggest that Chk, but not Csk, may function as a translocation-controlled negative regulator of CD36-anchored Lyn in thrombin-induced platelet activation.

    The EMBO journal 1997;16;9;2342-51

  • Role of tyrosine phosphorylation of HS1 in B cell antigen receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    Yamanashi Y, Fukuda T, Nishizumi H, Inazu T, Higashi K, Kitamura D, Ishida T, Yamamura H, Watanabe T and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    The 75-kD HS1 protein is highly tyrosine-phosphorylated during B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling. Owing to low expression of HS1, WEHI-231-derived M1 cells, unlike the parental cells, are insensitive to BCR-mediated apoptosis. Here, we show that BCR-associated tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk synergistically phosphorylate HS1, and that Tyr-378 and Tyr-397 of HS1 are the critical residues for its BCR-induced phosphorylation. In addition, unlike wild-type HS1, a mutant HS1 carrying the mutations Phe-378 and Phe-397 was unable to render M1 cells sensitive to apoptosis. Wild-type HS1, but not the mutant, localized to the nucleus under the synergy of Lyn and Syk. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of HS1 is required for BCR-induced apoptosis and nuclear translocation of HS1 may be a prerequisite for B cell apoptosis.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1997;185;7;1387-92

  • Interaction between Sam68 and Src family tyrosine kinases, Fyn and Lck, in T cell receptor signaling.

    Fusaki N, Iwamatsu A, Iwashima M and Fujisawa Ji

    Department of Microbiology, Kansai Medical University, 10-15 Fumizono-cho, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka 570, Japan.

    The Src family protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn, is associated with the T cell receptor (TCR) and plays an important role in TCR-mediated signaling. We found that a human T cell leukemia virus type 1-infected T cell line, Hayai, overexpressed Fyn. To identify the molecules downstream of Fyn, we analyzed the tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins in the cells. In Hayai, a 68-kDa protein was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated. The 68-kDa protein was coimmunoprecipitated with various signaling proteins such as phospholipase C gamma1, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 subunit, Grb2, SHP-1, Cbl, and Jak3, implying that the protein might function as an adapter. Purification and microsequencing of this protein revealed that it was the RNA-binding protein, Sam68 (Src associated in mitosis, 68 kDa). Sam68 was associated with the Src homology 2 and 3 domains of Fyn and also those of another Src family kinase, Lck. CD3 cross-linking induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Sam68 in uninfected T cells. These data suggest that Sam68 participates in the signal transduction pathway downstream of TCR-coupled Src family kinases Fyn and Lck in lymphocytes, that is not only in the mitotic pathway downstream of c-Src in fibroblasts.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;10;6214-9

  • Lyn, a src-like tyrosine kinase.

    Hibbs ML and Dunn AR

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne Tumour Biology Branch, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

    Lyn is a member of the src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases that is predominantly expressed in haematopoietic tissues. Like all members of the src family, lyn is thought to participate in signal transduction from cell surface receptors that lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. It is associated with a number of cell surface receptors including the B cell antigen receptor and Fc epsilon RI. Lyn deficient mice develop autoimmune disease characterised by autoantibodies in serum and the deposition of immune complexes in the kidney, a pathology reminiscent of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lyn deficient mice also have impaired signalling involving Fc epsilon RI in mast cells, resulting in defective allergic responses.

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 1997;29;3;397-400

  • A collagen-like peptide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of syk and phospholipase C gamma2 in platelets independent of the integrin alpha2beta1.

    Asselin J, Gibbins JM, Achison M, Lee YH, Morton LF, Farndale RW, Barnes MJ and Watson SP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, UK.

    Activation of platelets by collagen is mediated through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway that is associated with phosphorylation of the Fc receptor gamma chain, the tyrosine kinase syk, and phospholipase C gamma2 (PLC gamma2). We recently described a collagen-related triple-helical peptide (CRP) with the sequence GCP*(GPP*)GCP*G (single letter amino acid code: P* = hydroxyproline; Morton et al, Biochem J306:337, 1995). The cross-linked peptide is a potent stimulus of platelet activation but, unlike collagen, does not support alpha2beta1-mediated, Mg2+-dependent adhesion, suggesting that its action is independent of the integrin alpha2beta1. This finding suggests the existence of a platelet receptor other than alpha2beta1 that underlies activation. In the present study, we show that CRP stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the same pattern of proteins in platelets as collagen, including syk and PLC gamma2. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by CRP is not altered in the absence of Mg2+ or the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the integrin alpha2beta1 (MoAb 6F1 and MoAb 13), conditions that prevent the interaction of collagen with the integrin. In contrast, phosphorylation of syk and PLC gamma2 by collagen is partially reduced by MoAb 6F1 and MoAb 13 or by removal of Mg2+. This may reflect a direct role of alpha2beta1 in collagen-induced signaling events or an indirect role in which the integrin facilitates the binding of collagen to its signaling receptor. The results show an alpha2beta1-independent pathway of platelet activation by CRP that involves phosphorylation of syk and PLC gamma2. This pathway appears to contribute to platelet activation by collagen.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Blood 1997;89;4;1235-42

  • Involvement of p130(Cas) and p105(HEF1), a novel Cas-like docking protein, in a cytoskeleton-dependent signaling pathway initiated by ligation of integrin or antigen receptor on human B cells.

    Manié SN, Beck AR, Astier A, Law SF, Canty T, Hirai H, Druker BJ, Avraham H, Haghayeghi N, Sattler M, Salgia R, Griffin JD, Golemis EA and Freedman AS

    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Crk-associated substrate p130(Cas) (Cas) and the recently described human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) are two proteins with similar structure (64% amino acid homology), which are thought to act as "docking" molecules in intracellular signaling cascades. Both proteins contain an N-terminal Src homology (SH), three domain and a cluster of SH2 binding motifs. Here we show that ligation of either beta1 integrin or B cell antigen receptor (BCR) on human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of HEF1. In contrast, Cas tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in certain B cell lines but not in tonsillar B cells, indicating a more general role for HEF1 in B cell signaling. Interestingly, pretreatment of tonsillar B cells with cytochalasin B dramatically reduced both integrin- and BCR-induced HEF1 phosphorylation, suggesting that some component of the BCR-mediated signaling pathway is closely linked with a cytoskeletal reorganization. Both HEF1 and Cas were found to complex with the related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK), and when tyrosine phosphorylated, with the adapter molecule CrkL. In addition, the two molecules were detected in p53/56(Lyn) immunoprecipitates, and Lyn kinase was found to specifically bind the C-terminal proline-rich sequence of Cas in an in vitro binding assay. These associations implicate HEF1 and Cas as important components in a cytoskeleton-linked signaling pathway initiated by ligation of beta1 integrin or BCR on human B cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55207, CA60821, CA66996; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;7;4230-6

  • CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II and coassociates with other phosphoproteins including the lyn src-related kinase.

    Ganju RK, Shpektor RG, Brenner DG and Shipp MA

    Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) regulates peptidemediated proliferation of lymphoid progenitors and certain epithelial cells and is itself regulated by cellular proliferation. To further characterize mechanisms by which cell-surface signaling might regulate CD10/NEP expression, we determined whether CD10/NEP was phosphorylated and whether the enzyme co-associated with additional cellular phosphoproteins. The CD10/NEP cytoplasmic tall contains two consensus recognition sequences for casein kinase II (CKII), a serine and threonine kinase that increases in activity following peptide signaling. In standard in vitro kinase assays, CKII phosphorylated full-length recombinant CD10/NEP but did not phosphorylate a truncated CD10/NEP protein that lacked the transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail. To determine whether CD10/NEP might interact with additional cellular phosphoproteins, in vitro kinase assays were performed on CD10/NEP immune complexes from Nalm-6 cells. Three additional tyrosine phosphoproteins of approximately 40 kD, approximately 58 kD, and approximately 75 kD were identified in the CD10/NEP immunoprecipitates. The approximately 56-kD CD10/NEP-associated phosphoprotein was immunoprecipitated with an anti-lyn antibody confirming its identity as the lyn src-related kinase. Taken together, these data indicate that CD10/NEP is itself phosphorylated by CKII and that CD10/NEP co-associates with additional tyrosine phosphoproteins including lyn.

    Blood 1996;88;11;4159-65

  • Critical role of Lyn kinase in inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Wei S, Liu JH, Epling-Burnette PK, Gamero AM, Ussery D, Pearson EW, Elkabani ME, Diaz JI and Djeu JY

    Immunology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa 33612, USA.

    The signal pathway for control of apoptosis in human neutrophils is currently unknown. In this study, we provide the first evidence that a Src family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, plays a key role in inhibition polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell death. Several nuclear proteins associated with apoptosis, i.e., p53, cdc2, and Rb, were absent from PMN. Bcl-2, known to inhibit apoptosis, was also not expressed. Programmed cell death that rapidly occurred in PMN could be arrested by granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), but this activation did not induce p53, cdc2, retinoblastoma, or Bcl-2 expression. Instead, GM-CSF produced a rapid activation of Lyn and Hck, but not Fgr, tyrosine phosphorylation within 1 min. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that only Lyn, but not Hck, was physically coupled to GM-CSF receptor. By histologic assessment and evaluation of DNA fragmentation, only antisense Lyn, but not antisense Hck or antisense Fgr, could reverse the cell survival advantage provided by GM-CSF. Therefore, the physical coupling of Lyn to GM-CSF receptor and its early activation are required for inhibition or delay of apoptosis in PMN.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63724; NIAID NIH HHS: AI33674

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1996;157;11;5155-62

  • The protein-tyrosine kinase Lck associates with and is phosphorylated by Cdc2.

    Pathan NI, Geahlen RL and Harrison ML

    Department of Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    The protein-tyrosine kinase Lck is essential for signaling through the T-cell antigen receptor. Treatment of T-cells with a variety of extracellular stimuli increases the phosphorylation of Lck on serine residues. This results in shifts in the apparent molecular weight of Lck to forms that exhibit reduced electrophoretic mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. We found that as a result of arresting cells in mitosis, forms of Lck were generated that migrated with slower mobilities on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. This suggested that a serine/threonine kinase, active at mitosis, was phosphorylating Lck. Using antibodies to Lck and to the cyclin-dependent serine kinase, Cdc2, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase affinity resin, Suc1-agarose, we detected a stable interaction between Lck and Cdc2. The interaction was mediated through the Src homology 3 domain of Lck and was selective, as only the active form of Cdc2 was found to associate with Lck. Moreover, Cdc2 was able to phosphorylate Lck in vitro and shift its electrophoretic mobility to a more slowly migrating form. An association between active Cdc2 and the Src-related kinases Lyn and Fyn was also demonstrated, although Cdc2 was not found associated with the tyrosine kinases, Csk and Syk. These results demonstrate that at mitosis, Cdc2 associates with and phosphorylates Lck.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48099

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;44;27517-23

  • Protein kinase C mu (PKC mu) associates with the B cell antigen receptor complex and regulates lymphocyte signaling.

    Sidorenko SP, Law CL, Klaus SJ, Chandran KA, Takata M, Kurosaki T and Clark EA

    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

    We have identified a Ser/Thr kinase associated with the B cell receptor (BCR) complex as protein kinase C mu (PKC mu). PKC mu activity is up-regulated after cross-linking the BCR and CD19 on B cells, and PKC mu co-precipitates with Syk and phospholipase C-gamma 1/2 (PLC gamma 1/2). In vitro phosphorylation of fusion proteins showed that both Syk and PLC gamma 1 are potential substrates of PKC mu in vivo. Analysis of mutants of the chicken B cell line DT40 deficient in either Syk, Lyn, Btk, or PLC gamma 2 revealed that BCR-induced activation of PKC mu, like activation of PLC gamma 2, requires Syk and is partially regulated by Btk, but is Lyn independent. PKC mu can down-regulate the ability of Syk to phosphorylate PLC gamma 1 in vitro. Thus, PKC mu may function in a negative feedback loop regulating BCR-initiated signaling cascades.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM37905, GM42508

    Immunity 1996;5;4;353-63

  • Interaction of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and the Lyn tyrosine kinase in cells treated with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine.

    Yuan ZM, Huang Y, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Kharbanda S and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) is required for initiation and progression of DNA replication. Activation of Cdk2 involves binding to cyclin E or cyclin A and dephosphorylation of Tyr15. The present studies demonstrate that treatment of U-937 cells with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdk2 and inhibition of Cdk2 activity. The results also demonstrate that Cdk2 directly associates with the Src-like tyrosine kinase Lyn as a consequence of ara-C-treatment. Confocal microscopy studies show that Lyn is detectable in the nucleus and that it colocalises with Cdk2. Subcellular fractionation and coimmunoprecipitation studies further demonstrate nuclear binding of Lyn and Cdk2. We also show that Lyn phosphorylates Tyr15 of Cdk2 and that incubation of Lyn with Cdk2 results in inhibition of Cdk2 activity. These findings suggest that the association of Lyn and Cdk2 in ara-C-treated cells may contribute to regulation of Cdk2-dependent cell cycle checkpoints.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29431

    Oncogene 1996;13;5;939-46

  • In vivo and in vitro specificity of protein tyrosine kinases for immunoglobulin G receptor (FcgammaRII) phosphorylation.

    Bewarder N, Weinrich V, Budde P, Hartmann D, Flaswinkel H, Reth M and Frey J

    Biochemie II, Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Bielefeld, Germany.

    Human B cells express four immunoglobulin G receptors, FcgammaRIIa, FcgammaRIIb1, FcgammaRIIb2, and FcgammaRIIc. Coligation of either FcgammaRII isoform with the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the abrogation of B-cell activation, but only the FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaIIb1 isoforms become phosphorylated. To identify the FcgammaRII-phosphorylating protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), we used the combination of an in vitro and an in vivo approach. In an in vitro assay using recombinant cytoplasmic tails of the different FcgammaRII isoforms as well as tyrosine exchange mutants, we show that each of the BCR-associated PTKs (Lyn, Blk, Fyn, and Syk) shows different phosphorylation patterns with regard to the different FcgammaR isoforms and point mutants. While each PTK phosphorylated FcgammaRIIa/c, FcgammaRIIb1 was phosphorylated by Lyn and Blk whereas FcgammaRIIb2 became phosphorylated only by Blk. Mutants lacking both tyrosine residues of the immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of FcgammaRIIa/c were not phosphorylated by Blk and Fyn, while Lyn-mediated phosphorylation was dependent on the presence of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM. Results obtained in assays using an FcgammaR- B-cell line transfected with wild-type or mutated FcgammaRIIa demonstrated that exchange of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM of FcgammaRIIa/c was sufficient to abolish FcgammaRIIa/c phosphorylation in B cells. Additionally, we could show that Lyn and Fyn bind to FcgammaRIIa/c, with the ITAM being necessary for association. Comparison of the phosphorylation pattern of each PTK observed in vitro with the phosphorylation pattern observed in vivo suggests that Lyn is the most likely candidate for FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaRIIb1 phosphorylation in vivo.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;9;4735-43

  • Nuclear signaling induced by ionizing radiation involves colocalization of the activated p56/p53lyn tyrosine kinase with p34cdc2.

    Kharbanda S, Saleem A, Yuan ZM, Kraeft S, Weichselbaum R, Chen LB and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Src-like protein-tyrosine kinase p56/p53lyn associates with cell membranes and transduces signals from activated cell surface receptors. In the present work, cell fractionation and confocal microscopy studies demonstrate expression of Lyn in the nucleus. We also demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to ionizing radiation is associated with selective activation of nuclear Lyn. Similar findings have been obtained following irradiation of purified nuclei. Immunoprecipitation studies of nuclear lysates demonstrate radiation-induced binding of Lyn to p34cdc2. Nuclear colocalization of Lyn with Cdc2 has been confirmed by confocal microscopy. Other studies with glutathione S-transferase-Lyn fusion proteins demonstrate that the binding of Lyn to nuclear Cdc2 is associated with inhibition of Cdc2 activity. These findings suggest that the association of activated Lyn with Cdc2 in the nucleus may contribute to regulation of a DNA damage-dependent premitotic checkpoint.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55241

    Cancer research 1996;56;16;3617-21

  • Association of CD24 with the kinase c-fgr in a small cell lung cancer cell line and with the kinase lyn in an erythroleukemia cell line.

    Zarn JA, Zimmermann SM, Pass MK, Waibel R and Stahel RA

    Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

    Human CD24 is a highly glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked (GPI-linked) cell surface protein. GPI-linked proteins are involved in signal transduction mediated by members of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) family. Therefore we studied associated molecules providing the signaling capacity of CD24. Lysates of SW2 and K562 cells were analysed for expression of PTK of the c-src family by Western blotting. We identified c-fgr in SW2 lysates and c-fgr and also lyn in K562 lysates. To study a putative association of these PTK with CD24 we performed immunoprecipitations with the mAb SWA11 directed against CD24. Western analysis of the precipitates showed an association of c-fgr with CD24 in SW2 cells and lyn in K562 cells. We conclude that either c-fgr or lyn is physically associated with CD24 in a cell-type depending manner. An involvement of these complexes in signaling phenomenons of CD24 in small cell lung cancer and in leukaemias is discussed.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;225;2;384-91

  • The stress response to ionizing radiation involoves c-Abl-dependent phosphorylation of SHPTP1.

    Kharbanda S, Bharti A, Pei D, Wang J, Pandey P, Ren R, Weichselbaum R, Walsh CT and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    c-Abl is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by certain DNA-damaging agents. The present studies demonstrate that nuclear c-Abl binds constitutively to the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHPTP1. Treatment with ionizing radiation is associated with c-Abl-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of SHPTP1. The results demonstrate that the SH3 domain of c-Abl interacts with a WPDHGVPSEP motif (residues 417-426) in the catalytic domain of SHPTP1 and that c-Abl phosphorylates C terminal Y536 and Y564 sites. The functional significance of the c-Abl-SHPTP1 interaction is supported by the demonstration that, like c-Abl, SHPTP1 regulates the induction of Jun kinase activity following DNA damage. These findings indicate that SHPTP1 is involved in the response to genotoxic stress through a c-Abl-dependent mechanism.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55241

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;14;6898-901

  • Involvement of p72syk kinase, p53/56lyn kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase in signal transduction via the human B lymphocyte antigen CD22.

    Tuscano JM, Engel P, Tedder TF, Agarwal A and Kehrl JH

    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1876, USA.

    CD22 is a B lymphocyte-specific membrane protein that functions as an adhesion molecule via its interactions with a subset of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Engagement of CD22 with a monoclonal antibody (HB22.23) that blocks the binding of CD22 to its ligands results in rapid CD22 tyrosine phosphorylation and in increased association of CD22 with p53/56lyn kinase, p85 phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, and p72syk kinase. Synthetic peptides that span various regions of the intracellular portion of CD22 were used to map potential kinase binding sites. All three kinases associated with a tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide that spans tyrosine amino acid residues 822 and 842, implicating this as an important region in mediating CD22 signal transduction. In addition, purified p56lyn directly bound to the same peptide. Engagement of CD22 with HB22.23 was sufficient to stimulate normal B cell proliferation. This study further substantiates the importance of CD22 as a B lymphocyte signaling molecule and begins to unravel the mechanisms by which CD22 cross-linking can alter B cell function.

    European journal of immunology 1996;26;6;1246-52

  • Regulation of Btk function by a major autophosphorylation site within the SH3 domain.

    Park H, Wahl MI, Afar DE, Turck CW, Rawlings DJ, Tam C, Scharenberg AM, Kinet JP and Witte ON

    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1662, USA.

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a crucial role in B cell development. Overexpression of Btk with a Src family kinase increases tyrosine phosphorylation and catalytic activity of Btk. This occurs by transphosphorylation at Y551 in the Btk catalytic domain and the enhancement of Btk autophosphorylation at a second site. A gain-of-function mutant called Btk* containing E41 to K change within the pleckstrin homology domain induces fibroblast transformation. Btk* enhances the transphosphorylation of Y551 by endogenous Src family tyrosine kinases and autophosphorylation at the second site. We mapped the major Btk autophosphorylation site to Y223 within the SH3 domain. Mutation of Y223 to F blocks Btk autophosphorylation and dramatically potentiates the transforming activity of Btk* in fibroblasts. The location of Y223 in a potential ligand-binding pocket suggests that autophosphorylation regulates SH3-mediated signaling by Btk.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR01912; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM08243

    Immunity 1996;4;5;515-25

  • Phospholipase C-gamma1 interacts with conserved phosphotyrosyl residues in the linker region of Syk and is a substrate for Syk.

    Law CL, Chandran KA, Sidorenko SP and Clark EA

    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

    Antigen receptor ligation on lymphocytes activates protein tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) isoforms. Glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the C-terminal Src-homology 2 [SH2(C)] domain of PLC-gamma1 bound to tyrosyl phosphorylated Syk. Syk isolated from antigen receptor-activated B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 on Tyr-771 and the key regulatory residue Tyr-783 in vitro, whereas Lyn from the same B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 only on Tyr-771. The ability of Syk to phosphorylate PLC-gamma1 required antigen receptor ligation, while Lyn was constitutively active. An mCD8-Syk cDNA construct could be expressed as a tyrosyl-phosphorylated chimeric protein tyrosine kinase in COS cells, was recognized by PLC-gamma1 SH2(C) in vitro, and induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of endogenous PLC-gamma1 in vivo. Substitution of Tyr-525 and Tyr-526 at the autophosphorylation site of Syk in mCD8-Syk substantially reduced the kinase activity and the binding of this variant chimera to PLC-gamma1 SH2(C) in vitro; it also failed to induce tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 in vivo. In contrast, substitution of Tyr-348 and Tyr-352 in the linker region of Syk in mCD8-Syk did not affect the kinase activity of this variant chimera but almost completely eliminated its binding to PLC-gamma1 SH(C) and completely eliminated its ability to induce tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 in vivo. Thus, an optimal kinase activity of Syk and an interaction between the linker region of Syk with PLC-gamma1 are required for the tyrosyl phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00166; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM42508

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;4;1305-15

  • Tec protein-tyrosine kinase is an effector molecule of Lyn protein-tyrosine kinase.

    Mano H, Yamashita Y, Miyazato A, Miura Y and Ozawa K

    Department of Molecular Biology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi-ken, Japan.

    The Tec family is a recently emerging subfamily among nonreceptor type protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) consisting of Tec, Txk, Btk, Bmx, and Itk/Tsk/Emt. They have a long amino-terminal unique region containing a pleckstrin homology domain and a Tec-homology domain. We could previously show that, through the Tec-homology domain, Tec is bound to Lyn kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Because Tec is coexpressed with Lyn in many hematopoietic cell types, it has been intriguing to investigate the biological role of the Tec-Lyn association. Here we demonstrate that Lyn can phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the Tec protein, and thereby activate Tec in 3T3 fibroblasts. However, coexpression of Tec has little effect on the phospho-tyrosine-contents of Lyn. By using the in vitro kinase assay and the yeast system, we could prove that the Tec protein is a direct substrate of the Lyn kinase both in vitro and in vivo. From this evidence we conclude that Tec acts downstream of Lyn in intracellular signaling pathways. This is a novel case where one PTK is phosphorylated and regulated by another.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1996;10;5;637-42

  • A comparative study of the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase specificity of protein phosphatase type 2A and phosphotyrosyl phosphatase type 1B using phosphopeptides and the phosphoproteins p50/HS1, c-Fgr and Lyn.

    Agostinis P, Donella-Deana A, Van Hoof C, Cesaro L, Brunati AM, Ruzzene M, Merlevede W, Pinna LA and Goris J

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit der Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

    The phosphotyrosyl phosphatase (PTPase) specificity of phosphotyrosyl-phosphatase-activator-(PTPA)-stimulated protein phosphatase (PP)2A(D) (rabbit muscle) and a bona fide PTP-1B (Xenopus laevis oocytes) were examined in vitro using phosphotyrosine-containing peptides, derived from the phosphorylation sites of p34cdc2, p50/HS1 protein, Abl, c-Src and c-Fgr, as well as the intact phosphoprotein p50/HS1 and the Src-related tyrosine kinases, Lyn and c-Fgr. The local specificity determinants were found to be different for both PTPases. The length of the phosphopeptides is more important for PP2A(D) than for PTP-1B, C-terminal acidic residues adjacent to the phosphotyrosine are detrimental for the PTPase activity of PP2A(D), but they do not affect the PTP-1B activity. Acidic residues at the --2 and --3 position relative to Tyr(P) primarily dictate dephosphorylation by PTP-1B. The higher-order structure of the protein substrates also differentially influences both enzymes: the phospho-octapeptide KDDEYpNPA, which reproduces the autophosphorylation site in c-Fgr (Tyr400), is only dephosphorylated by PP2A(D) if embedded in the intact protein, whereas the opposite is true for PTP-1B. Both the intact p50/HS1 phosphoprotein and the derived phosphopeptide are substrates only for PTP-1B and not for PP2A(D). Lyn and c-Fgr phosphorylated by C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) at their down-regulatory site are resistant to the action of both PTPases while the [Phe6]Src-(514-533) phosphopeptide, representing the highly similar site affected by CSK in c-Src, is readily dephosphorylated by both PTPases, although to a different extent. In vitro dephosphorylation of the c-Fgr Tyr400 site by PP2A(D) is correlated with a decreased tyrosine kinase activity towards exogenous substrates. Under experimental conditions in which both Tyr400 (autophosphorylation site) and Tyr511 (down-regulatory site) of c-Fgr are phosphorylated, PP2A(D) can reverse both phosphorylations.

    European journal of biochemistry 1996;236;2;548-57

  • Activation of BTK by a phosphorylation mechanism initiated by SRC family kinases.

    Rawlings DJ, Scharenberg AM, Park H, Wahl MI, Lin S, Kato RM, Fluckiger AC, Witte ON and Kinet JP

    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1662, USA.

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is pivotal in B cell activation and development through its participation in the signaling pathways of multiple hematopoietic receptors. The mechanisms controlling BTK activation were studied here by examination of the biochemical consequences of an interaction between BTK and SRC family kinases. This interaction of BTK with SRC kinases transphosphorylated BTK on tyrosine at residue 551, which led to BTK activation. BTK then autophosphorylated at a second site. The same two sites were phosphorylated upon B cell antigen receptor cross-linking. The activated BTK was predominantly membrane-associated, which suggests that BTK integrates distinct receptor signals resulting in SRC kinase activation and BTK membrane targeting.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09120-20; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR01912, AR36834; ...

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1996;271;5250;822-5

  • p120cbl is a major substrate of tyrosine phosphorylation upon B cell antigen receptor stimulation and interacts in vivo with Fyn and Syk tyrosine kinases, Grb2 and Shc adaptors, and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Panchamoorthy G, Fukazawa T, Miyake S, Soltoff S, Reedquist K, Druker B, Shoelson S, Cantley L and Band H

    Lymphocyte Biology Section, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    We and others have demonstrated that the c-cbl proto-oncogene product is one of the earliest targets of tyrosine phosphorylation upon T cell receptor stimulation. Given the similarities in the B and T lymphocyte antigen receptors, and the induction of pre-B leukemias in mice by the v-cbl oncogene, we examined the potential involvement of Cbl in B cell receptor signaling. We demonstrate prominent and early tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl upon stimulation of human B cell lines through surface IgM. Cbl was associated in vivo with Fyn and, to a lesser extent, other Src family kinases. B cell activation also induced a prominent association of Cbl with Syk tyrosine kinase. A substantial fraction of Cbl was constitutively associated with Grb2 and this interaction was mediated by Grb2 SH3 domains. Tyrosine-phosphorylated Shc, which prominently associated with Grb2, was detected in association with Cbl in activated B cells. Thus, Grb2 and Shc adaptors, which associate with immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motifs, may link Cbl to the B cell receptor. B cell activation also induced a prominent association between Cbl and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase resulting in the association of a substantial fraction of PI 3-kinase activity with Cbl. Thus, Cbl is likely to play an important role to couple the B cell receptor to the PI 3-kinase pathway. Our results strongly suggest a role for p120cbl in signaling downstream of the B cell receptor and support the idea that Cbl participates in a general signal transduction function downstream of the immune cell surface receptors.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR36308; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM36624, R01 GM041890

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;6;3187-94

  • Membrane-associated CD19-LYN complex is an endogenous p53-independent and Bc1-2-independent regulator of apoptosis in human B-lineage lymphoma cells.

    Myers DE, Jun X, Waddick KG, Forsyth C, Chelstrom LM, Gunther RL, Tumer NE, Bolen J and Uckun FM

    Biotherapy Program, University of Minnesota Health Sciences Center, Minneapolis 55455, USA.

    CD19 receptor is expressed at high levels on human B-lineage lymphoid cells and is physically associated with the Src protooncogene family protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn. Recent studies indicate that the membrane-associated CD19-Lyn receptor-enzyme complex plays a pivotal role for survival and clonogenicity of immature B-cell precursors from acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, but its significance for mature B-lineage lymphoid cells (e.g., B-lineage lymphoma cells) is unknown. CD19-associated Lyn kinase can be selectively targeted and inhibited with B43-Gen, a CD19 receptor-specific immunoconjugate containing the naturally occurring protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (Gen). We now present experimental evidence that targeting the membrane-associated CD19-Lyn complex in vitro with B43-Gen triggers rapid apoptotic cell death in highly radiation-resistant p53-Bax- Ramos-BT B-lineage lymphoma cells expressing high levels of Bcl-2 protein without affecting the Bcl-2 expression level. The therapeutic potential of this membrane-directed apoptosis induction strategy was examined in a scid mouse xenograft model of radiation-resistant high-grade human B-lineage lymphoma. Remarkably, in vivo treatment of scid mice challenged with an invariably fatal number of Ramos-BT cells with B43-Gen at a dose level < 1/10 the maximum tolerated dose resulted in 70% long-term event-free survival. Taken together, these results provide unprecedented evidence that the membrane-associated anti-apoptotic CD19-Lyn complex may be at least as important as Bcl-2/Bax ratio for survival of lymphoma cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-21737, CA-51425, CA-60437

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;21;9575-9

  • Specific binding of Fyn and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the B cell surface glycoprotein CD19 through their src homology 2 domains.

    Chalupny NJ, Aruffo A, Esselstyn JM, Chan PY, Bajorath J, Blake J, Gilliland LK, Ledbetter JA and Tepper MA

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Seattle, USA.

    CD19 is a B cell surface protein capable of forming non-covalent molecular complexes with a number of other B cell surface proteins including the CD21/CD81/Leu-13 complex as well as with surface immunoglobulin. CD19 tyrosine phosphorylation increases after B cell activation, and is proposed to play a role in signal transduction through its cytoplasmic domain, which contains nine tyrosine residues. Several second messenger proteins have been shown to immunoprecipitate with CD19, including p59 Fyn (Fyn), p59 Lyn (Lyn) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase). These associations are predicted to occur via the src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of the second messenger proteins. Two of the cytoplasmic tyrosines in the CD19 cytoplasmic region contain the consensus binding sequence for the PI-3 kinase SH2 domain (YPO4-X-X-M). However, the reported consensus binding sequence for the Fyn and Lyn SH2 domains (YPO4-X-X-I/L) is not found in CD19. We investigated the capacity of CD19 cytoplasmic tyrosines to bind both Fyn and PI-3 kinase SH2-domain fusion proteins. In activated B cells, both Fyn and PI-3 kinase SH2-domain fusion proteins precipitate CD19. Using synthetic tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides comprising each of the CD19 cytoplasmic tyrosines and surrounding amino acids, we investigated the ability of the Fyn SH2 and PI-3 kinase SH2 fusion proteins to bind to the different CD19 cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine peptides. ELISA revealed that the two CD19 cytoplasmic tyrosine residues contained within the Y-X-X-M sequences (Y484 and Y515) bound preferentially to the PI-3 kinase SH2-domain fusion proteins. Two different tyrosines (Y405 and Y445) bound preferentially to the Fyn SH2-domain fusion protein via a novel sequence, Y-E-N-D/E, different from that previously reported for the Fyn SH2 domain. In precipitation studies, peptide Y484 was able to compete with tyrosine phosphorylated CD19 specifically for binding to the PI-3 kinase SH2 domain fusion proteins, while peptides Y405 and Y445 were able to compete specifically for binding to the Fyn SH2 domain fusion proteins. These results indicate that CD19 may be capable of binding both Fyn and PI-3 kinase concurrently, suggesting a mechanism for CD19 signal transduction, in which binding of PI-3 kinase to the Fyn SH3 domain results in activation of PI-3 kinase.

    European journal of immunology 1995;25;10;2978-84

  • Development of a rapid approach to identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites: application to PKC delta phosphorylated upon activation of the high affinity receptor for IgE in rat basophilic leukemia cells.

    Szallasi Z, Denning MF, Chang EY, Rivera J, Yuspa SH, Lehel C, Olah Z, Anderson WB and Blumberg PM

    Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    In rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) activation of the high affinity receptor for IgE induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PKC delta. We carried out solid phase synthesis of 15 amino acid long oligopeptides corresponding to the sequences around each of the 19 tyrosine residues in PKC delta. Only three oligopeptides, corresponding to tyrosine 52, 155, and 565, were phosphorylated when exposed to lyn kinase. Single mutants in each of these three tyrosine residues of PKC delta were prepared. Upon expression in the RBL-2H3 cells, only the mutant in tryosine 52 showed abolition of the IgE-antigen induced tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1995;214;3;888-94

  • Association of 75/80-kDa phosphoproteins and the tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fyn, and Lck with the B cell molecule CD20. Evidence against involvement of the cytoplasmic regions of CD20.

    Deans JP, Kalt L, Ledbetter JA, Schieven GL, Bolen JB and Johnson P

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

    CD20, a non-glycosylated cell-surface protein expressed exclusively on B lymphocytes, is one of a family of 4-pass transmembrane molecules that also includes the beta chain of the high affinity receptor for IgE. The precise function of CD20 is unknown, although in vitro effects of CD20-specific antibodies on resting B cells indicate that it is able to transduce an extracellular signal affecting the G0/G1 cell cycle transition. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD20-initiated intracellular signals involve tyrosine kinase activation and that CD20 is tightly associated with both serine and tyrosine kinases. Here, analysis of CD20-associated molecules has revealed that CD20 is associated with the Src family tyrosine kinases p56/53lyn, p56lck, and p59fyn and with 75/80-kDa proteins phosphorylated in vivo on tyrosine residues. Mutagenesis of CD20 was performed to define regions of CD20 involved in intermolecular interactions. Mutants were analyzed in the human T lymphoblastoid cell line Molt-4, in which ectopically expressed wild-type CD20 associated with p59fyn, p56lck, and 75/80-kDa phosphoproteins. Deletion of major portions of the cytoplasmic regions of CD20 did not abolish its association with either p75/80 or tyrosine kinases. The interaction between CD20 and the Src-related kinases is therefore likely to be independent of CD20 cytoplasmic domains and may occur indirectly. The interaction may be mediated by the p75/80 phosphoproteins, which were found to be tightly associated with the Src family kinases isolated from the CD20 complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;38;22632-8

  • G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors regulate Lyn tyrosine kinase.Shc adapter protein signaling complexes.

    Ptasznik A, Traynor-Kaplan A and Bokoch GM

    Department of Immunology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Receptors for chemoattractants that direct the migration of phagocytic leukocytes to sites of injury/infection also modulate many other leukocyte functions that are critical to the inflammatory response. These chemoattractant receptors, members of the G protein-coupled heptahelical receptor family, have been classically linked to cell activation via phospholipase C, calcium, and protein kinase C. We show here that activation of the N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptor stimulates an additional protein kinase C-independent pathway through the Src-related tyrosine kinase, Lyn, in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that activation of Lyn is associated with binding to the Shc adapter protein, which becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. This interaction appears to be mediated via the Shc SH2 domain. Complexes of phosphorylated Lyn and Shc with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are rapidly formed in stimulated neutrophils, correlating with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [corrected] formation and cell activation. This signaling pathway involving a Src-related kinase and the Shc adapter protein provides a potential mechanism linking chemoattractant receptors to downstream events involving Rac activation and NADPH oxidase. Regulation of Shc by G protein-coupled receptors may also allow these receptors to modulate the activity of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01RR00833; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39434

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;34;19969-73

  • Association between Lyn protein tyrosine kinase (p53/56lyn) and the beta subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors in a GM-CSF-dependent human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line (M-07e).

    Li Y, Shen BF, Karanes C, Sensenbrenner L and Chen B

    Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

    The role of the lyn product (p53/p56lyn), a membrane-associated protein tyrosine kinase in the signaling pathway used by granulocyte macrophage-CSFR (GM-CSFR) was investigated by using the GM-CSF-dependent human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line M-07e. M-07e cells express GM-CSFR and are dependent on GM-CSF for survival and proliferation in vitro. Treatment with anti-lyn Abs coimmunoprecipitated, along with lyn product, the beta subunit of GM-CSFR and a phosphoprotein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa (p120) in the lysates of M-07e cells but not in the lysates of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) or human lymphoid leukemia cells. That the 120-kDa phosphoprotein coimmunoprecipitated by anti-lyn Abs is the beta subunit of GM-CSFR was confirmed in the immunoprecipitates (IP) of M-07e cells with the use of an agarose-conjugated anti-p-tyr mAb. The formation of GM-CSF/GM-CSFR/lyn signaling complexes was verified in an autoradiographic study with anti-lyn IP of M-07e cells that had been bound with 125I-labeled recombinant human (rh)GM-CSF. The p120 protein (beta subunit) was not detected in the IP of M-07e cells with anti-fyn or anti-PI3 Abs. A direct association of Lyn kinase with the beta subunit of GM-CSFR was illustrated with a reversed approach showing the recovery of Lyn protein in anti-beta (CRS1) but not anti-alpha IP of M-07e cells that had been starved for a prolonged period. Finally, the interaction of Lyn kinase with the GM-CSFR complexes was further corroborated using anti-GM-CSF (G133) mAb, which coimmunoprecipitated both the p120 beta subunit and lyn product in the lysates of M-07e cells that had been bound with rhGM-CSF before cell lysis. Removal of rhGM-CSF from culture medium for 10 to 12 h resulted in a marked decrease in lyn-associated kinase activity but not the beta subunit/lyn kinase complex formation. Taken together, our results showed that, in M-07e cells, Lyn protein tyrosine kinase (p53/p56lyn) is stably associated with a constitutively phosphorylated beta subunit of the GM-CSFR in a manner that seems to be independent of lyn kinase activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 47424; NIAID NIH HHS: AI 23499

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1995;155;4;2165-74

  • Proline-rich (PxxP) motifs in HIV-1 Nef bind to SH3 domains of a subset of Src kinases and are required for the enhanced growth of Nef+ viruses but not for down-regulation of CD4.

    Saksela K, Cheng G and Baltimore D

    Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins contain a conserved motif with the minimal consensus (PxxP) site for Src homology region 3 (SH3)-mediated protein-protein interactions. Nef PxxP motifs show specific binding to biotinylated SH3 domains of Hck and Lyn, but not to those of other tested Src family kinases or less related proteins. A unique cooperative role of a distant proline is also observed. Endogenous Hck of monocytic U937 cells can be specifically precipitated by matrix-bound HIV-1 Nef, but not by mutant protein lacking PxxP. Intact Nef PxxP motifs are dispensable for Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation, but are required for the higher in vitro replicative potential of Nef+ viruses. Thus, CD4 down-regulation and promotion of viral growth are two distinct functions of Nef, and the latter is mediated via SH3 binding.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22346

    The EMBO journal 1995;14;3;484-91

  • Integral membrane protein 2 of Epstein-Barr virus regulates reactivation from latency through dominant negative effects on protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Miller CL, Burkhardt AL, Lee JH, Stealey B, Longnecker R, Bolen JB and Kieff E

    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    An Epstein-Barr virus-encoded protein, LMP2, blocks the effects of surface immunoglobulin (slg) cross-linking on calcium mobilization and on lytic reactivation of EBV in latently infected and growth-transformed primary human B lymphocytes. In wild-type EBV-transformed cells, LMP2 is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and is associated with Lyn and Syk protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Baseline Lyn PTK activity is substantially reduced, and slg cross-linking fails to activate Lyn, Syk, Pl3-K, PLC gamma 2, Vav, Shc, and MAPK. Syk, Pl3-K, PLC gamma 2, and Vav are constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated, and their tyrosine phosphorylation does not change following slg cross-linking. In contrast, cross-linking slg on cells transformed by LMP2 null mutant EBV recombinants triggers the same protein tyrosine kinase cascade as in noninfected B lymphocytes. These data are consistent with a model in which LMP2 is a constitutive dominant negative modulator of slg receptor signaling through its effects on Lyn, Syk, or regulators of these kinases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA62234; PHS HHS: 47006

    Immunity 1995;2;2;155-66

  • Signal transduction through the conserved motifs of the high affinity IgE receptor Fc epsilon RI.

    Jouvin MH, Numerof RP and Kinet JP

    Molecular Allergy and Immunology Section, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

    The high affinity receptor for IgE, Fc epsilon RI, possesses three ARAMs, one in the beta chain (ARAM-beta) and one in each member of the dimer of gamma chains (ARAM-gamma). These two types of ARAM endow the chains in which they are located with distinct properties. The ARAM-containing C-terminal tail of beta binds Lyn, a Src family tyrosine kinase which regulates the phosphorylation of beta, gamma and other substrates including Syk. The tyrosine phosphorylated ARAM-containing C-terminal tail of gamma binds Syk which, when activated, controls later signals such as the rise in intracellular calcium. Therefore, the two ARAM-containing chains of Fc epsilon RI cooperate to realize the full signaling capacity of the receptor.

    Seminars in immunology 1995;7;1;29-35

  • Human spleen tyrosine kinase p72Syk associates with the Src-family kinase p53/56Lyn and a 120-kDa phosphoprotein.

    Sidorenko SP, Law CL, Chandran KA and Clark EA

    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle 98195.

    The 72-kDa spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Src-family kinase p53/56Lyn (Lyn) contribute to signaling via the B-cell antigen receptor complex. Here we show that Syk and Lyn from human B lymphocytes can interact directly. Syk and Lyn coimmunoprecipitated from mature and activated B-cell lines, and gel-purified Syk and Lyn reassociated in vitro, demonstrating their direct interaction. This Syk-Lyn interaction may be dependent on the stage of B-cell differentiation, since Syk-Lyn associations were not detected in pre-B and myeloma cell lines and Syk from an immature B-cell line did not reassociate with Lyn in vitro. Serine/threonine kinase activity was also associated with Syk. Crosslinking of cell surface IgM led to rapid activation of both tyrosine and serine/threonine protein kinase activities that resulted in phosphorylation in vitro of proteins coprecipitating with Syk--in particular, a serine/threonine phosphorylated protein 120 kDa in size (pp120). Several phosphoproteins, including one of 72 kDa and one of 120 kDa, coprecipitated with phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1). Sequential immunoprecipitation identified the 72-kDa protein associated with PLC gamma 1 as Syk. The 120-kDa serine/threonine phosphorylated protein that coprecipitated with PLC gamma 1 resembled the Syk-associated pp120 by several criteria. Thus, pp120 may serve as a link between Syk and PLC gamma 1, coupling the B-cell antigen receptor to the phosphatidylinositol pathway.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00166; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM37905, GM42508

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;2;359-63

  • Different roles for the Fc epsilon RI gamma chain as a function of the receptor context.

    Paolini R, Renard V, Vivier E, Ochiai K, Jouvin MH, Malissen B and Kinet JP

    Molecular Allergy and Immunology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852.

    The high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc epsilon RI) and the B and T cell antigen receptors (TCR) are multimeric complexes containing subunits with cytoplasmic antigen recognition activation motifs (ARAMs). The presence of multiple motifs may be a way to amplify a single signal or provide independent activation modules. Here we have compared the signaling capacity of the same Fc epsilon RI gamma motif in the context of two different receptors, Fc epsilon RI and TCR/CD3, simultaneously reconstituted on the surface of the same zeta-deficient T cell line. Both reconstituted receptors mediate early (phosphorylation) and late (interleukin [IL]-2 release) signals. Mutation of the two tyrosine residues of ARAM gamma alters early signaling by both receptors, but the set of substrates phosphorylated via ARAM gamma is different for each receptor and is thus dependent on the receptor context. Furthermore, the mutations prevent Fc epsilon RI- but not TCR/CD3-mediated IL-2 release. These data demonstrate that ARAM gamma is necessary for allowing both receptors to phosphorylate the complete set of substrates, and that the CD3 complex, unlike the Fc epsilon RI beta chain, contains activation modules capable of compensating for the absence of a functional ARAM gamma in generating late signals such as IL-2 release.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1995;181;1;247-55

  • p56/p53lyn tyrosine kinase activation in mammalian cells treated with mitomycin C.

    Kharbanda S, Yuan ZM, Taneja N, Weichselbaum R and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    The present studies have examined the effects of mitomycin C (MMC), a genotoxic alkylating agent, on the activation of Src-like protein tyrosine kinases in HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells. The results demonstrate no detectable induction of p59fyn or pp60c-src activity. The response of HL-60 cells to MMC however was associated with rapid activation of p56/p53lyn. Similar findings were obtained with other alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustard and cis-platinum. Activation of p56/p53lyn was associated with increased autophosphorylation on tyrosine and sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors herbimycin A and genistein. Studies with a glutathione S-transferase-Lyn fusion protein were performed to explore the potential significance of p56/p53lyn activation. Analysis of the adsorbates demonstrates interaction of Lyn with the cell cycle regulatory protein, p34cdc2. Coimmunoprecipitation studies further confirmed the association of p56/p53lyn and p34cdc2 in MMC-treated cells. We also demonstrate that p34cdc2 undergoes increased phosphorylation on tyrosine following MMC exposure and that p56/p53lyn phosphorylates the Tyr-15 site of p34cdc2 in vitro. These findings indicate that the cellular response to MMC includes activation of p56/p53lyn and that this event may contribute to signals transduced by the DNA damage-dependent mitotic checkpoint.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA19589

    Oncogene 1994;9;10;3005-11

  • Binding of Bruton's tyrosine kinase to Fyn, Lyn, or Hck through a Src homology 3 domain-mediated interaction.

    Cheng G, Ye ZS and Baltimore D

    Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021.

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a recently described B-cell-specific tyrosine kinase. Mutations in this gene lead to human X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia and murine X-linked immunodeficiency. Although genetic evidence strongly suggests that Btk plays a crucial role in B-lymphocyte differentiation and activation, its precise mechanism of action remains unknown, primarily because the proteins that it interacts with have not yet been identified. Here, we show that Btk interacts with Src homology 3 domains of Fyn, Lyn, and Hck, protein-tyrosine kinases that get activated upon stimulation of B- and T-cell receptors. These interactions are mediated by two 10-aa motifs in Btk. An analogous site with the same specificity is also present in Itk, the T-cell-specific homologue of Btk. Our data extend the range of interactions mediated by Src homology 3 domains and provide an indication of a link between Btk and established signaling pathways in B lymphocytes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22346

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;17;8152-5

  • Activation of Src-like p56/p53lyn tyrosine kinase by ionizing radiation.

    Kharbanda S, Yuan ZM, Rubin E, Weichselbaum R and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    Mammalian cells respond to ionizing radiation (IR) with cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair, and induction of early response genes. The present work has examined the involvement of Src-like protein-tyrosine kinases in the response of irradiated HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells. The results demonstrate little if any effect of IR on p59fyn, p56lck, and pp60c-src activity. In contrast, HL-60 cells responded to x-ray exposure with activation of p56/p53lyn. At a dose of 200 centigrays, induction of p56/p53lyn activity was detectable at 15 min. Doses as low as 50 centigrays were effective in activating p56/p53lyn. H2O2 and the scavenger N-acetylcysteine had no detectable effect on p56/p53lyn activation, while the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin and genistein, blocked induction by IR. The results also demonstrate that incubation of a glutathione S-transferase-Lyn fusion protein with lysates of irradiated HL-60 cells is associated with binding of the cell cycle regulatory protein, p34cdc2. The interaction of p56/p53lyn and p34cdc was confirmed in similar experiments with a glutathione S-transferase-Cdc2 fusion protein. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrate the selective binding of activated p56/p53lyn to p34cdc2 in irradiated cells. These findings indicate that IR activates p56/p53lyn in HL-60 cells and that this tyrosine kinase may contribute to the regulation of p34cdc2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55241

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;32;20739-43

  • Activation of src family kinases in human pre-B cells by IL-7.

    Seckinger P and Fougereau M

    Immunology Center of Marseille-Luminy, France.

    IL-7 was identified originally as a specific pre-B cell growth factor. We have investigated its signal transduction mechanism by using the human pre-B cell line Nalm-6, and have found that it stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of various proteins: pp27, pp43, pp54, pp64, pp78, pp90, pp105, and pp120. Antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from IL-7-stimulated Nalm-6 showed two major proteins of M(r) = 60,000 and 55,000, capable of autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation was maximal 10 min after the cells were challenged with the cytokine. Antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from IL-7-stimulated cells also increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the exogenously added substrate histone H2B. Furthermore, by using a polyclonal anti-IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) Ab in Western blotting analysis, we observed that antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates were associated with the IL-7R in a transient manner. These data indicate that the IL-7R associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins as its amino acid sequence is devoid of a putative site of tyrosine phosphorylation. These results were confirmed as several 32P-labeled proteins were visualized after immunoprecipitation by using anti-IL-7R Ab. Anti-IL-7R immunoprecipitates from IL-7-stimulated cells revealed a unique band of M(r) = 60,000 associated with the receptor able to autophosphorylate in the presence of ATP and Mn2+. Hence, we identified p59fyn and p53/56lyn to be stimulated by IL-7. In contrast to p53/56lyn, p59fyn was found to be associated constitutively with the cloned IL-7R. These data emphasize the role of the src family in hematopoiesis.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1994;153;1;97-109

  • Identification of Src, Fyn, and Lyn SH3-binding proteins: implications for a function of SH3 domains.

    Weng Z, Thomas SM, Rickles RJ, Taylor JA, Brauer AW, Seidel-Dugan C, Michael WM, Dreyfuss G and Brugge JS

    ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.

    Src homology 3 (SH3) domains mediate protein-protein interactions necessary for the coupling of cellular proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction. We previously established solution-binding conditions that allow affinity isolation of Src SH3-binding proteins from cellular extracts (Z. Weng, J. A. Taylor, C. E. Turner, J. S. Brugge, and C. Seidel-Dugan, J. Biol. Chem. 268:14956-14963, 1993). In this report, we identified three of these proteins: Shc, a signaling protein that couples membrane tyrosine kinases with Ras; p62, a protein which can bind to p21rasGAP; and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, a pre-mRNA-binding protein. All of these proteins contain proline-rich peptide motifs that could serve as SH3 domain ligands, and the binding of these proteins to the Src SH3 domain was inhibited with a proline-rich Src SH3 peptide ligand. These three proteins, as well as most of the other Src SH3 ligands, also bound to the SH3 domains of the closely related protein tyrosine kinases Fyn and Lyn. However, Src- and Lyn-specific SH3-binding proteins were also detected, suggesting subtle differences in the binding specificity of the SH3 domains from these related proteins. Several Src SH3-binding proteins were phosphorylated in Src-transformed cells. The phosphorylation of these proteins was not detected in cells transformed by a mutant variant of Src lacking the SH3 domain, while there was little change in tyrosine phosphorylation of other Src-induced phosphoproteins. In addition, the coprecipitation of v-Src with two tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins with M(r)s of 62,000 and 130,000 was inhibited by incubation with a Src SH3 peptide ligand, suggesting that the binding of these substrate proteins is dependent on interactions with the SH3 domain. These results strongly suggest a role for the Src SH3 domain in the recruitment of substrates to this protein tyrosine kinase, either through direct interaction with the SH3 domain or indirectly through interactions with proteins that bind to the SH3 domain.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA27951

    Molecular and cellular biology 1994;14;7;4509-21

  • Multiple components of the B cell antigen receptor complex associate with the protein tyrosine phosphatase, CD45.

    Brown VK, Ogle EW, Burkhardt AL, Rowley RB, Bolen JB and Justement LB

    Department of Molecular Biology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543.

    Signal transduction via the B cell antigen receptor complex is regulated by changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins. The equilibrium between tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is regulated by the combined action of protein tyrosine kinase and protein tyrosine phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase, CD45, has been shown to play an essential role in signal transduction via the B cell antigen receptor. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine the intermolecular associations between CD45 and phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in the B cell to identify potential substrates for CD45. Based on coprecipitation experiments, CD45 was found to be physically associated with multiple components of the B cell antigen receptor complex including the MB-1/B29 heterodimer. Additionally, CD45 was selectively associated with the src family protein tyrosine kinase, lyn. Neither blk nor fyn were observed to interact with CD45 even though they have been implicated in antigen receptor signal transduction. This finding suggests that CD45 may preferentially regulate the phosphorylation of lyn and thus, its activity. In summary, these studies provide evidence to support the hypothesis that CD45 regulates antigen receptor-mediated signal transduction by controlling the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple components of the antigen receptor complex.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-46524

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;25;17238-44

  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor signaling involves the formation of a three-component complex with Lyn and Syk protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Corey SJ, Burkhardt AL, Bolen JB, Geahlen RL, Tkatch LS and Tweardy DJ

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA.

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein that critically regulates the viability, proliferation, and differentiation of granulocytic precursors and the function of neutrophils by signaling through its receptor. Cloning of the human G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) cDNA has demonstrated sequence homology with other members of the hematopoietic/cytokine receptor superfamily. G-CSF stimulates the appearance of phosphotyrosine proteins in several types of human and murine myeloid cells. Since the receptor does not possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, we hypothesized that G-CSFR interacts with and activates cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs). In vitro protein kinase assay of human G-CSFR immunoprecipitates demonstrated at least two tyrosine phosphoproteins, pp55 and pp70. We observed that G-CSF activated p53/p56lyn, a Src-related PTK, and p72syk, a non-Src-related PTK. Lyn and Syk were recovered in anti-G-CSFR immunoprecipitates; Lyn was detected in the absence of ligand. In addition, upon G-CSF stimulation, Lyn coimmunoprecipitated with Syk. Analysis of the G-CSFR amino acid sequence revealed a potential receptor activation motif for Syk. On the basis of immunoprecipitation and sequence analysis data, we propose that the human G-CSFR forms a three-component signaling complex with Lyn and Syk. Their sequential recruitment into the G-CSFR signaling complex demonstrates the coordinated involvement of two PTKs with a member of the hematopoietic/cytokine receptor superfamily.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA37372; NHLBI NIH HHS: K11-HL02303

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;11;4683-7

  • Lck-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SH-PTP1 in murine T cells.

    Lorenz U, Ravichandran KS, Pei D, Walsh CT, Burakoff SJ and Neel BG

    Molecular Medicine Unit, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215.

    The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins on tyrosyl residues are key regulatory mechanisms in T-cell signal transduction and are controlled by the opposing activities of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphotyrosyl phosphatases (PTPs). In T cells, several nontransmembrane protein tyrosine kinases are associated with receptors; for example, Lck is bound to the coreceptors CD4 and CD8 and becomes activated upon their stimulation. In comparison, little is known about the role of nontransmembrane PTPs in early T-cell signaling. SH-PTP1 (PTP1C, HCP, SHP) is a nontransmembrane PTP expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, including T cells. We have found that SH-PTP1 is basally phosphorylated on serine in resting T cells. Upon stimulation of CD4 or CD8 either in a T-cell hybridoma cell line or in primary thymocytes, SH-PTP1 becomes tyrosyl phosphorylated. Moreover, SH-PTP1 is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine in the Lck-overexpressing lymphoma cell line LSTRA. SH-PTP1 is also a good substrate for recombinant Lck in vitro. Comparisons of the tryptic phosphopeptide maps of wild-type SH-PTP1 and deletion and point mutations establish that the two sites (Y-536 and Y-564) which are directly phosphorylated by Lck in vitro are also phosphorylated in vivo in LSTRA cells. One of these sites (Y-564) is phosphorylated in T cells in response to Lck activation. We conclude that SH-PTP1 undergoes Lck-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation in T cells and likely plays a role in early T-cell signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA49152; NIAID NIH HHS: AI-17258; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20011

    Molecular and cellular biology 1994;14;3;1824-34

  • The cDNAs encoding two forms of the LYN protein tyrosine kinase are expressed in rat mast cells and human myeloid cells.

    Rider LG, Raben N, Miller L and Jelsema C

    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Two isoforms of lck/yes-related novel (LYN) protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appear to play a role in B-cell-IgM and FcERI receptor signaling. The cDNAs lynA and lynB encoding these two forms were isolated and sequenced; they were derived from rat mucosal mast cell and human myeloid cell lines. The nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences share 94 and 97% identity between rat and mouse lyn, respectively, and 88 and 96% identity between rat and human lyn. In all three species, a region of 20 aa is uniformly inserted at an identical site and its sequence is highly conserved. This suggests an important regulatory role for this region mediated by this PTK.

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;219-22

  • Mapping of sites on the Src family protein tyrosine kinases p55blk, p59fyn, and p56lyn which interact with the effector molecules phospholipase C-gamma 2, microtubule-associated protein kinase, GTPase-activating protein, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Pleiman CM, Clark MR, Gauen LK, Winitz S, Coggeshall KM, Johnson GL, Shaw AS and Cambier JC

    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, Colorado 80206.

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor complex induces immediate activation of receptor-associated Src family tyrosine kinases including p55blk, p59fyn, p53/56lyn, and perhaps p56lck, and this response is accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of distinct cellular substrates. These kinases act directly or indirectly to phosphorylate and/or activate effector proteins including p42 (microtubule-associated protein kinase) (MAPK), phospholipases C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and C-gamma 2 (PLC gamma 2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), and p21ras-GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Although coimmunoprecipitation results indicate that the Src family protein tyrosine kinases interact physically with some of these effector molecules, the molecular basis of this interaction has not been established. Here, we show that three distinct sites mediate the interaction of these kinases with effectors. The amino-terminal 27 residues of the unique domain of p56lyn mediate association with PLC gamma 2, MAPK, and GAP. Binding to PI 3-K is mediated through the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of the Src family kinases. Relatively small proportions of cellular PI 3-K, PLC gamma 2, MAPK, and GAP, presumably those which are tyrosine phosphorylated, bind to the SH2 domains of these kinases. Comparative analysis of binding activities of Blk, Lyn, and Fyn shows that these kinases differ in their abilities to associate with MAPK and PI 3-K, suggesting that they may preferentially bind and subsequently phosphorylate distinct sets of downstream effector molecules in vivo. Fast protein liquid chromatography Mono Q column-fractionated MAPK maintains the ability to bind bacterially expressed Lyn, suggesting that the two kinases may interact directly.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI20519, AI21768, AI29903

    Molecular and cellular biology 1993;13;9;5877-87

  • Identification of HS1 protein as a major substrate of protein-tyrosine kinase(s) upon B-cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling.

    Yamanashi Y, Okada M, Semba T, Yamori T, Umemori H, Tsunasawa S, Toyoshima K, Kitamura D, Watanabe T and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Crosslinking of membrane-bound immunoglobulins, which are B-cell antigen receptors, causes proliferation and differentiation of B cells or inhibition of their growth. The receptor-mediated signaling involves tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and rapid activation of Src-like kinases. The amino acid sequences of five proteolytic peptides of p75, a major substrate of protein-tyrosine(s) in the signaling, showed that p75 is the human HS1 gene product. The HS1 gene is expressed specifically in hematopoietic cells and encodes p75HS1, which carries both helix-turn-helix and Src homology 3 motifs. p75HS1 showed rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and association with a Src-like kinase, Lyn, after crosslinking of membrane-bound IgM. Thus, p75HS1 may be an important substrate of Lyn and possibly other protein-tyrosine kinases upon B-cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;8;3631-5

  • In vitro tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma 1 and PLC-gamma 2 by src-family protein tyrosine kinases.

    Liao F, Shin HS and Rhee SG

    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    The phosphorylation of purified phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1) and PLC-gamma 2 by src-family-protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) P56lck, p53/56lyn, p59hck, p59fyn, and p60src was studied in vitro. All five PTKs phosphorylated PLC-gamma 1 and PLC-gamma 2, suggesting that both PLC-gamma isozymes can be phosphorylated in cells by any of the src-family PTKs in response to the activation of cell surface receptors. Comparison of the in vitro phosphorylation rates revealed no distinct specificity between PLC-gamma 1 and PLC-gamma 2, or between the five PTKs.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;191;3;1028-33

  • Characterization of the promoter region of the src family gene lyn and its trans activation by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40tax.

    Uchiumi F, Semba K, Yamanashi Y, Fujisawa J, Yoshida M, Inoue K, Toyoshima K and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    The src family gene lyn is expressed preferentially in B lymphocytes but very little in normal T lymphocytes. Transcription of the lyn gene in T lymphocytes was shown to be induced by the p40tax protein encoded by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. For determination of the mechanism of p40tax-mediated trans activation, the transcriptional promoter region of the lyn gene was characterized. By endonuclease S1 mapping, the transcriptional initiation sites were identified within the 770-bp EcoRI-SacI fragment of the 5'-terminal portion of the human lyn gene. This fragment showed promoter activity when placed upstream of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and transfected into various cell lines. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the lyn promoter region contained four GC box-like sequences but not a TATA or CCAAT box. In addition, it contained sequences characteristic of a cyclic AMP-responsive element, octamer-binding motif, PEA3-like motifs, and NF kappa B-binding motif-like sequence. Mutational analysis suggested that the octamer-binding motif sequence is of primary importance for the lyn promoter activity but that the other elements are not. Cotransfection of various chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs containing different length of the lyn promoter together with p40tax expression plasmids into Jurkat T cells showed that the sequence responsible for p40tax-induced transcription is present around the transcription initiation sites.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1992;12;9;3784-95

  • Expression of the B cell-associated tyrosine kinase gene Lyn in primary neuroblastoma tumours and its modulation during the differentiation of neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Bielke W, Ziemieki A, Kappos L and Miescher GC

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.

    The src-related intracellular protein tyrosine kinase Lyn is a signal transducing molecule for surface immunoglobulin M and is expressed predominantly in hemopoietic cells. We report here the expression of the lyn gene in human neuroblastoma. In surgical tumour samples lyn transcripts were found preferentially at early stages whereas they were barely detectable in highly malignant tumours. In a cloned human neuroblastoma cell line, Be(2)C, lyn mRNA levels increased during neuronal differentiation induced by retinoic acid. Lyn mRNA levels were undetectable and did not respond to retinoic acid in a glial-type neuroblastoma clone, SH-EP. Retinoic acid-induced glial differentiation was associated with a reduction of lyn transcripts in a clonal I-type neuroblastoma cell line, SH-IN, which shares properties of both neuronal- and glial-type clones. Like pp60c-src Lyn may be involved in a signalling pathway of neuroblasts committed to neuronal differentiation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1992;186;3;1403-9

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Interleukin 2 regulates the activity of the lyn protein-tyrosine kinase in a B-cell line.

    Torigoe T, Saragovi HU and Reed JC

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6082.

    Recently, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to induce increased activity of the p56lck protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) in T-cell and natural killer cell lines, and evidence for a direct interaction between the p75 subunit of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and this src-family kinase has been reported. Though these findings suggest a central role for lck in IL-2 signal transduction, one problem with this idea is that not all IL-2-responsive cells express the lck gene. For this reason, we examined the effects of IL-2 on the activity of src-like kinases in a pro-B cell line, F7, that lacks p56lck but that displays high-affinity IL-2Rs and vigorously proliferates in response to this lymphokine. Of the eight known src-family PTKs, F7 cells were shown to contain only p53/56lyn, p59fyn, and a small amount of p62yes. Stimulation of resting F7 cells with IL-2 induced a rapid (detectable within 1 min and maximal at 15 min) and concentration-dependent increase in the specific activity of p53/56lyn kinase, as assessed by in vitro kinase assays. This effect of IL-2 on p53/56lyn kinase was specific, since no IL-2-inducible changes were detected in the activities of the p59fyn and p62yes kinases. Furthermore, by using a monoclonal antibody specific for the approximately 75-kDa beta subunit of the IL-2R (referred to as p75/IL-2R beta), evidence for physical association between the lyn kinase and the IL-2R complex was obtained, in that a small proportion of the p53/56lyn kinase in F7 cells, but no detectable p59fyn kinase, was coimmunoprecipitated with p75/IL-2R beta. When combined with the recent evidence that IL-2 regulates p56lck in T cells, these results indicate that some flexibility exists in the ability of various src-like PTKs to participate in IL-2 signal transduction mechanisms and raise the possibility that lineage-specific (T-versus B-cell) responses to IL-2 may be determined at least in part by the repertoire of src-like PTKs expressed in the cell.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-54957

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;7;2674-8

  • p21rasGAP association with Fyn, Lyn, and Yes in thrombin-activated platelets.

    Cichowski K, McCormick F and Brugge JS

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6148.

    Activation of platelets by thrombin and other physiological agonists leads to a dramatic increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins (Ferrell, J. E., and Martin, G. S. (1988) Mol. Cell. Biol. 8, 3606-3610; Golden, A., and Brugge, J. S. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 901-905; Nakamura, S., and Yamamura, H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7089-7091). To date, none of the tyrosine kinases that are involved in platelet activation, nor the substrates that are phosphorylated in response to agonists, have been identified. A "kinase trapping" strategy, designed to take advantage of the stability of known tyrosine kinase-substrate interactions, was employed to address both issues. p21rasGAP antibodies were used to examine the phosphorylated state of GAP in agonist-treated platelets and to isolate potential GAP-kinase complexes. We show that GAP and two proteins of 59 and 68 kDa are phosphorylated on tyrosine after thrombin stimulation and that three Src-related protein tyrosine kinases, Fyn, Lyn and Yes, are associated with GAP in complexes, detectable only after agonist stimulation. The thrombin-dependent detection of these kinases in GAP immunoprecipitates suggests that thrombin may either induce the formation of these complexes or activate kinases that are associated with GAP prior to, or following, agonist stimulation. This approach of "trapping" kinases bound to their substrates will be useful in identifying non-receptor tyrosine kinases involved in signaling pathways. Furthermore, although GAP phosphorylation has been previously implicated in growth factor signaling pathways, this is the first example of its involvement downstream from a G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA47572

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;8;5025-8

  • CSK: a protein-tyrosine kinase involved in regulation of src family kinases.

    Okada M, Nada S, Yamanashi Y, Yamamoto T and Nakagawa H

    Division of Protein Metabolism, Osaka University, Japan.

    The functions of src family protein-tyrosine kinases are thought to be regulated negatively by the phosphorylation of highly conserved tyrosine residues close to their carboxyl termini. Recently we have purified and cloned a protein-tyrosine kinase (designated as CSK) that can specifically phosphorylate the negative regulatory site of p60c-src. To elucidate the relationship between CSK and other types of src family kinases, we investigated the tissue distribution of CSK and examined whether CSK could phosphorylate the negative regulatory sites of src family kinases other than p60c-src. Western blot analysis indicated that CSK was enriched at the highest level in lymphoid tissues in which the expression of p60c-src is considerably lower than those of other types of src family kinases. CSK phosphorylated p56lyn and p59fyn, which are known to be expressed in lymphoid tissues at a relatively high level. The putative regulatory site, tyrosine 508, was found to be essential for phosphorylation in p56lyn, and the kinase activities of these src family kinases were repressed by phosphorylation with CSK. These findings raise the possibility that CSK might act as a universal regulator for src family kinases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;36;24249-52

  • Two additional protein-tyrosine kinases expressed in human lung: fourth member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family and an intracellular protein-tyrosine kinase.

    Holtrich U, Bräuninger A, Strebhardt K and Rübsamen-Waigmann H

    Chemotherapeutisches Forschungsinstitut Georg-Speyer-Haus, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The expression of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs; ATP:protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC was studied in normal human lung and various tumors by PCR followed by molecular cloning and sequence analysis. Six known PTKs (YES, FGR, LYN, HCK, PDGFB-R, and CSF1-R), as well as two additional members of this enzyme family, were detected in lung. One of the newly discovered sequences appears to represent a group of cytosolic PTKs. The cDNA sequence of the second unknown PTK revealed that it is a fourth member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. It was therefore called TKF (tyrosine kinase related to fibroblast growth factor receptor). Among a wide variety of cells and tissues tested, including human lymphocytes and macrophages, TKF was only found expressed in lung. Apart from normal lung, TKF expression could be demonstrated in some tumors of lung origin, but also in malignancies not derived from lung tissues. As fibroblast growth factors are generally involved in a variety of functions such as mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing, the specific expression of a receptor-related gene in lung only may point to yet another special function of this group of proteins.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;23;10411-5

  • Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets.

    Huang MM, Bolen JB, Barnwell JW, Shattil SJ and Brugge JS

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104.

    Activation of platelets with thrombin and other agonists causes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of multiple proteins on tyrosine. To identify candidate protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs; EC that may be responsible for these phosphorylation events, we analyzed the expression of seven Src-family PTKs and examined the association of these kinases with known platelet membrane glycoproteins. Five Src-related PTKs were detected in platelets: pp60SRC, pp60FYN, pp62YES, pp61HCK, and two LYN products of Mr 54,000 and 58,000. The Fgr and Lck PTKs were not detected. Although strict comparative quantification of protein levels was not possible, pp60SRC was detected at higher levels than any of the other kinases. In addition, glycoprotein IV (GPIV, CD36), one of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins, was associated in a complex with the Fyn, Yes, and Lyn proteins in platelet lysates. Similar complexes were also found in two GPIV-expressing cell lines, C32 melanoma cells and HEL cells. Since PTKs appear to be involved in stimulus-response coupling at the plasma membrane, these results suggest that ligand interaction with GPIV may activate signaling pathways that are triggered by tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA27951

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;17;7844-8

  • Three regions of erythrocyte band 3 protein are phosphorylated on tyrosines: characterization of the phosphorylation sites by solid phase sequencing combined with capillary electrophoresis.

    Yannoukakos D, Meyer HE, Vasseur C, Driancourt C, Wajcman H and Bursaux E

    INSERM U299, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

    The major part of band 3 phosphorylation was recently shown to concern the first tryptic peptide of the protein (Yannoukakos et al. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1061, 253-266). Tyrosine 8 is the prevalent site of phosphorylation, but other phosphorylated regions were found which could not be analyzed with certainty. Direct characterization of the phosphorylated residues in all these phosphorylated fragments was made possible due to recent advances in protein chemistry techniques, such as solid phase sequence analysis and capillary electrophoresis. The present report establishes that band 3 phosphorylation occurs predominantly on tyrosines: besides tyrosine 8 already known in the N-terminal region, two other tyrosines are demonstrated to be targets for the tyrosine kinase, tyrosine 359 and tyrosine 904. These residues lie in regions of band 3 exposed to the cytoplasm, the junction of the cytoplasmic and the membrane-spanning domains, and the C-terminal end of the protein which is also cytosolic, respectively.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991;1066;1;70-6

  • Phosphorylation sites in human erythrocyte band 3 protein.

    Yannoukakos D, Vasseur C, Piau JP, Wajcman H and Bursaux E

    INSERM U299, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

    The human red cell anion-exchanger, band 3 protein, is one of the main phosphorylated proteins of the erythrocyte membrane. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that ATP-depletion of the red blood cell decreased the anion-exchange rate, suggesting that band 3 protein phosphorylation could be involved in the regulation of anion transport function (Bursaux et al. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 777, 253-260). Phosphorylation occurs mainly on the cytoplasmic domain of the protein and the major site of phosphorylation was assigned to tyrosine-8 (Dekowski et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2750-2753). This site being very far from the integral, anion-exchanger domain, the aim of the present study was to determine whether phosphorylation sites exist in the integral domain. The phosphorylation reaction was carried out on isolated membranes in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP and phosphorylated band 3 protein was then isolated. Both the cytoplasmic and the membrane spanning domains were purified. The predominant phosphorylation sites were found on the cytoplasmic domain. RP-HPLC analyses of the tryptic peptides of whole band 3 protein, and of the isolated cytoplasmic and membrane-spanning domains allowed for the precise localization of the phosphorylated residues. 80% of the label was found in the N-terminal tryptic peptide (T-1), (residues 1-56). In this region, all the residues susceptible to phosphorylation were labeled but in varying proportion. Under our conditions, the most active membrane kinase was a tyrosine kinase, activated preferentially by Mn2+ but also by Mg2+. Tyrosine-8 was the main phosphate acceptor residue (50-70%) of the protein, tyrosine-21 and tyrosine-46 residues were also phosphorylated but to a much lesser extent. The main targets of membrane casein kinase, preferentially activated by Mg2+, were serine-29, serine-50, and threonine(s)-39, -42, -44, -48, -49, -54 residue(s) located in the T-1 peptide. A tyrosine phosphatase activity was copurified with whole band 3 protein which dephosphorylates specifically P-Tyr-8, indicating a highly exchangeable phosphate. The membrane-spanning fragment was only faintly labeled.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991;1061;2;253-66

  • Putative tyrosine kinases expressed in K-562 human leukemia cells.

    Partanen J, Mäkelä TP, Alitalo R, Lehväslaiho H and Alitalo K

    Department of Virology and Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is important in the transmission of growth and differentiation signals; known tyrosine kinases include several oncoproteins and growth factor receptors. Interestingly, some differentiated cell types, such as erythrocytes and platelets contain high amounts of phosphotyrosine. We analyzed tyrosine kinases expressed in the K-562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, which has a bipotential erythroid and megakaryoblastoid differentiation capacity. Analysis of 359 polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA clones led to the identification of 14 different tyrosine kinase-related sequences (JTK1-14). Two of the clones (JTK2 and JTK4) represent unusual members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene family, and the clones JTK5, JTK11, and JTK14 may also belong to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases but lack a close relationship to any known tyrosine kinase. Each of these different genes has its own characteristic expression pattern in K-562 cells and several other human tumor cell lines. In addition, the JTK11 and JTK14 mRNAs are induced during the megakaryoblastoid differentiation of K-562 cells. These tyrosine kinases may have a role in the differentiation of megakaryoblasts or in the physiology of platelets.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990;87;22;8913-7

  • Tyrosine residues in bovine phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylated by the epidermal growth factor receptor in vitro.

    Kim JW, Sim SS, Kim UH, Nishibe S, Wahl MI, Carpenter G and Rhee SG

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    We have identified the sites phosphorylated in vitro by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in bovine brain phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). They are tyrosine residues 472, 771, 783, and 1254. The rate of phosphorylation was fastest with the sites at 771 and 783, then at 1254, and slowest at 472. PLC-gamma isolated from cells treated with EGF is known to contain at least four tyrosine phosphate-containing peptides and two of them are identified to be residues 771 and 1254 in the accompanying paper (Wahl, M. I., Nishibe, S., Kim, J. W., Kim, H., Rhee, S. G., and Carpenter, G. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3944-3948). The 3 residues 472, 771, and 783 are located closely to the regions of PLC-gamma which exhibit a high sequence similarity to the regulatory domain of the src family tyrosine kinases. Nevertheless, the tyrosine phosphorylation did not affect the catalytic activity of PLC-gamma in vitro. We propose, therefore, that the phosphorylation of PLC-gamma by EGF receptor kinase alters its interaction with putative inhibitory proteins and leads to its activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;7;3940-3

  • Selective expression of a protein-tyrosine kinase, p56lyn, in hematopoietic cells and association with production of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I.

    Yamanashi Y, Mori S, Yoshida M, Kishimoto T, Inoue K, Yamamoto T and Toyoshima K

    Department of Oncology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    This paper reports the identification of the lyn gene product, a member of the src-related family of protein-tyrosine kinases, and its expression in hematopoietic cells. A lyn-specific sequence (Arg-25 to Ala-119 of the protein) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase. Antiserum raised against the fusion protein immunoprecipitated a 56-kDa protein from human B lymphocytes. Incubation of the immunoprecipitate with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein at tyrosine residues. Immunohistological and immunoblotting analyses showed that the lyn gene product was expressed in lymphatic tissues (spleen and tonsil) and in adult lung, which contains many macrophages. Furthermore, both the transcripts and the protein products of the lyn gene accumulated in macrophages/monocytes, platelets, and B lymphocytes but were not expressed appreciably in granulocytes, erythrocytes, or T lymphocytes, suggesting that lyn gene products function primarily in certain differentiated cells of lymphoid and myeloid lineages.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1989;86;17;6538-42

  • The yes-related cellular gene lyn encodes a possible tyrosine kinase similar to p56lck.

    Yamanashi Y, Fukushige S, Semba K, Sukegawa J, Miyajima N, Matsubara K, Yamamoto T and Toyoshima K

    With v-yes DNA as the probe, a human cDNA library made from placental RNA was screened under relaxed conditions, and DNA clones derived from a novel genetic locus, termed lyn, were obtained. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that lyn could encode a novel tyrosine kinase that was very similar to mouse T-lymphocyte-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck and the v-yes protein as well as to the gene products of v-fgr and v-src. Northern hybridization analysis revealed that a 3.2-kilobase lyn mRNA was expressed in a variety of tissues of the human fetus. The pattern of lyn mRNA expression was different from those of related genes, such as yes and syn. Hybridization analysis of DNA from sorted chromosomes showed that the lyn gene is located on human chromosome 8 q13-qter.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1987;7;1;237-43

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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