G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001433
Gene symbol
PDPK1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1
Orthologue
G00000184 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000128874 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000140992 (Ensembl human gene)
5170 (Entrez Gene)
75 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PDPK1 (GeneCards)
Literature
605213 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8816 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
4272 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
O15530 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PDK1

Literature (112)

Pubmed - other

  • The nuclear localization of 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 is dependent on its association with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1.

    Sephton CF, Zhang D, Lehmann TM, Pennington PR, Scheid MP and Mousseau DD

    Cell Signalling Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Saskatchewan, B45 HSB, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

    3'-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), the direct upstream kinase of Akt, can localize to the nucleus during specific signalling events. The mechanism used for its import into the nucleus, however, remains unresolved as it lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS). Expression of activated Src kinase in C6 glioblastoma cells promotes the association of tyrosylphosphorylated PDK1 with the NLS-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 as well as the nuclear localization of both proteins. A constitutive nucleo-cytoplasmic SHP-1:PDK1 shuttling complex is supported by several lines of evidence including (i) the distribution of both proteins to similar subcellular compartments following manipulation of the nuclear pore complex, (ii) the nuclear retention of SHP-1 upon overexpression of a PDK1 protein bearing a disrupted nuclear export signal (NES), and (iii) the exclusion of PDK1 from the nucleus upon overexpression of SHP-1 lacking the NLS or following siRNA-mediated knock-down of SHP-1. The latter case results in a perinuclear distribution of PDK1 that corresponds with the distribution of PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate), while a PDK1 protein bearing a mutated PH domain that abrogates PIP3-binding is excluded from the nucleus. Our data suggest that the SHP-1:PDK1 complex is recruited to the nuclear membrane by binding to perinuclear PIP3, whereupon SHP-1 (and its NLS) facilitates active import. Export from the nucleus relies on PDK1 (and its NES). The intact complex contributes to Src kinase-induced, Akt-sensitive podial formation in C6 cells.

    Cellular signalling 2009;21;11;1634-44

  • Structure-Function analysis of the CTLA-4 interaction with PP2A.

    Teft WA, Chau TA and Madrenas J

    FOCIS Centre for Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapeutics, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. wateft@uwo.ca

    Background: CTLA-4 functions primarily as an inhibitor of T cell activation. There are several candidate explanations as to how CTLA-4 modulates T cell responses, but the exact mechanism remains undefined. The tail of CTLA-4 does not have any intrinsic enzymatic activity but is able to associate with several signaling molecules including the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. PP2A is a heterotrimeric molecule comprised of a regulatory B subunit associated with a core dimer of a scaffolding (A) and a catalytic (C) subunit.

    Results: Here, we performed an analysis of the human CTLA-4 interface interacting with PP2A. We show that PP2A interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of CTLA-4 in two different sites, one on the lysine rich motif, and the other on the tyrosine residue located at position 182 (but not the tyrosine 165 of the YVKM motif). Although the interaction between CTLA-4 and PP2A was not required for inhibition of T cell responses, it was important for T cell activation by inverse agonists of CTLA-4. Such an interaction was functionally relevant because the inverse agonists induced IL-2 production in an okadaic acid-dependent manner.

    Conclusion: Our studies demonstrate that PP2A interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of human CTLA-4 through two motifs, the lysine rich motif centered at lysine 155 and the tyrosine residue 182. This interaction and the phosphatase activity of PP2A are important for CTLA-4-mediated T cell activation.

    BMC immunology 2009;10;23

  • IGF-I regulated phosphorylation and translocation of PDK-1 in neurons.

    Alajajian BB, Fletcher L, Isgor E, Jimenez DF and Digicaylioglu M

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.

    3'-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1) is a crucial serine/threonine kinase in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/AKT signaling pathway, but its function and localization in the nervous system has not been fully characterized. In this study, we compared the localization of PDK-1 in adult neurons and non-neuronal PC-3 cells. We showed that PC-3 cells expressed phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated PDK-1 in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In contrast, neuronal PDK-1 was located in the nucleoplasm and the phosphorylated form was located along the perinuclear region. Furthermore, we found that IGF-I transiently increased phosphorylation of neuronal PDK-1, resulting in its translocation to other cellular compartments. Our findings suggest that IGF-I may regulate neuronal PDK-1 differently than in non-neuronal cells, which may indicate a novel role for PDK-1 in IGF-I-mediated neuroprotective signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA54174; NIA NIH HHS: P01AG19316, P30 AG013319; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NIH NS045024-01A2

    Neuroreport 2009;20;6;579-83

  • Large-scale structural analysis of the classical human protein tyrosine phosphatome.

    Barr AJ, Ugochukwu E, Lee WH, King ON, Filippakopoulos P, Alfano I, Savitsky P, Burgess-Brown NA, Müller S and Knapp S

    University of Oxford, Structural Genomics Consortium, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK. alastair.barr@sgc.ox.ac.uk

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a "head-to-toe" dimerization model for RPTPgamma/zeta that is distinct from the "inhibitory wedge" model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Cell 2009;136;2;352-63

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • TUSC4/NPRL2, a novel PDK1-interacting protein, inhibits PDK1 tyrosine phosphorylation and its downstream signaling.

    Kurata A, Katayama R, Watanabe T, Tsuruo T and Fujita N

    Division of Experimental Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-10-6 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a key regulator of cell proliferation and survival signal transduction. PDK1 is known to be constitutively active and is further activated by Src-mediated phosphorylation at the tyrosine-9, -373, and -376 residues. To identify novel regulators of PDK1, we performed E. coli-based two-hybrid screening and revealed that tumor suppressor candidate 4 (TUSC4), also known as nitrogen permease regulator-like 2 (NPRL2), formed a complex with PDK1 and suppressed Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1 in vitro and in cells. The NH(2)-terminal 133 amino acid residues of TUSC4 were involved in binding to PDK1. The deletion mutant of TUSC4 that lacked the NH(2)-terminal domain showed no inhibitory effects on PDK1 tyrosine phosphorylation or activation. Thus, complex formation is indispensable for TUSC4-mediated PDK1 inactivation. The siRNA-mediated down-regulation of TUSC4 induced cell proliferation, while ectopic TUSC4 expression inactivated the PDK1 downstream signaling pathway, including Akt and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and increased cancer cell sensitivity to several anticancer drugs. Our results suggest that TUSC4/NPRL2, a novel PDK1-interacting protein, plays a role in regulating the Src/PDK1 signaling pathway and cell sensitivity to multiple cancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Cancer science 2008;99;9;1827-34

  • NIK and Cot cooperate to trigger NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation.

    Wittwer T and Schmitz ML

    Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Friedrichstrasse 24, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

    The serine/threonine kinase Cot triggers NF-kappaB-dependent transactivation and activation of various MAPKinases. Here we identify Cot as a novel p65 interacting protein kinase. Cot expression induces p65 phosphorylation at serines 536 and 468 in dependence from its kinase function. Accordingly, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cot expression interferes with TNF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. Also the C-terminally truncated, oncogenic form of Cot is able to trigger p65 phosphorylation. In vitro kinase assays and dominant negative mutants revealed that NIK functions downstream of Cot to mediate p65 phosphorylation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;371;2;294-7

  • Regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) by Src involves tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK1 and Src homology 2 domain binding.

    Yang KJ, Shin S, Piao L, Shin E, Li Y, Park KA, Byun HS, Won M, Hong J, Kweon GR, Hur GM, Seok JH, Chun T, Brazil DP, Hemmings BA and Park J

    Department of Pharmacology, Daejeon Regional Cancer Center, Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, 6 Munhwa-Dong, Jung-Gu, Taejeon 301-131, South Korea.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) appears to play a central regulatory role in many cell signalings between phosphoinositide-3 kinase and various intracellular serine/threonine kinases. In resting cells, PDK1 is known to be constitutively active and is further activated by tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr(9) and Tyr(373/376)) following the treatment of the cell with insulin or pervanadate. However, little is known about the mechanisms for this additional activation of PDK1. Here, we report that the SH2 domain of Src, Crk, and GAP recognized tyrosine-phosphorylated PDK1 in vitro. Destabilization of PDK1 induced by geldanamycin (a Hsp90 inhibitor) was partially blocked in HEK 293 cells expressing PDK1-Y9F. Co-expression of Hsp90 enhanced PDK1-Src complex formation and led to further increased PDK1 activity toward PKB and SGK. Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-phospho-Tyr(9) antibodies showed that the level of Tyr(9) phosphorylation was markedly increased in tumor samples compared with normal. Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of PDK1 on Tyr(9), distinct from Tyr(373/376), is important for PDK1/Src complex formation, leading to PDK1 activation. Furthermore, Tyr(9) phosphorylation is critical for the stabilization of both PDK1 and the PDK1/Src complex via Hsp90-mediated protection of PDK1 degradation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;3;1480-91

  • Loss of PTEN expression does not contribute to PDK-1 activity and PKC activation-loop phosphorylation in Jurkat leukaemic T cells.

    Freeley M, Park J, Yang KJ, Wange RL, Volkov Y, Kelleher D and Long A

    Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. freeleym@tcd.ie

    Unopposed PI3-kinase activity and 3'-phosphoinositide production in Jurkat T cells, due to a mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor protein, results in deregulation of PH domain-containing proteins including the serine/threonine kinase PKB/Akt. In Jurkat cells, PKB/Akt is constitutively active and phosphorylated at the activation-loop residue (Thr308). 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), an enzyme that also contains a PH domain, is thought to catalyse Thr308 phosphorylation of PKB/Akt in addition to other kinase families such as PKC isoforms. It is unknown however if the loss of PTEN in Jurkat cells also results in unregulated PDK-1 activity and whether such loss impacts on activation-loop phosphorylation of other putative PDK-1 substrates such as PKC. In this study we have addressed if loss of PTEN in Jurkat T cells affects PDK-1 catalytic activity and intracellular localisation. We demonstrate that reducing the level of 3'-phosphoinositides in Jurkat cells with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase or expression of PTEN does not affect PDK-1 activity, Ser241 phosphorylation or intracellular localisation. In support of this finding, we show that the levels of PKC activation-loop phosphorylation are unaffected by reductions in the levels of 3'-phosphoinositides. Instead, the dephosphorylation that occurs on PKB/Akt at Thr308 following reductions in 3'-phosphoinositides is dependent on PP2A-like phosphatase activity. Our finding that PDK-1 functions independently of 3'-phosphoinositides in T cells is also confirmed by studies in HuT-78 T cells, a PTEN-expressing cell line with undetectable levels of 3'-phosphoinositides. We conclude therefore that loss of PTEN expression in Jurkat T cells does not impact on the PDK-1/PKC pathway and that only a subset of kinases, such as PKB/Akt, are perturbed as a consequence PTEN loss.

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;12;2444-57

  • PDK-1/AKT pathway as a novel therapeutic target in rhabdomyosarcoma cells using OSU-03012 compound.

    Cen L, Hsieh FC, Lin HJ, Chen CS, Qualman SJ and Lin J

    Center for Childhood Cancer, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma including two major subtypes, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). Increasing evidence suggests that oncogenesis of RMS involves multiple stages of signalling protein dysregulation which may include prolonged activation of serine/threonine kinases such as phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) and AKT. To date, whether PDK-1/AKT pathway is activated in RMS is unknown. This study was to examine phosphorylation status of AKT and to evaluate a novel small molecular inhibitor, OSU-03012 targeting PDK-1 in RMS. We examined phosphorylation levels of AKT using ARMS and ERMS tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry staining. Our results showed phospho-AKT(Thr308) level is elevated 42 and 35% in ARMS and ERMS, respectively. Phospho-AKT(Ser473) level is also increased 43% in ARMS and 55% in ERMS. Furthermore, we showed that OSU-03012 inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in ARMS and ERMS cell lines (RH30, SMS-CTR), which express elevated phospho-AKT levels. Normal cells are much less sensitive to OSU-03012 and in which no detectable apoptosis was observed. This study showed, for the first time, that PDK-1/AKT pathway is activated in RMS and may play an important role in survival of RMS. PDK-1/AKT pathway may be an attractive therapeutic target for cancer intervention in RMS using OSU-03012.

    British journal of cancer 2007;97;6;785-91

  • Investigation of interleukin 1beta-mediated regulation of NF-kappaB activation in colonic cells reveals divergence between PKB and PDK-transduced events.

    Parhar K, Eivemark S, Assi K, Gómez-Muñoz A, Yee A and Salh B

    Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, The Jack Bell Research Centre, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

    Recent work has highlighted a role for PDK1 in adaptive immunity, however its contribution to innate immunity has not been addressed. We have investigated the role of PKB and PDK1 in IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation. Over-expression of either in HCT 116 and HEK 293T cells, effected a reproducible NF-kappaB activation. This was validated in a one-hybrid assay utilizing Gal4-RelA and Gal4-luciferase assay. N-tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), wortmannin and Ly294002 inhibited IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation in both systems indicating involvement of the PI3K axis in this response. p65 (Rel A) Ser536 phosphorylation was not affected by the PI3K inhibitors but was dose-dependently attenuated by TPCK. Evaluation of IKK-associated activity using GST-p65 substrate phosphorylation in immune complex assays, revealed that whilst TPCK attenuated this, neither of the PI3K inhibitors had any effect. Furthermore whilst TPCK inhibited IL-1beta-induced p65 DNA binding, this was not apparent with either of wortmannin or Ly294002. Similarly, over-expression of PDK1 but not PKB resulted in promotion of p65 DNA binding. Using a p65-S536A reporter construct, we found inhibition of only PDK1 over-expression-induced, but not PKB over-expression-induced NF-kappaB activation. This was supported using biochemical analysis in which immunoprecipitated IKKgamma from IL-1beta-activated cells was unable to phosphorylate a p65-S536A substrate, confirming this as the dominant IKK-dependent site. In further support of a dissociated response, we observed an attenuation of the Ser177/181 IKK phosphorylation by TPCK but not in response to PI3K inhibition. Our data reveals for the first time that PDK1 and PKB may differentially activate NF-kappaB, and that TPCK may subserve a useful anti-inflammatory function by inhibiting IKKbeta.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2007;300;1-2;113-27

  • Post-translational modifications regulate distinct functions of CARMA1 and BCL10.

    Thome M and Weil R

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH-1066 Epalinges, Switzerland. Margot.ThomeMiazza@unil.ch

    Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is essential for the normal functioning of the immune system. Deregulated NF-kappaB signalling in lymphocytes can lead to immunodeficiency, but also to autoimmunity or lymphomas. Many of the signalling components controlling NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes are now known, but it is less clear how distinct molecular components of this pathway are regulated. Here, we summarize recent findings on post-translational modifications of intracellular components of this pathway. Phosphorylation of the CARMA1 and BCL10 proteins and ubiquitylation of BCL10 affect the formation and stability of the CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex, and also control negative feedback regulation of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. Moreover, the study of BCL10 phosphorylation isoforms has revealed a new mechanism controlling BCL10 nuclear translocation and an unexpected role for BCL10 in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Trends in immunology 2007;28;6;281-8

  • The role of PKC and PDK1 in monocyte lineage specification by Ras.

    Pearn L, Fisher J, Burnett AK and Darley RL

    Department of Haematology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

    Although hyperactivation of Ras is a common feature of myeloid malignancy, its role in subverting hematopoiesis is unclear. We have examined the influence of Ras on normal human uncommitted myeloid subsets and show that expression of this oncogene strongly favors monocyte lineage selection in bipotential granulocyte/macrophage progenitors while inhibiting colony formation in other uncommitted subsets. Ras also promoted monocytic differentiation but not the proliferation of these cells. The mechanism through which Ras drives monocyte lineage selection was dependent on PKC activity and Ras was found to promote the expression, membrane translocation, and phosphorylation of conventional and novel PKC isoforms. We further show that Ras promoted the expression of the AGC kinase master regulator, PDK1, which maintains the stability and activity of PKC isoforms. Consistent with this, overexpression of PDK1 itself promoted monocyte colony formation and translocation of PKC. Overexpression of PDK1 was found to be a common feature of acute myeloid leukemia (45% of patients) and was closely associated with hyperphosphorylation of PKC. These data demonstrate that Ras is able to promote monocyte lineage selection via PKC and show for the first time the involvement of the kinase master regulator, PDK1, in both lineage specification and in human leukemia.

    Blood 2007;109;10;4461-9

  • NM23-H1 tumor suppressor physically interacts with serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, and negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling.

    Seong HA, Jung H and Ha H

    Department of Biochemistry, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, Biotechnology Research Institute, School of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea.

    NM23-H1 is a member of the NM23/NDP kinase gene family and a putative metastasis suppressor. Previously, a screen for NM23-H1-interacting proteins that could potentially modulate its activity identified serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP), a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein. Through the use of cysteine to serine amino acid substitution mutants of NM23-H1 (C4S, C109S, and C145S) and STRAP (C152S, C270S, and C152S/C270S), we demonstrated that the association between these two proteins is dependent on Cys(145) of NM23-H1 and Cys(152) and Cys(270) of STRAP but did not appear to involve Cys(4) and Cys(109) of NM23-H1, suggesting that a disulfide linkage involving Cys(145) of NM23-H1 and Cys(152) or Cys(270) of STRAP mediates complex formation. The interaction was dependent on the presence of dithiothreitol or beta-mercaptoethanol but not H(2)O(2). Ectopic expression of wild-type NM23-H1, but not NM23-H1(C145S), negatively regulated TGF-beta signaling in a dose-dependent manner, enhanced stable association between the TGF-beta receptor and Smad7, and prevented nuclear translocation of Smad3. Similarly, wild-type NM23-H1 inhibited TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition, whereas NM23-H1(C145S) had no effect. Knockdown of NM23-H1 by small interfering RNA stimulated TGF-beta signaling. Coexpression of wild-type STRAP, but not STRAP(C152S/C270S), significantly stimulated NM23-H1-induced growth of HaCaT cells. These results suggest that the direct interaction of NM23-H1 and STRAP is important for the regulation of TGF-beta-dependent biological activity as well as NM23-H1 activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;16;12075-96

  • Essential role of PDK1 in regulating endothelial cell migration.

    Primo L, di Blasio L, Roca C, Droetto S, Piva R, Schaffhausen B and Bussolino F

    Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Torino, 10060 Candiolo, Italy. luca.primo@ircc.it

    The serine/threonine protein kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in cellular signaling by phosphorylating members of the AGC family of kinases, including PKB/Akt. We now present evidence showing that PDK1 is essential for the motility of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and that it is involved in the regulation of their chemotaxis. ECs differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells lacking PDK1 completely lost their ability to migrate in vitro in response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). In addition, PDK1(-/-) embryoid bodies exhibit evident developmental and vascular defects that can be attributed to a reduced cell migration. Moreover, the overexpression of PDK1 increased the EC migration induced by VEGF-A. We propose a model of spatial distribution of PDK1 and Akt in which the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate at plasma membrane by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase recruits both proteins at the leading edge of the polarized ECs and promotes cell chemotaxis. These findings establish a mechanism for the spatial localization of PDK1 and its substrate Akt to regulate directional migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA034722

    The Journal of cell biology 2007;176;7;1035-47

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Regulation and function of IKK and IKK-related kinases.

    Häcker H and Karin M

    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale Street, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. hans.haecker@stjude.org

    Members of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) family of dimeric transcription factors (TFs) regulate expression of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, inflammation, cell survival, and cancer. NF-kappaB TFs are rapidly activated in response to various stimuli, including cytokines, infectious agents, and radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. In nonstimulated cells, some NF-kappaB TFs are bound to inhibitory IkappaB proteins and are thereby sequestered in the cytoplasm. Activation leads to phosphorylation of IkappaB proteins and their subsequent recognition by ubiquitinating enzymes. The resulting proteasomal degradation of IkappaB proteins liberates IkappaB-bound NF-kappaB TFs, which translocate to the nucleus to drive expression of target genes. Two protein kinases with a high degree of sequence similarity, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, mediate phosphorylation of IkappaB proteins and represent a convergence point for most signal transduction pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation. Most of the IKKalpha and IKKbeta molecules in the cell are part of IKK complexes that also contain a regulatory subunit called IKKgamma or NEMO. Despite extensive sequence similarity, IKKalpha and IKKbeta have largely distinct functions, due to their different substrate specificities and modes of regulation. IKKbeta (and IKKgamma) are essential for rapid NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory signaling cascades, such as those triggered by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, IKKalpha functions in the activation of a specific form of NF-kappaB in response to a subset of TNF family members and may also serve to attenuate IKKbeta-driven NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, IKKalpha is involved in keratinocyte differentiation, but this function is independent of its kinase activity. Several years ago, two protein kinases, one called IKKepsilon or IKK-i and one variously named TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase), NAK (NF-kappaB-activated kinase), or T2K (TRAF2-associated kinase), were identified that exhibit structural similarity to IKKalpha and IKKbeta. These protein kinases are important for the activation of interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7, TFs that play key roles in the induction of type I interferon (IFN-I). Together, the IKKs and IKK-related kinases are instrumental for activation of the host defense system. This Review focuses on the functions of IKK and IKK-related kinases and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their activities.

    Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment 2006;2006;357;re13

  • 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Xie Z, Yuan H, Yin Y, Zeng X, Bai R and Glazer RI

    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA. xiez@niaid.nih.gov

    Background: Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile.

    Methods: Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC.

    Results: Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1 expression in the majority of invasive breast cancers suggests its importance in the metastatic process.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA81565

    BMC cancer 2006;6;77

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.

    Beranova-Giorgianni S, Zhao Y, Desiderio DM and Giorgianni F

    Charles B. Stout Neuroscience Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

    The pituitary is the central endocrine gland that regulates the functions of various target organs in the human body. Because of the pivotal regulatory role of the pituitary, it is essential to define on a global scale the components of the pituitary protein machinery, including a comprehensive characterization of the post-translational modifications of the pituitary proteins. Of particular interest is the examination of the phosphorylation status of the pituitary in health and disease. Towards the goal of global profiling of pituitary protein phosphorylation, we report here the application of the in-gel IEF-LC-MS/MS approach to the study of the pituitary phosphoproteome. The analytical strategy combined isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradient strips with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. With this method, a total of 50 phosphorylation sites were characterized in 26 proteins. Because the investigation involved primary tissue, the findings provide a direct glimpse into the phosphoprotein machinery operating within the human pituitary tissue microenvironment.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 42843

    Pituitary 2006;9;2;109-20

  • Regulation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling and PDK1 kinase activity by physical interaction between PDK1 and serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein.

    Seong HA, Jung H, Choi HS, Kim KT and Ha H

    Department of Biochemistry, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, Biotechnology Research Institute, School of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763. hyunha@chungbuk.ac.kr

    To gain more insights about the biological roles of PDK1, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system and in vivo binding assay to identify interacting molecules that associate with PDK1. As a result, serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP), a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, was identified as an interacting partner of PDK1. STRAP was found to form in vivo complexes with PDK1 in intact cells. Mapping analysis revealed that this binding was only mediated by the catalytic domain of PDK1 and not by the pleckstrin homology domain. Insulin enhanced a physical association between PDK1 and STRAP in intact cells, but this insulin-induced association was prevented by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. In addition, the association between PDK1 and STRAP was decreased by TGF-beta treatment. Analysis of the activities of the interacting proteins showed that PDK1 kinase activity was significantly increased by coexpression of STRAP, probably through the inhibition of the binding of 14-3-3, a negative regulator, to PDK1. Consistently, knockdown of the endogenous STRAP by the transfection of the small interfering RNA resulted in the decrease of PDK1 kinase activity. PDK1 also exhibited an inhibition of TGF-beta signaling with STRAP by contributing to the stable association between TGF-beta receptor and Smad7. Moreover, confocal microscopic study and immunostaining results demonstrated that PDK1 prevented the nuclear translocation of Smad3 in response to TGF-beta. Knockdown of endogenous PDK1 with small interfering RNA has an opposite effect. Taken together, these results suggested that STRAP acts as an intermediate signaling molecule linking between the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/PDK1 and the TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;52;42897-908

  • Elevated phosphorylation and activation of PDK-1/AKT pathway in human breast cancer.

    Lin HJ, Hsieh FC, Song H and Lin J

    Division of Medical Technology, School of Allied Medical Professions, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Suite 535A, Atwell Hall, 453 West 10th Street, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. hlin@amp.osu.edu

    Activation of kinases signalling pathways contributes to various malignant phenotypes in human cancers, including breast tumour. To examine the possible activation of these signalling molecules, we examined the phosphorylation status in 12 protein kinases and transcription factors in normal primary human mammary epithelial cells, telomerase-immortalised human breast epithelial cell line, and two breast cancer lines, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7, using Kinexus phosphorylated protein screening assays. The phosphorylation of FAK, mTOR, p70S6K, and PDK-1 were elevated in both breast cancer cell lines, whereas the phosphorylation of AKT, EGFR, ErbB2/Her2, PDGFR, Shc, and Stat3 were elevated in only one breast cancer line compared to normal primary mammary epithelial cells and telomerase-immortalised breast epithelial cells. The same findings were confirmed by Western blotting and by kinase assays. We further substantiated the phosphorylation status of these molecules in tissue microarray slides containing 89 invasive breast cancer tissues as well as six normal mammary tissues with immunohistochemistry staining using phospho-specific antibodies. Consistent findings were obtained as greater than 70% of invasive breast carcinomas expressed moderate to high levels of phosphorylated PDK-1, AKT, p70S6K, and EGFR. In sharp contrast, phosphorylation of the same proteins was nearly undetectable or was at low levels in normal mammary tissues under the same assay. Elevated phosphorylation of PDK-1, AKT, mTOR, p70S6K, S6, EGFR, and Stat3 were highly associated with invasive breast tumours (P<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that activation of these kinase pathways by phosphorylation may in part account for molecular pathogenesis of human breast carcinoma. Particularly, moderate to high level of PDK-1 phosphorylation was found in 86% of high-grade metastasised breast tumours. This is the first report demonstrating phosphorylation of PDK-1 is frequently elevated in breast cancer with concomitantly increased phosphorylation of downstream kinases, including AKT, mTOR, p70S6K, S6, and Stat3. This finding thus suggested PDK-1 may promote oncogenesis in part through the activation of AKT and p70S6K and rationalised that PDK-1 as well as downstream components of PDK-1 signalling pathway may be promising therapeutic targets to treat breast cancer.

    British journal of cancer 2005;93;12;1372-81

  • 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1-mediated IkappaB kinase beta (IkkB) phosphorylation activates NF-kappaB signaling.

    Tanaka H, Fujita N and Tsuruo T

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    The IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt pathways regulate various cellular functions, especially cell survival. These two pathways are often activated in many tumors and are thought to be associated with tumor progression. However, the cross-talk between them remains unclear. Here we show that PDK1 can activate IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in addition to Akt signaling to promote cell survival. Screening kinases that could modulate NF-kappaB activity revealed that expression of an upstream Akt kinase PDK1 up-regulates NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. We found that PDK1 directly phosphorylates IKKbeta at the Ser(181) residue in the activation loop, leading to NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and NF-kappaB-dependent anti-apoptotic gene expression. IKKalpha is not required for PDK1-mediated NF-kappaB activation because NF-kappaB activation was observed in IKKalpha(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells as in wild type MEF cells. Akt, which was previously reported to activate IKKalpha, did not participate in the PDK1-dependent IKKbeta or NF-kappaB activation. The siRNA-mediated PDK1 gene silencing attenuated NF-kappaB activity and increased TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, expression of constitutively active IKKbeta overcame the PDK1 siRNA-mediated susceptibility to TRAIL. These results indicate that PDK1 is a critical regulator of cell survival by modulating the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway in addition to the Akt pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;49;40965-73

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Mechanisms of reactive oxygen species-dependent downregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by angiotensin II.

    Taniyama Y, Hitomi H, Shah A, Alexander RW and Griendling KK

    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga 30322, USA.

    Objective: Angiotensin II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the vascular complications of insulin resistance. Recently, serine phosphorylation and degradation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) were shown to inhibit Akt activation and reduce glucose uptake. Therefore, we examined the effects of chronic angiotensin II treatment on IRS-1 phosphorylation and protein expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).

    Using Western analysis, we found that angiotensin II (100 nmol/L; 18 hours) caused a 61+/-5% degradation of IRS-1 and abolished insulin-induced activation of Akt. Phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser307, which leads to subsequent IRS-1 degradation, was stimulated by angiotensin II. This phosphorylation was blocked by the Src inhibitor PP1 and by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and ebselen. Stable overexpression of catalase abrogated angiotensin II-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation and IRS-1 degradation. Similarly, a mutant phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) that cannot associate with Src abolished IRS-1 phosphorylation and degradation induced by angiotensin II. Proteasome inhibitors also prevented IRS-1 degradation.

    Conclusions: Thus, angiotensin II decreases IRS-1 protein levels in VSMCs via Src, PDK1, and reactive oxygen species-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser307 and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. These events impair insulin signaling and provide a molecular basis for understanding the clinical observation that angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists improve insulin resistance and its associated vasculopathies.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL38206, HL75209

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2005;25;6;1142-7

  • Role of T-loop phosphorylation in PDK1 activation, stability, and substrate binding.

    Komander D, Kular G, Deak M, Alessi DR and van Aalten DM

    Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology and MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI/WTB Complex, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Scotland. david.komander@icr.ac.uk

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) phosphorylates the T-loop of several AGC (cAMP-dependent, cGMP-dependent, protein kinase C) family protein kinases, resulting in their activation. Previous structural studies have revealed that the alpha C-helix, located in the small lobe of the kinase domain of PDK1, is a key regulatory element, as it links a substrate interacting site termed the hydrophobic motif (HM) pocket with the phosphorylated Ser-241 in the T-loop. In this study we have demonstrated by mutational analysis that interactions between the phosphorylated Ser-241 and the alpha C-helix are not required for PDK1 activity or substrate binding through the HM-pocket but are necessary for PDK1 to be activated or stabilized by a peptide that binds to this site. The structure of an inactive T-loop mutant of PDK1, in which Ser-241 is changed to Ala, was also determined. This structure, together with surface plasmon resonance binding studies, demonstrates that the PDK1(S241A)-inactive mutant possesses an intact HM-pocket as well as an ordered alpha C-helix. These findings reveal that the integrity of the alpha C-helix and HM-pocket in PDK1 is not regulated by T-loop phosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;19;18797-802

  • PDK1 nucleates T cell receptor-induced signaling complex for NF-kappaB activation.

    Lee KY, D'Acquisto F, Hayden MS, Shim JH and Ghosh S

    Section of Immunobiology and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB after engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) is important for T cell proliferation and activation during the adaptive immune response. Recent reports have elucidated a signaling pathway that involves the protein kinase C (PKC), the scaffold protein CARD11 (also called CARMA-1), the caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing protein Bcl10, and the paracaspase (protease related to caspases) MALT1 as critical intermediates linking the TCR to the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. However, the events proximal to the TCR that initiate the activation of this signaling pathway remain poorly defined. We demonstrate that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) has an essential role in this pathway by regulating the activation of PKC and through signal-dependent recruiting of both PKC and CARD11 to lipid rafts. PDK1-associated PKC recruits the IKK complex, whereas PDK1-associated CARD11 recruits the Bcl10-MALT1 complex, thereby allowing activation of the IKK complex through Bcl10-MALT1-dependent ubiquitination of the IKK complex subunit known as NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modifier). Hence, PDK1 plays a critical role by nucleating the TCR-induced NF-kappaB activation pathway in T cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R37 AI033443, R37-AI33443

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;308;5718;114-8

  • Phosphoinositide-dependent phosphorylation of PDK1 regulates nuclear translocation.

    Scheid MP, Parsons M and Woodgett JR

    University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. mscheid@yorku.ca

    3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylates the activation loop of a number of protein serine/threonine kinases of the AGC kinase superfamily, including protein kinase B (PKB; also called Akt), serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, protein kinase C isoforms, and the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. PDK1 contains a carboxyl-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, which targets phosphoinositide lipids at the plasma membrane and is central to the activation of PKB. However, PDK1 subcellular trafficking to other compartments is not well understood. We monitored the posttranslational modifications of PDK1 following insulin-like growth factor 1 stimulation. PDK1 underwent rapid and transient phosphorylation on S396, which was dependent upon plasma membrane localization. Phosphorylation of S396 was necessary for nuclear shuttling of PDK1, possibly through its influence on an adjacent nuclear export sequence. Thus, mitogen-stimulated phosphorylation of PDK1 provides a means for directed PDK1 subcellular trafficking, with potential implications for PDK1 signaling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;6;2347-63

  • Phosphorylation and regulation of Akt/PKB by the rictor-mTOR complex.

    Sarbassov DD, Guertin DA, Ali SM and Sabatini DM

    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

    Deregulation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and diabetes. Akt/PKB activation requires the phosphorylation of Thr308 in the activation loop by the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Ser473 within the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic motif by an unknown kinase. We show that in Drosophila and human cells the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase and its associated protein rictor are necessary for Ser473 phosphorylation and that a reduction in rictor or mammalian TOR (mTOR) expression inhibited an Akt/PKB effector. The rictor-mTOR complex directly phosphorylated Akt/PKB on Ser473 in vitro and facilitated Thr308 phosphorylation by PDK1. Rictor-mTOR may serve as a drug target in tumors that have lost the expression of PTEN, a tumor suppressor that opposes Akt/PKB activation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI47389

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5712;1098-101

  • The roles of CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 in antigen receptor signaling.

    Lin X and Wang D

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University at Buffalo, 138 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. xinlin@buffalo.edu

    Lymphocyte activation plays a critical role in immune responses. Dysregulation of lymphocyte activation can cause autoimmune, immunodeficient diseases, or leukemia/lymphoma. Lymphocyte activation is triggered by stimulation of antigen receptors, T cell receptors (TCR) or B cell receptors (BCR), on the surfaces of T or B lymphocyte, respectively. Stimulation of TCR or BCR induces a series of signal transduction cascades leading to activation of multiple transcription factors including NF-kappaB. Recent studies demonstrate that CARMA1, a scaffold protein, plays an essential role in mediating TCR- or BCR-induced NF-kappaB activation by recruiting two adaptor proteins, Bcl10 and MALT1, to lipid rafts following stimulation of antigen receptors. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism by which proximal signaling components connect antigen receptor signaling to CARMA1, and how CARMA1 regulates Bcl10 and MALT1, leading to activation of NF-kappaB. In addition, the roles of CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 in lymphocyte activation and development will also be discussed.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL073284; NIAID NIH HHS: R01AI50848; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM65899

    Seminars in immunology 2004;16;6;429-35

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The adaptor protein Grb14 regulates the localization of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1.

    King CC and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0721, USA.

    The metabolic actions of insulin are transduced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. A critical component of this pathway is 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), a PH domain-containing enzyme that catalyzes the activating phosphorylation for many AGC kinases, including Akt and protein kinase C isozymes. We used a directed proteomics-based approach to identify the adaptor protein Grb14, which binds the insulin receptor through an SH2 domain, as a novel PDK-1 binding partner. Interaction of these two proteins is constitutive and mediated by a PDK-1 binding motif on Grb14. Disruption of this motif by point mutation or deletion of the Grb14 SH2 domain prevents the insulin-triggered membrane translocation of PDK-1. The interaction of PDK-1 with Grb14 facilitates Akt function: disruption of the interaction by overexpression of a construct of Grb14 mutated in the PDK-1 binding motif significantly decreases insulin-dependent activation of Akt. Thus, Grb14 serves as an adaptor protein to recruit PDK-1 to activated insulin receptor, thus promoting Akt phosphorylation and transduction of the insulin signal.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07233; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM067946

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;36;37518-27

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and p21-activated protein kinase mediate reactive oxygen species-dependent regulation of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cell migration.

    Weber DS, Taniyama Y, Rocic P, Seshiah PN, Dechert MA, Gerthoffer WT and Griendling KK

    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga 30322, USA.

    Smooth muscle cell migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a key event in several vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. PDGF increases intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the ROS sensitivity of migration and of the signaling pathways leading to migration are largely unknown. In VSMCs, PDGF dose-dependently increased migration compared with nonstimulated cells, with a maximum increase at 10 ng/mL. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, the flavin-containing enzyme inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, or the glutathione peroxidase mimetic ebselen significantly attenuated migration (PDGF alone, 5.0+/-1.1-fold; NAC, 1.8+/-0.2-fold; diphenylene iodonium, 1.4+/-0.3-fold migration; and ebselen, 2.0+/-0.5-fold migration), as did overexpression of catalase. Pretreatment of VSMCs with the Src inhibitor PP1 or dominant-negative Rac adenovirus significantly inhibited migration, but only Src activation was attenuated by ROS inhibitors. Phosphorylation of the Src- and Rac-effector p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) 1 on Thr423 (the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 [PDK1] site) was attenuated by ROS inhibition, and infection of VSMCs with dominant-negative PAK1 adenovirus attenuated migration. Moreover, kinase-inactive K111N-PDK1 inhibited PAK1 phosphorylation on Thr423, and both K111N-PDK1 and Y9F-PDK1 significantly inhibited VSMC migration. PDK1 tyrosine phosphorylation was also ROS dependent. These data indicate that PDGF-induced VSMC migration is ROS dependent and identify the Src/PDK1/PAK1 signaling pathway as an important ROS-sensitive mediator of migration. Such information is critical to understanding the role of ROS in vascular diseases in which migration of VSMCs is an important component.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58000, HL58863

    Circulation research 2004;94;9;1219-26

  • The TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1 in T lymphocytes.

    Sun L, Deng L, Ea CK, Xia ZP and Chen ZJ

    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    The CARD domain protein BCL10 and paracaspase MALT1 are essential for the activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and NF-kappaB in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Here we present evidence that TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 protein kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1. RNAi-mediated silencing of MALT1, TAK1, TRAF6, and TRAF2 suppressed TCR-dependent IKK activation and interleukin-2 production in T cells. Furthermore, we have reconstituted the pathway from BCL10 to IKK activation in vitro with purified proteins of MALT1, TRAF6, TAK1, and ubiquitination enzymes including Ubc13/Uev1A. We find that a small fraction of BCL10 and MALT1 proteins form high molecular weight oligomers. Strikingly, only these oligomeric forms of BCL10 and MALT1 can activate IKK in vitro. The MALT1 oligomers bind to TRAF6, induce TRAF6 oligomerization, and activate the ligase activity of TRAF6 to polyubiquitinate NEMO. These results reveal an oligomerization --> ubiquitination --> phosphorylation cascade that culminates in NF-kappaB activation in T lymphocytes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01-GM63692

    Molecular cell 2004;14;3;289-301

  • CARMA1, BCL-10 and MALT1 in lymphocyte development and activation.

    Thome M

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH-1066 Epalinges, Switzerland. margot.thomemiazza@ib.unil.ch

    Nature reviews. Immunology 2004;4;5;348-59

  • Peroxisomal targeting as a tool for assaying potein-protein interactions in the living cell: cytokine-independent survival kinase (CISK) binds PDK-1 in vivo in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

    Nilsen T, Slagsvold T, Skjerpen CS, Brech A, Stenmark H and Olsnes S

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo, Norway.

    Current methods to detect protein-protein interactions are either laborious to implement or not adaptable for mammalian systems or in vitro methods. By adding a peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) onto one protein, binding partners lacking a targeting signal were co-transported into the peroxisomes in a "piggy-back" fashion, as visualized by confocal and electron microscopy. A fragment of colicin E2 and its tightly interacting immunity protein, ImmE2, were both expressed in the cytosol. When either one contained a PTS tag, both proteins were co-localized in the peroxisomes. The cytokine-independent survival kinase (CISK) containing a PTS tag was not efficiently targeted to the peroxisomes unless the Phox homology (PX) domain, attaching the protein to endosomal membranes, was removed. However, PTS-tagged CISK with deleted PX domain was able to direct 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1) into the peroxisomes. This demonstrates that the two proteins interact in vivo. Mutating Ser486, which is phosphorylated in activated CISK, to Ala prevented the interaction, indicating that CISK and PDK-1 interact in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The method therefore allows assessment of protein-protein interactions that depend on post-translational modifications that are cell-specific or dependent on the physiological state of the cell.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;6;4794-801

  • Regulation of apoptosis by the Ft1 protein, a new modulator of protein kinase B/Akt.

    Remy I and Michnick SW

    Département de Biochimie, Université de Montréal, Succursale centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada.

    The serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt plays a central role in many cellular processes, including cell growth, glucose metabolism, and apoptosis. However, the identification and validation of novel regulators or effectors is key to future advances in understanding the multiple functions of PKB. Here we report the identification of a novel PKB binding protein, called Ft1, from a cDNA library screen using a green fluorescent protein-based protein-fragment complementation assay. We show that the Ft1 protein interacts directly with PKB, enhancing the phosphorylation of both of its regulatory sites by promoting its interaction with the upstream kinase PDK1. Further, the modulation of PKB activity by Ft1 has a strong effect on the apoptosis susceptibility of T lymphocytes treated with glucocorticoids. We demonstrate that this phenomenon occurs via a PDK1/PKB/GSK3/NF-ATc signaling cascade that controls the production of the proapoptotic hormone Fas ligand. The wide distribution of Ft1 in adult tissues suggests that it could be a general regulator of PKB activity in the control of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in many cell types.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;4;1493-504

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Taniyama Y, Weber DS, Rocic P, Hilenski L, Akers ML, Park J, Hemmings BA, Alexander RW and Griendling KK

    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is a signal integrator that activates the AGC superfamily of serine/threonine kinases. PDK1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine by oxidants, although its regulation by agonists that stimulate G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways and the physiological consequences of tyrosine phosphorylation in this setting have not been fully identified. We found that angiotensin II stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK1 in vascular smooth muscle in a calcium- and c-Src-dependent manner. The calcium-activated tyrosine kinase Pyk2 acts as a scaffold for Src-dependent phosphorylation of PDK1 on Tyr9, which permits phosphorylation of Tyr373 and -376 by Src. This critical function of Pyk2 is further supported by the observation that Pyk2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated PDK1 colocalize in focal adhesions after angiotensin II stimulation. Importantly, infection of smooth muscle cells with a Tyr9 mutant of PDK1 inhibits angiotensin II-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion formation. These observations identify a novel interaction between PDK1 and Pyk2 that regulates the integrity of focal adhesions, which are major compartments for integrating signals for cell growth, apoptosis, and migration.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 38206, HL 58000, HL 60728, P01 HL058000, R01 HL038206, R01 HL060728, R37 HL038206

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;22;8019-29

  • Eosinophil major basic protein stimulates neutrophil superoxide production by a class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C-zeta-dependent pathway.

    Shenoy NG, Gleich GJ and Thomas LL

    Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

    Eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) is an effective stimulus for neutrophil superoxide (O(2)(-)) production, degranulation, and IL-8 production. In this study we evaluated the participation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and PI3K-associated signaling events in neutrophil activation by MBP. Inhibition of PI3K activity blocked MBP-stimulated O(2)(-) production, but not degranulation or IL-8 production. Measurement of Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) and Thr(308) confirmed that MBP stimulated PI3K activity and also demonstrated indirectly activation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 by MBP. Genistein and the Src kinase family inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-methyphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, inhibited MBP-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. 4-Amino-5-(4-methyphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine also inhibited MBP-stimulated O(2)(-) production. MBP stimulated phosphorylation and translocation of the p85 subunit of class I(A) PI3K, but not translocation of the p110gamma subunit of class I(B) PI3K, to the neutrophil membrane. Inhibition of protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) inhibited MBP-stimulated O(2)(-) production. Measurement of phosphorylated PKCzeta (Thr(410)) and PKCdelta (Thr(505)) confirmed that PKCzeta, but not PKCdelta, is activated in MBP-stimulated neutrophils. The time courses for phosphorylation and translocation of the p85 subunit of class I(A) PI3K, activation of Akt, and activation of PKCzeta were similar. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K activity inhibited MBP-induced activation of PKCzeta. We conclude that MBP stimulates a Src kinase-dependent activation of class I(A) PI3K and, in turn, activation of PKCzeta in neutrophils, which contributes to the activation of NADPH oxidase and the resultant O(2)(-) production in response to MBP stimulation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI09728, AI15231, AI48160

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;171;7;3734-41

  • In vivo role of the PIF-binding docking site of PDK1 defined by knock-in mutation.

    Collins BJ, Deak M, Arthur JS, Armit LJ and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. b.j.collins@dundee.ac.uk

    PKB/Akt, S6K, SGK and RSK are mediators of responses triggered by insulin and growth factors and are activated following phosphorylation by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). To investigate the importance of a substrate-docking site in the kinase domain of PDK1 termed the 'PIF-pocket', we generated embryonic stem (ES) cells in which both copies of the PDK1 gene were altered by knock-in mutation to express a form of PDK1 retaining catalytic activity, in which the PIF-pocket site was disrupted. The knock-in ES cells were viable, mutant PDK1 was expressed at normal levels and insulin-like growth factor 1 induced normal activation of PKB and phosphorylation of the PKB substrates GSK3 and FKHR. In contrast, S6K, RSK and SGK were not activated, nor were physiological substrates of S6K and RSK phosphorylated. These experiments establish the importance of the PIF-pocket in governing the activation of S6K, RSK, SGK, but not PKB, in vivo. They also illustrate the power of knock-in technology to probe the physiological roles of docking interactions in regulating the specificity of signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 065629

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;16;4202-11

  • PKCepsilon is a permissive link in integrin-dependent IFN-gamma signalling that facilitates JAK phosphorylation of STAT1.

    Ivaska J, Bosca L and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.

    The critical dependence of receptor-triggered signals on integrin-mediated cell-substrate interactions represents a fundamental biological paradigm in health and disease. However, the molecular connections of these permissive inputs, which operate through integrin-matrix interactions, has remained largely obscure. Here we show that the serine-threonine kinase protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) functions as a signal integrator between cytokine and integrin signalling pathways. Integrins are shown to control PKCepsilon phosphorylation acutely by determining complex formation with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and the upstream kinase PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1). The PP2A-induced loss of PKCepsilon function results in attenuated interferon gamma (INF-gamma)-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) downstream of Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2). PKCepsilon function and the IFN-gamma response can be recovered by inhibition of PP2A if PDK1 is associated with PKCepsilon in this complex. More directly, a PP2A-resistant mutant of PKCepsilon is sufficient for restoration of the IFN-gamma response in suspension culture. Thus, PKCepsilon functions as a central point of integration through which integrin engagement exerts a permissive input on IFN-gamma signalling.

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;4;363-9

  • Identification of a proline-rich Akt substrate as a 14-3-3 binding partner.

    Kovacina KS, Park GY, Bae SS, Guzzetta AW, Schaefer E, Birnbaum MJ and Roth RA

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University, California 94305-5174, USA.

    Akt (also called protein kinase B) is one of the major downstream targets of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. This protein kinase has been implicated in insulin signaling, stimulation of cellular growth, and inhibition of apoptosis as well as transformation of cells. Although a number of cellular proteins have been identified as putative targets of the enzyme, additional substrates may play a role in the varied responses elicited by this enzyme. We have used a combination of 14-3-3 binding and recognition by an antibody to the phosphorylation consensus of the enzyme to identify and isolate one of the major substrates of Akt, which is also a 14-3-3 binding protein. This 40-kDa protein, designated PRAS40, is a proline-rich Akt substrate. Demonstration that it is a substrate of Akt was accomplished by showing that 1) PRAS40 was phosphorylated in vitro by purified Akt on the same site that was phosphorylated in insulin-treated cells; 2) activation of an inducible Akt was alone sufficient to stimulate the phosphorylation of PRAS40; and 3) cells lacking Akt1 and Akt2 exhibit a diminished ability to phosphorylate this protein. Thus, PRAS40 is a novel substrate of Akt, the phosphorylation of which leads to the binding of this protein to 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK34976, DK56886

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;12;10189-94

  • PDK1-dependent activation of atypical PKC leads to degradation of the p21 tumour modifier protein.

    Scott MT, Ingram A and Ball KL

    Cancer Research UK Laboratories, University of Dundee Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.

    p21(WAF1/CIP1) Contributes to positive and negative growth control on multiple levels. We previously mapped phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal domain of p21 that regulate proliferating cell nuclear antigen binding. In the current study, a kinase has been fractionated from mammalian cells that stoichiometrically phosphorylates p21 at the Ser146 site, and the enzyme has been identified as an insulin-responsive atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). Expression of PKCzeta or activation of the endogenous kinase by 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) decreased the half-life of p21. Conversely, dnPKCzeta or dnPDK1 increased p21 protein half-life, and a PDK1-dependent increase in the rate of p21 degradation was mediated by aPKC. Insulin stimulation gave a biphasic response with a rapid transient decrease in p21 protein levels during the initial signalling phase that was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase, PKC and proteasome activity. Thus, aPKC provides a physiological signal for the degradation of p21. The rapid degradation of p21 protein during the signalling phase of insulin stimulation identifies a novel link between energy metabolism and a key modulator of cell cycle progression.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;24;6771-80

  • Protein kinase C(mu) regulation of the JNK pathway is triggered via phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and protein kinase C(epsilon).

    Brändlin I, Eiseler T, Salowsky R and Johannes FJ

    Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering, Nobelstrabetae 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

    The protein kinase C (PKC)-related enzyme PKC(mu)/PKD (protein kinase D) is activated by activation loop phosphorylation through PKC(eta). Here we demonstrate that PKC(mu) is activated by the direct phosphorylation of PKC(epsilon). PKC(mu) colocalizes with PKC(epsilon) in HEK293 and MCF7 cells as shown by confocal immunofluorescence analyses. PDK1, known as the upstream kinase for several PKC isozymes, associates intracellularly with PKC(epsilon) and PKC(eta). PKC(eta) is phosphorylated by PDK1 in vitro, leading to kinase activation as similarly reported for PKC(epsilon) activation by PDK1. Coexpression of PDK1, PKC(epsilon) and PKC(mu) in HEK293 cells results in PKC(mu) activation. In contrast, the coexpression of PDK1 and PKC(eta) with PKC(mu) does not activate PKC(eta) or consequently PKC(mu). PDK1/PKC(epsilon)-triggered activation of PKC(mu) inhibits JNK, a downstream effector of PKC(mu), whereas upon transient expression of PDK1, PKC(eta), and PKC(mu), JNK is not affected. These data implicate PKC(epsilon) as the biologically important upstream kinase for PKC(mu) in HEK293 cells, regulating downstream effectors. Our results further indicate a PDK1/PKC(eta)/PKC(mu) controlled negative regulation of PKC(eta) kinase activity. In this study, we show that differentially activated kinase cascades involving PDK1 and novel PKC isotypes are responsible for the regulation of PKC(mu) activity and consequently inhibit the JNK pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;47;45451-7

  • The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 2 mediates phosphorylation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1.

    Chun J, Kwon T, Lee E, Suh PG, Choi EJ and Sun Kang S

    School of Science Education, Chungbuk National University, Gaeshin-dong, Heungdok-gu, Chongju 361-763, Republic of Korea.

    The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2/TKA-1/E3KARP) contains two PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains which interact with the PDZ docking motif (X-(S/T)-X-(V/L)) of proteins to mediate the assembly of transmembrane and cytosolic proteins into functional signal transduction complexes. One of the PDZ domains of NHERF2 interacts specifically with the DSLL, DSFL, and DTRL motifs present at the carboxy-termini of the 2-adrenergic receptor, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, respectively. Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) also carries a putative PDZ-binding motif (D-S-F-L) at its carboxy tail, implicated in the specific interaction with NHERF2. There is a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) interacting fragment (PIF) in the tail of NHERF2. Using pull-down assays and co-transfection experiments, we demonstrated that the DSFL tail of SGK1 interacts with the first PDZ domain of NHERF2 and the PIF of NHERF2 binds to the PIF-binding pocket of PDK1 to form an SGK1-NHERF2-PDK1 complex. Formation of the protein complex promoted the phosphorylation and activation of SGK1 by PDK1. Thus, it was suggested that NHERF2 mediates the activation and phosphorylation of SGK1 by PDK1 through its first PDZ domain and PIF motif, as a novel SGK1 activation mechanism.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;298;2;207-15

  • Regulation of kinase activity of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 by binding to 14-3-3.

    Sato S, Fujita N and Tsuruo T

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in activating the protein kinase A, G, and C subfamily. In particular, PDK1 plays an important role in regulating the Akt survival pathway by phosphorylating Akt on Thr-308. PDK1 kinase activity was thought to be constitutively active; however, recent reports suggested that its activity is regulated by binding to other proteins, such as protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase-2 (RSK2), and heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Here we report that PDK1 binds to 14-3-3 proteins in vivo and in vitro through the sequence surrounding Ser-241, a residue that is phosphorylated by itself and is critical for its kinase activity. Mutation of PDK1 to increase its binding to 14-3-3 decreased its kinase activity in vivo. By contrast, mutation of PDK1 to decrease its interaction with 14-3-3 resulted in increased PDK1 kinase activity. Moreover, incubation of wild-type PDK1 with recombinant 14-3-3 in vitro decreased its kinase activity. These data indicate that PDK1 kinase activity is negatively regulated by binding to 14-3-3 through the PDK1 autophosphorylation site Ser-241.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;42;39360-7

  • Direct identification of tyrosine 474 as a regulatory phosphorylation site for the Akt protein kinase.

    Conus NM, Hannan KM, Cristiano BE, Hemmings BA and Pearson RB

    Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Locked Bag #1, A'Beckett Street, Melbourne, Vic 8006 Australia.

    Understanding the regulation of Akt has been of major interest for elucidating the control of normal cellular physiology as well as malignant transformation. The paradigm for activation of Akt involves phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent membrane localization followed by activating phosphorylation of Thr-308 and Ser-473. Many of the activating signals for Akt involve the stimulation of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, and the most potent activator known is the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate, highlighting a possible role for tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of the enzyme. In this study we show that activation of Akt by pervanadate or serum is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, in SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells that exhibit high basal levels of Akt activity, Akt was tyrosine-phosphorylated in the basal state, and this phosphorylation was further enhanced by both pervanadate and insulin-like growth factor-1. We have used NH(2)-terminal sequencing and phosphate release analysis to directly identify Tyr-474 as the site of tyrosine phosphorylation. Substitution of Tyr-474 with phenylalanine abolished tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt and resulted in up to 55% inhibition of Akt activation, indicating phosphorylation at Tyr-474 is required for full activation of the kinase. Our data identifies a novel regulatory mechanism for this pleiotropic enzyme that may be applicable to the AGC family of protein kinases given the conserved nature of the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif containing Tyr-474.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38021-8

  • Membrane localization of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 stimulates activities of Akt and atypical protein kinase C but does not stimulate glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Egawa K, Maegawa H, Shi K, Nakamura T, Obata T, Yoshizaki T, Morino K, Shimizu S, Nishio Y, Suzuki E and Kashiwagi A

    Third Department of Medicine and Department of Anatomy, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

    It is reported that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1) is activated in a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner and phosphorylates Akt, p70S6 kinase, and atypical protein kinase C (PKC), but its function on insulin signaling is still unclear. We cloned a full-length pdk-1 cDNA from a human brain cDNA library, and the adenovirus to overexpress wild type PDK-1 (PDK-1WT) or membrane-targeted PDK-1 (PDK-1CAAX) was constructed. Overexpressed PDK-1WT existed mainly at cytosol, and PDK-1CAAX was located at the plasma membrane. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin induced mobility shift of PDK-1 protein, but overexpressed PDK-1WT and CAAX were shifted at the basal state. Insulin stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK-1WT, but PDK-1CAAX was already tyrosine-phosphorylated at the basal state. Overexpression of PDK-1WT led to a full activation of PKC zeta/lambda without insulin stimulation but showed only the minimum effects to stimulate phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3. In contrast, the overexpression of PDK-1CAAX caused phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3 more strongly without insulin stimulation. However, PDK-1CAAX did not affect 2-deoxyglucose uptake and inhibited glycogen synthesis, surprisingly. Finally, PDK-1CAAX expression inhibited insulin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the translocation of PDK-1 from cytosol to the plasma membrane is critical for Akt and GSK-3 activation. On the other hand, only atypical PKC and Akt activation was insufficient for stimulation of glucose transport, and constitutive activation of Akt-GSK-3 pathway may inhibit glycogen synthesis and MAPK cascade in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38863-9

  • Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation in breast cancer.

    Viglietto G, Motti ML, Bruni P, Melillo RM, D'Alessio A, Califano D, Vinci F, Chiappetta G, Tsichlis P, Bellacosa A, Fusco A and Santoro M

    Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale, CNR c/o Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Naples, Italy. viglietto@sun.ceos.na.cnr.it

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) is a putative tumor suppressor for human cancer. The mechanism underlying p27(kip1) deregulation in human cancer is, however, poorly understood. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Akt regulates cell proliferation in breast cancer cells by preventing p27(kip1)-mediated growth arrest. Threonine 157 (T157), which maps within the nuclear localization signal of p27(kip1), is a predicted Akt-phosphorylation site. Akt-induced T157 phosphorylation causes retention of p27(kip1) in the cytoplasm, precluding p27(kip1)-induced G1 arrest. Conversely, the p27(kip1)-T157A mutant accumulates in cell nuclei and Akt does not affect p27(kip1)-T157A-mediated cell cycle arrest. Lastly, T157-phosphorylated p27(kip1) accumulates in the cytoplasm of primary human breast cancer cells coincident with Akt activation. Thus, cytoplasmic relocalization of p27(kip1), secondary to Akt-mediated phosphorylation, is a novel mechanism whereby the growth inhibitory properties of p27(kip1) are functionally inactivated and the proliferation of breast cancer cells is sustained.

    Nature medicine 2002;8;10;1136-44

  • Multiple phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent steps in activation of protein kinase B.

    Scheid MP, Marignani PA and Woodgett JR

    Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University Health Network. Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    The protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt family of serine kinases is rapidly activated following agonist-induced stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). To probe the molecular events important for the activation process, we employed two distinct models of posttranslational inducible activation and membrane recruitment. PKB induction requires phosphorylation of two critical residues, threonine 308 in the activation loop and serine 473 near the carboxyl terminus. Membrane localization of PKB was found to be a primary determinant of serine 473 phosphorylation. PI3K activity was equally important for promoting phosphorylation of serine 473, but this was separable from membrane localization. PDK1 phosphorylation of threonine 308 was primarily dependent upon prior serine 473 phosphorylation and, to a lesser extent, localization to the plasma membrane. Mutation of serine 473 to alanine or aspartic acid modulated the degree of threonine 308 phosphorylation in both models, while a point mutation in the substrate-binding region of PDK1 (L155E) rendered PDK1 incapable of phosphorylating PKB. Together, these results suggest a mechanism in which 3' phosphoinositide lipid-dependent translocation of PKB to the plasma membrane promotes serine 473 phosphorylation, which is, in turn, necessary for PDK1-mediated phosphorylation of threonine 308 and, consequentially, full PKB activation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;17;6247-60

  • Inhibition of JNK by cellular stress- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced AKT2 through activation of the NF kappa B pathway in human epithelial Cells.

    Yuan ZQ, Feldman RI, Sun M, Olashaw NE, Coppola D, Sussman GE, Shelley SA, Nicosia SV and Cheng JQ

    Department of Pathology, University of South Florida College of Medicine and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that AKT1 and AKT3 are activated by heat shock and oxidative stress via both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. However, the activation and role of AKT2 in the stress response have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we show that AKT2 in epithelial cells is activated by UV-C irradiation, heat shock, and hyperosmolarity as well as by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. The activation of AKT2 inhibits UV- and TNF alpha-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 activities that have been shown to be required for stress- and TNF alpha-induced programmed cell death. Moreover, AKT2 interacts with and phosphorylates I kappa B kinase alpha. The phosphorylation of I kappa B kinase alpha and activation of NF kappa B mediates AKT2 inhibition of JNK but not p38. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or dominant negative AKT2 significantly enhances UV- and TNF alpha-induced apoptosis, whereas expression of constitutively active AKT2 inhibits programmed cell death in response to UV and TNFalpha -induced apoptosis by inhibition of stress kinases and provide the first evidence that AKT inhibits stress kinase JNK through activation of the NF kappa B pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA77935, CA89242

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;33;29973-82

  • High resolution crystal structure of the human PDK1 catalytic domain defines the regulatory phosphopeptide docking site.

    Biondi RM, Komander D, Thomas CC, Lizcano JM, Deak M, Alessi DR and van Aalten DM

    Division of Signal Transduction Therapy, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

    3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a key role in regulating signalling pathways by activating AGC kinases such as PKB/Akt and S6K. Here we describe the 2.0 A crystal structure of the PDK1 kinase domain in complex with ATP. The structure defines the hydrophobic pocket termed the "PIF-pocket", which plays a key role in mediating the interaction and phosphorylation of certain substrates such as S6K1. Phosphorylation of S6K1 at its C-terminal PIF-pocket-interacting motif promotes the binding of S6K1 with PDK1. In the PDK1 structure, this pocket is occupied by a crystallographic contact with another molecule of PDK1. Interestingly, close to the PIF-pocket in PDK1, there is an ordered sulfate ion, interacting tightly with four surrounding side chains. The roles of these residues were investigated through a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies, the results of which confirm that this region of PDK1 represents a phosphate-dependent docking site. We discuss the possibility that an analogous phosphate-binding regulatory motif may participate in the activation of other AGC kinases. Furthermore, the structure of PDK1 provides a scaffold for the design of specific PDK1 inhibitors.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;16;4219-28

  • Characterization of PDK2 activity against protein kinase B gamma.

    Hodgkinson CP, Sale EM and Sale GJ

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7PX, United Kingdom.

    Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine protein kinase controlled by insulin, various growth factors, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Full activation of the PKB enzyme requires phosphorylation of a threonine in the activation loop and a serine in the C-terminal tail. PDK1 has clearly been shown to phosphorylate the threonine, but the mechanism leading to phosphorylation of the serine, the PDK2 site, is unclear. A yeast two-hybrid screen using full-length human PKBgamma identified protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, an atypical PKC, as an interactor with PKBgamma, an association requiring the pleckstrin homology domain of PKBgamma. Endogenous PKBgamma was shown to associate with endogenous PKCzeta both in cos-1 cells and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, demonstrating a physiological interaction. Immunoprecipitates of PKCzeta, whether endogenous PKCzeta from insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes or overexpressed PKCzeta from cos-1 cells, phosphorylated S472 (the C-terminal serine phosphorylation site) of PKBgamma, in vitro. In vivo, overexpression of PKCzeta stimulated the phosphorylation of approximately 50% of the PKBgamma molecules, suggesting a physiologically meaningful effect. However, pure PKCzeta protein was incapable of phosphorylating S472 of PKBgamma. Antisense knockout studies and use of a PDK1 inhibitor showed that neither PKB autophosphorylation nor phosphorylation by PDK1 accounted for the S472 phosphorylation in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Staurosporine inhibited the PKCzeta activity but not the PDK2 activity in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Together these results indicate that an independent PDK2 activity exists that physically associates with PKCzeta and that PKCzeta, by binding PKBgamma, functions to deliver the PDK2 to a required location. PKCzeta thus functions as an adaptor, associating with a staurosporine-insensitive PDK2 enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of S472 of PKBgamma. Because both PKCzeta and PKB have been proposed to be required for mediating a number of crucial insulin responses, formation of an active signaling complex containing PKCzeta, PKB, and PDK2 is an attractive mechanism for ensuring that all the critical sites on targets such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 are phosphorylated.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;32;10351-9

  • Akt-dependent phosphorylation specifically regulates Cot induction of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription.

    Kane LP, Mollenauer MN, Xu Z, Turck CW and Weiss A

    Department of Medicine. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    The Akt (or protein kinase B) and Cot (or Tpl-2) serine/threonine kinases are associated with cellular transformation. These kinases have also been implicated in the induction of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription. As a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, Cot can also activate MAP kinase signaling pathways that target AP-1 and NFAT family transcription factors. Here we show that Akt and Cot physically associate and functionally cooperate. Akt appears to function upstream of Cot, as Akt can enhance Cot induction of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription, and dominant-negative Cot blocks the activation of this element by Akt. Furthermore, deletion analysis shows that binding to Akt is critical for Cot function. The regulation of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription by Cot requires Akt-dependent phosphorylation of serine 400 (S400), near the carboxy terminus of Cot. However, phosphorylation at this site is not required for Cot kinase activity or AP-1 induction, suggesting it specifically regulates Cot effector function at the level of the NF-kappa B pathway. Mutation of S400 in Cot does indeed abolish its ability to activate I kappa B-kinase (IKK) complexes, but paradoxically it allows for increased Cot association with the IKK complex. This mutated form of Cot also acts as a dominant negative for T-cell antigen receptor/CD28- or Akt/phorbol myristate acetate-induced NF-kappa B induction, while having relatively little effect on tumor necrosis factor induction of NF-kappa B. These findings suggest that the activation of different signaling pathways by MAP3Ks may be regulated separately and may provide evidence for how such discrimination by one member of this kinase family occurs.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;16;5962-74

  • Substitution of the autophosphorylation site Thr516 with a negatively charged residue confers constitutive activity to mouse 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 in cells.

    Wick MJ, Wick KR, Chen H, He H, Dong LQ, Quon MJ and Liu F

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1)is a serine/threonine kinase that has been found to phosphorylate and activate several members of the AGC protein kinase family including protein kinase B (Akt), p70 S6 kinase, and protein kinase Czeta. However, the mechanism(s) by which PDK-1 is regulated remains unclear. Here we show that mouse PDK-1 (mPDK-1) undergoes autophosphorylation in vitro on both serine and threonine residues. In addition, we have identified Ser(399) and Thr(516) as the major mPDK-1 autophosphorylation sites in vitro. Furthermore, we have found that these two residues, as well as Ser(244) in the activation loop, are phosphorylated in cells and demonstrated that Ser(244) is a major in vivo phosphorylation site. Abolishment of phosphorylation at Ser(244), but not at Ser(399) or Thr(516), led to a significant decrease of mPDK-1 autophosphorylation and kinase activity in vitro, indicating that autophosphorylation at Ser(399) or Thr(516) is not essential for mPDK-1 autokinase activity. However, overexpression of mPDK-1(T516E), but not of mPDK-1(S244E) or mPDK-1(S399D), in Chinese hamster ovary and HEK293 cells was sufficient to induce Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) to a level similar to that of insulin stimulation. Furthermore, this increase in phosphorylation was independent of the Pleckstrin homology domain of Akt. Taken together, our results suggest that mPDK-1 undergoes autophosphorylation at multiple sites and that this phosphorylation may be essential for PDK-1 to interact with and phosphorylate its downstream substrates in vivo.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: 2T32AG00205-11; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK56166

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;19;16632-8

  • Protein kinase B is regulated in platelets by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI.

    Barry FA and Gibbins JM

    School of Animal & Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom.

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a critical component of the signaling pathways that control the activation of platelets. Here we have examined the regulation of protein kinase B (PKB), a downstream effector of PI3K, by the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI and thrombin receptors. Stimulation of platelets with collagen or convulxin (a selective GPVI agonist) resulted in PI3K-dependent, and aggregation independent, Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation of PKBalpha, which results in PKB activation. This was accompanied by translocation of PKB to cell membranes. The phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PD df1 K1 is known to phosphorylate PKBalpha on Thr(308), although the identity of the kinase responsible for Ser(473) phosphorylation is less clear. One candidate that has been implicated as being responsible for Ser(473) phosphorylation, either directly or indirectly, is the integrin-linked kinase (ILK). In this study we have examined the interactions of PKB, PDK1, and ILK in resting and stimulated platelets. We demonstrate that in platelets PKB is physically associated with PDK1 and ILK. Furthermore, the association of PDK1 and ILK increases upon platelet stimulation. It would therefore appear that formation of a tertiary complex between PDK1, ILK, and PKB may be necessary for phosphorylation of PKB. These observations indicate that PKB participates in cell signaling downstream of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. The role of PKB in collagen- and thrombin-stimulated platelets remains to be determined.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;15;12874-8

  • Involvement of Hsp90 in signaling and stability of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1.

    Fujita N, Sato S, Ishida A and Tsuruo T

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    Serine/threonine kinase Akt is thought to mediate many biological actions toward anti-apoptotic responses. Screening of drugs that could interfere with the Akt signaling pathway revealed that Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g. geldanamycin, radicicol, and its analogues) induced Akt dephosphorylation, which resulted in Akt inactivation and apoptosis of the cells. Hsp90 inhibitors did not directly affect Akt kinase activity in vitro. Thus, we examined the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors on upstream Akt kinases, phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Hsp90 inhibitors had no effect on PI3K protein expression. In contrast, treatment of the cells with Hsp90 inhibitors decreased the amount of PDK1 without directly inhibiting PDK1 kinase activity. We found that the kinase domain of PDK1 was essential for complex formation with Hsp90 and that Hsp90 inhibitors suppressed PDK1 binding to Hsp90. PDK1 degradation mechanisms revealed that inhibition of PDK1 binding to Hsp90 caused proteasome-dependent degradation of PDK1. Treatment of proteasome inhibitors increased the amount of detergent-insoluble PDK1 in Hsp90 inhibitor-treated cells. Therefore, the association of PDK1 with Hsp90 regulates its stability, solubility, and signaling. Because Akt binding to Hsp90 is also involved in the maintenance of Akt kinase activity, Hsp90 plays an important role in PDK1-Akt survival signaling pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;10346-53

  • PDK1 mediates growth factor-induced Ral-GEF activation by a kinase-independent mechanism.

    Tian X, Rusanescu G, Hou W, Schaffhausen B and Feig LA

    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    Ras proteins transduce extracellular signals to intracellular signaling pathways by binding to and promoting the activation of at least three classes of downstream signaling molecules: Raf kinases, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K) and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ral-GEFs). Previous work has demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates Ral-GEFs, at least in part, by a Ras-mediated redistribution of the GEFs to their target, Ral-GTPases, in the plasma membrane. Here we show that Ral-GEF stimulation by EGF involves an additional mechanism, PI3-K-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)-induced enhancement of Ral-GEF catalytic activity. Remarkably, this PDK1 function is not dependent upon its kinase activity. Instead, the non-catalytic N-terminus of PDK1 mediates the formation of an EGF-induced complex with the N-terminus of the Ral-GEF, Ral-GDS, thereby relieving its auto-inhibitory effect on the catalytic domain of Ral-GDS. These results elucidate a novel function for PDK1 and demonstrate that two Ras effector pathways cooperate to promote Ral-GTPase activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA034722

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;6;1327-38

  • Regulation of both PDK1 and the phosphorylation of PKC-zeta and -delta by a C-terminal PRK2 fragment.

    Hodgkinson CP and Sale GJ

    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

    The mechanism by which PDK1 regulates AGC kinases remains unclear. To further understand this process, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using PDK1 as bait. PKC-zeta, PKC-delta, and PRK2 were identified as interactors of PDK1. A combination of yeast two-hybrid binding assays and coprecipitation from mammalian cells was used to characterize the nature of the PDK1-PKC interaction. The presence of the PH domain of PDK1 inhibited the interaction of PDK1 with the PKCs. A contact region of PDK1 was mapped between residues 314 and 408. The interaction of PDK1 with the PKCs required the full-length PKC-zeta and -delta proteins apart from their C-terminal tails. PDK1 was able to phosphorylate full-length PKC-zeta and -delta but not PKC-zeta and -delta constructs containing the PDK1 phosphorylation site but lacking the C-terminal tails. A C-terminal PRK2 fragment, normally produced by caspase-3 cleavage during apoptosis, inhibited PDK1 autophosphorylation by >90%. The ability of PDK1 to phosphorylate PKC-zeta and -delta in vitro was also markedly inhibited by the PRK2 fragment. Additionally, generation of the PRK2 fragment in vivo inhibited by >90% the phosphorylation of endogenous PKC-zeta by PDK1. In conclusion, these results show that the C-terminal tail of PKC is a critical determinant for PKC-zeta and -delta phosphorylation by PDK1. Moreover, the C-terminal PRK2 fragment acts as a potent negative regulator of PDK1 autophosphorylation and PDK1 kinase activity against PKC-zeta and -delta. As the C-terminal PRK2 fragment is naturally generated during apoptosis, this may provide a mechanism of restraining prosurvival signals during apoptosis.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;2;561-9

  • Distinct regulatory mechanism for p70 S6 kinase beta from that for p70 S6 kinase alpha.

    Minami T, Hara K, Oshiro N, Ueoku S, Yoshino K, Tokunaga C, Shirai Y, Saito N, Gout I and Yonezawa K

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Background: A novel ribosomal S6 kinase, termed p70 S6 kinase beta (p70beta), has a highly homologous amino acid sequence to that of p70/p85 S6 kinase (p70alpha). This includes the critical phosphorylation sites, Thr252, Ser394 and Thr412 in p70alpha1, which correspond to Thr241, Ser383 and Thr401 in p70beta1, respectively. However, the regulatory mechanism for p70beta remains to be elucidated.

    Results: We report here the expression and the mechanism of in vivo regulation of p70beta. Two isoforms, p70beta1 and p70beta2, were expressed in a variety of tissues at a different level. p70beta1 was mainly targeted to the nucleus, whereas p70beta2 dispersed throughout the cytoplasm including nucleoplasm. The kinase activity of p70beta1 was less sensitive to the inhibition induced by rapamycin, wortmannin and amino acid withdrawal than that of p70alpha. The portion of p70beta activity inhibited by rapamycin was rescued by the rapamycin-resistant mutant of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Mutational analysis revealed that the phosphorylation of Thr241 and Thr401 in p70beta1 was indispensable for the kinase activity. In contrast, a p70beta1 mutant in which Ser383 was substituted with Gly (S383G) still retained nearly the half maximal activity. Sequential phosphorylation of wild-type and S383G mutant of p70beta1 with mTOR and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in vitro synergistically activated their kinase activities.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that p70beta is regulated by the mTOR- and PDK1-signalling pathways through a synergistic interaction between phosphorylated Thr241 and Thr401, while Ser383 plays minor role in their activation mechanism. Activated p70beta may be less sensitive to dephosphorylation mediated by putative phosphatases activated by rapamycin, amino acid withdrawal, and probably wortmannin.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2001;6;11;1003-15

  • HER-2/neu induces p53 ubiquitination via Akt-mediated MDM2 phosphorylation.

    Zhou BP, Liao Y, Xia W, Zou Y, Spohn B and Hung MC

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, Breast Cancer Basic Research Program, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    HER-2/neu amplification or overexpression can make cancer cells resistant to apoptosis and promotes their growth. p53 is crucial in regulating cell growth and apoptosis, and is often mutated or deleted in many types of tumour. Moreover, many tumours with a wild-type gene for p53 do not have normal p53 function, suggesting that some oncogenic signals suppress the function of p53. In this study, we show that HER-2/neu-mediated resistance to DNA-damaging agents requires the activation of Akt, which enhances MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53. Akt physically associates with MDM2 and phosphorylates it at Ser166 and Ser186. Phosphorylation of MDM2 enhances its nuclear localization and its interaction with p300, and inhibits its interaction with p19ARF, thus increasing p53 degradation. Our study indicates that blocking the Akt pathway mediated by HER-2/neu would increase the cytotoxic effect of DNA-damaging drugs in tumour cells with wild-type p53.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 58880, CA 78633, CA 83639, CA77858

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;11;973-82

  • Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and their role in regulating kinase activity.

    Park J, Hill MM, Hess D, Brazil DP, Hofsteenge J and Hemmings BA

    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Maulbeerstrasse 66, Basel CH-4058, Switzerland.

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a central role in signal transduction pathways that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Despite its key role as an upstream activator of enzymes such as protein kinase B and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, the regulatory mechanisms controlling PDK1 activity are poorly understood. PDK1 has been reported to be constitutively active in resting cells and not further activated by growth factor stimulation (Casamayor, A., Morrice, N. A., and Alessi, D. R. (1999) Biochem. J. 342, 287-292). Here, we report that PDK1 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to pervanadate and insulin. Following pervanadate treatment, PDK1 kinase activity increased 1.5- to 3-fold whereas the activity of PDK1 associated with the plasma membrane increased approximately 6-fold. The activity of PDK1 localized to the plasma membrane was also increased by insulin treatment. Three tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PDK1 (Tyr-9 and Tyr-373/376) were identified using in vivo labeling and mass spectrometry. Using site-directed mutants, we show that, although phosphorylation on Tyr-373/376 is important for PDK1 activity, phosphorylation on Tyr-9 has no effect on the activity of the kinase. Both of these residues can be phosphorylated by v-Src tyrosine kinase in vitro, and co-expression of v-Src leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PDK1. Thus, these data suggest that PDK1 activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, possibly by a member of the Src kinase family.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;40;37459-71

  • Regulation of Akt/PKB activation by tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Chen R, Kim O, Yang J, Sato K, Eisenmann KM, McCarthy J, Chen H and Qiu Y

    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

    Activation of Akt/PKB by growth factors requires multiple phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation of Thr(308) and Ser(473) of Akt by its upstream kinase(s) or autophosphorylation is critical for optimal activation of its kinase activity. Here, we present evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation is required for Akt activation. Epidermal growth factor treatment induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt in COS1 and PC3M cells, which is abrogated by PP2, a selective inhibitor for Src family tyrosine kinases. Elevated Akt activity is observed in v-Src transformed NIH3T3 cells, which is accompanied with increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt. Akt activity induced by growth factors is significantly reduced in SYF cells lacking Src, Yes, and Fyn, which can be restored by introducing c-Src, but not the kinase-inactive Src, back to these cells. Furthermore, we have identified two tyrosine residues near the activation loop of Akt that are important for its activation. Substitution of these residues with phenylalanine abolishes Akt kinase activity stimulated by growth factors. These two YF mutants fail to block Forkhead transcription factor activity in 293 cells and are unable to prevent apoptosis induced by matrix detachment. Our data suggest that, in addition to phosphorylation of Thr(308) and Ser(473), tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt may be essential for its biological function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA85380

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;34;31858-62

  • Regulation of protein kinase B/Akt-serine 473 phosphorylation by integrin-linked kinase: critical roles for kinase activity and amino acids arginine 211 and serine 343.

    Persad S, Attwell S, Gray V, Mawji N, Deng JT, Leung D, Yan J, Sanghera J, Walsh MP and Dedhar S

    British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Hospital Health Sciences Centre, Jack Bell Research Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3Z6, Canada.

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is a regulator of cell survival and apoptosis. To become fully activated, PKB/Akt requires phosphorylation at two sites, threonine 308 and serine 473, in a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent manner. The kinase responsible for phosphorylation of threonine 308 is the PI 3-kinase-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), whereas phosphorylation of serine 473 has been suggested to be regulated by PKB/Akt autophosphorylation in a PDK-1-dependent manner. However, the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has also been shown to regulate phosphorylation of serine 473 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. Whether ILK phosphorylates this site directly or functions as an adapter molecule has been debated. We now show by in-gel kinase assay and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry that biochemically purified ILK can phosphorylate PKB/Akt directly. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of cell extracts demonstrates that ILK can complex with PKB/Akt as well as PDK-1 and that ILK can disrupt PDK-1/PKB association. The amino acid residue serine 343 of ILK within the activation loop is required for kinase activity as well as for its interaction with PKB/Akt. Mutational analysis of ILK further shows a crucial role for arginine 211 of ILK within the phosphoinositide phospholipid binding domain in the regulation of PKB- serine 473 phosphorylation. A highly selective small molecule inhibitor of ILK activity also inhibits the ability of ILK to phosphorylate PKB/Akt in vitro and in intact cells. These data demonstrate that ILK is an important upstream kinase for the regulation of PKB/Akt.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;29;27462-9

  • Visualization of biochemical networks in living cells.

    Remy I and Michnick SW

    Département de Biochimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7.

    Functional annotation of novel genes can be achieved by detection of interactions of their encoded proteins with known proteins followed by assays to validate that the gene participates in a specific cellular function. We report an experimental strategy that allows for detection of protein interactions and functional assays with a single reporter system. Interactions among biochemical network component proteins are detected and probed with stimulators and inhibitors of the network. In addition, the cellular location of the interacting proteins is determined. We used this strategy to map a signal transduction network that controls initiation of translation in eukaryotes. We analyzed 35 different pairs of full-length proteins and identified 14 interactions, of which five have not been observed previously, suggesting that the organization of the pathway is more ramified and integrated than previously shown. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using this strategy in efforts of genomewide functional annotation.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;14;7678-83

  • Phosphorylation sites of protein kinase C delta in H2O2-treated cells and its activation by tyrosine kinase in vitro.

    Konishi H, Yamauchi E, Taniguchi H, Yamamoto T, Matsuzaki H, Takemura Y, Ohmae K, Kikkawa U and Nishizuka Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) is normally activated by diacylglycerol produced from receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids. On stimulation of cells with H(2)O(2), the enzyme is tyrosine phosphorylated, with a concomitant increase in enzymatic activity. This activation does not appear to accompany its translocation to membranes. In the present study, the tyrosine phosphorylation sites of PKC delta in the H(2)O(2)-treated cells were identified as Tyr-311, Tyr-332, and Tyr-512 by mass spectrometric analysis with the use of the precursor-scan method and by immunoblot analysis with the use of phosphorylation site-specific antibodies. Tyr-311 was the predominant modification site among them. In an in vitro study, phosphorylation at this site by Lck, a non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase, enhanced the basal enzymatic activity and elevated its maximal velocity in the presence of diacylglycerol. The mutation of Tyr-311 to phenylalanine prevented the increase in this maximal activity, but replacement of the other two tyrosine residues did not block such an effect. The results indicate that phosphorylation at Tyr-311 between the regulatory and catalytic domains is a critical step for generation of the active PKC delta in response to H(2)O(2).

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;12;6587-92

  • The carboxyl terminus of protein kinase c provides a switch to regulate its interaction with the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase, PDK-1.

    Gao T, Toker A and Newton AC

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0640, USA.

    The function of protein kinase C family members depends on two tightly coupled phosphorylation mechanisms: phosphorylation of the activation loop by the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase, PDK-1, followed by autophosphorylation at two positions in the COOH terminus, the turn motif, and the hydrophobic motif. Here we address the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein kinase C betaII by PDK-1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies reveal that PDK-1 associates preferentially with its substrate, unphosphorylated protein kinase C, by a direct mechanism. The exposed COOH terminus of protein kinase C provides the primary interaction site for PDK-1, with co-expression of constructs of the carboxyl terminus effectively disrupting the interaction in vivo. Disruption of this interaction promotes the autophosphorylation of protein kinase C, suggesting that the binding of PDK-1 to the carboxyl terminus protects it from autophosphorylation. Studies with constructs of the COOH terminus reveal that the intrinsic affinity of PDK-1 for phosphorylated COOH terminus is over an order of magnitude greater than that for unphosphorylated COOH terminus, contrasting with the finding that PDK-1 does not bind phosphorylated protein kinase C effectively. However, effective binding of the phosphorylated species can be induced by the activated conformation of protein kinase C. This suggests that the carboxyl terminus becomes masked following autophosphorylation, a process that can be reversed by the conformational changes accompanying activation. Our data suggest a model in which PDK-1 provides two points of regulation of protein kinase C: 1) phosphorylation of the activation loop, which is regulated by the intrinsic activity of PDK-1, and 2) phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus, which is regulated by the release of PDK-1 to allow autophosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA75134; NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK54441

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;22;19588-96

  • Inhibition of insulin-induced activation of Akt by a kinase-deficient mutant of the epsilon isozyme of protein kinase C.

    Matsumoto M, Ogawa W, Hino Y, Furukawa K, Ono Y, Takahashi M, Ohba M, Kuroki T and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

    Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a protein-serine/threonine kinase that is activated by growth factors in a phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase-dependent manner. Although Akt mediates a variety of biological activities, the mechanisms by which its activity is regulated remain unclear. The potential role of the epsilon isozyme of protein kinase C (PKC) in the activation of Akt induced by insulin has now been examined. Expression of a kinase-deficient mutant of PKCepsilon (epsilonKD), but not that of wild-type PKCepsilon or of kinase-deficient mutants of PKCalpha or PKClambda, with the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of Akt induced by insulin in Chinese hamster ovary cells or L6 myotubes. Whereas the epsilonKD mutant did not affect insulin stimulation of PI 3-kinase activity, the phosphorylation and activation of Akt induced by a constitutively active mutant of PI 3-kinase were inhibited by epsilonKD, suggesting that epsilonKD affects insulin signaling downstream of PI 3-kinase. PDK1 (3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) is thought to participate in Akt activation. Overexpression of PDK1 with the use of an adenovirus vector induced the phosphorylation and activation of Akt; epsilonKD inhibited, whereas wild-type PKCepsilon had no effect on, these actions of PDK1. These results suggest that epsilonKD inhibits the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of Akt by interfering with the ability of PDK1 to phosphorylate Akt.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;17;14400-6

  • Sp1 phosphorylation regulates inducible expression of platelet-derived growth factor B-chain gene via atypical protein kinase C-zeta.

    Rafty LA and Khachigian LM

    Department of Haematology, The Prince of Wales Hospital and Centre for Thrombosis and Vascular Research, School of Pathology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a broadly expressed mitogenic and chemotactic factor with diverse roles in a number of physiologic and pathologic settings. The zinc finger transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Egr-1 bind to overlapping elements in the proximal PDGF B-chain promoter and activate transcription of this gene. The anthracycline nogalamycin has previously been reported to inhibit the capacity of Egr-1 to bind DNA in vitro. Here we used electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that nogalamycin added to cells in culture did not alter the interaction of Egr-1 with the PDGF-B promoter. Instead, it enhanced the capacity of Sp1 to bind DNA. Nogalamycin increased PDGF-B mRNA expression at the level of transcription, which was abrogated by mutation of the Sp1 binding site in the PDGF-B promoter or overexpression of mutant Sp1. Rather than increasing total levels of Sp1, nogalamycin altered the phosphorylation state of the transcription factor. Overexpression of dominant-negative PKC-zeta blocked nogalamycin-inducible Sp1 phosphorylation and PDGF-B promoter-dependent expression. Nogalamycin stimulated the phosphorylation of PKC-zeta (on residue Thr(410)). These findings demonstrate for the first time that PKC-zeta and Sp1 phosphorylation mediate the inducible expression of this growth factor.

    Nucleic acids research 2001;29;5;1027-33

  • B-cell development in progressively transformed germinal centers: similarities and differences compared with classical germinal centers and lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease.

    Bräuninger A, Yang W, Wacker HH, Rajewsky K, Küppers R and Hansmann ML

    Department of Pathology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. braeuninger@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    Progressively transformed germinal centers (PTGCs) are histologic structures mainly composed of small resting B cells and intermingled proliferating centroblast-like cells. The B-cell differentiation processes within PTGCs and their relation to classical germinal centers (GC) and to lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD), with which PTGCs are often associated, are largely unknown. To address these issues, single small resting (Ki67-) and proliferating (Ki67+) centroblast-like cells were isolated from 7 PTGCs of 5 lymph nodes, and rearranged immunoglobulin genes were amplified and sequenced. Most small resting B cells were clonally unrelated, and most carried unmutated immunoglobulin gene rearrangements resembling mantle zone B cells. Small resting B cells with mutated immunoglobulin gene rearrangements may represent centrocytes, memory B cells, or both. Among the centroblast-like Ki67+ cells, expanded B-cell clones were observed in 6 of 7 PTGCs analyzed. Clonally related V region genes showed extensive intraclonal diversity, and the mutation pattern indicated stringent selection of the cells for the expression of functional antigen receptors. Thus, somatic hypermutation, clonal expansion, and selection occur also in the disorganized PTGC microenvironment, as in classical GCs. In lymph nodes affected by PTGCs, no clonal expansion across the borders of individual PTGCs was observed, distinguishing PTGCs from LPHD.

    Blood 2001;97;3;714-9

  • p21-activated kinase (PAK1) is phosphorylated and activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1).

    King CC, Gardiner EM, Zenke FT, Bohl BP, Newton AC, Hemmings BA and Bokoch GM

    Departments of Immunology and Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    In this study, we show that phosphorylated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylates p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in the presence of sphingosine. We identify threonine 423, a conserved threonine in the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII, as the PDK1 phosphorylation site on PAK1. Threonine 423 is a previously identified PAK1 autophosphorylation site that lies within a PAK consensus phosphorylation sequence. After pretreatment with phosphatases, autophosphorylation of PAK1 occurred at all major sites except threonine 423. A phosphothreonine 423-specific antibody detected phosphorylation of recombinant, catalytically inactive PAK1 after incubation with wild-type PAK1, indicating phosphorylation of threonine 423 occurs by an intermolecular mechanism. The biological significance of PDK1 phosphorylation of PAK1 at threonine 423 in vitro is supported by the observation that these two proteins interact in vivo and that PDK1-phosphorylated PAK1 has an increased activity toward substrate. An increase of phosphorylation of catalytically inactive PAK1 was observed in COS-7 cells expressing wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, PDK1 upon elevation of intracellular sphingosine levels. PDK1 phosphorylation of PAK1 was not blocked by pretreatment with wortmannin or when PDK1 was mutated to prevent phosphatidylinositol binding, indicating this process is independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. The data presented here provide evidence for a novel mechanism for PAK1 regulation and activation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39434, GM43154

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;52;41201-9

  • Changes in protein kinase C epsilon phosphorylation status and intracellular localization as 3T3 and 3T6 fibroblasts grow to confluency and quiescence: a role for phosphorylation at ser-729?

    England K and Rumsby MG

    Department of Biology, University of York, P.O. Box 373, York YO10 5YW, UK. ke5@york.ac.uk

    Protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon in 3T3 and 3T6 fibroblasts and in C6 glioma cells migrated on SDS/PAGE predominantly as a doublet with molecular masses of 87 and 95 kDa (PKC epsilon(87) and PKC epsilon(95) respectively). PKC epsilon(95) predominates when cells reach confluency but PKC epsilon(87) was the main form detected within 15 min when confluent cells were passaged at low cell density into fresh medium containing serum and allowed to adhere. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS analysis and experiments with phosphospecific antibodies revealed that PKC epsilon(87) is phosphorylated at Thr-566 and Ser-703, and PKC epsilon(95) is additionally phosphorylated at Ser-729. Cell fractionation studies revealed that PKC epsilon(95) is associated with the nuclear fraction, whereas PKC epsilon(87) was found in the 100,000 g cytosol fraction. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed these findings and showed that PKC epsilon(95) had a perinuclear, probably Golgi, localization and PKC epsilon(87) was distributed in the cytosol. It is proposed that phosphorylation at Ser-729 may be important for determining the intracellular localization of PKC epsilon, and that a specific Ser-729 phosphatase may be activated on cell passage to convert PKC epsilon(95) to PKC epsilon(87).

    The Biochemical journal 2000;352 Pt 1;19-26

  • Association of immature hypophosphorylated protein kinase cepsilon with an anchoring protein CG-NAP.

    Takahashi M, Mukai H, Oishi K, Isagawa T and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    Protein kinase C (PKC) family requires phosphorylation of itself to become competent for responding to second messengers. Much attention has been focused on elucidating the role of phosphorylation in PKC activity; however, it remains unknown where this modification takes place in the cells. This study examines whether anchoring protein is involved in the regulation of PKC phosphorylation. A certain population of PKC epsilon in rat brain extracts as well as that expressed in COS7 cells was associated with an endogenous anchoring protein CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN- associated protein). Pulse chase experiments revealed that the associated PKC epsilon was an immature species at the hypophosphorylated state. In vitro binding studies confirmed that non- or hypophosphorylated PKC epsilon directly bound to CG-NAP via its catalytic domain, whereas sufficiently phosphorylated PKC epsilon did not. PKC epsilon mutant at a potential phosphorylation site of Thr-566 or Ser-729 to Ala, possessing almost no catalytic activity, was associated and co-localized with CG-NAP at Golgi/centrosome area. On the other hand, wild type and a phosphorylation-mimicking mutant at Thr-566 were mainly distributed in cytosol and represented second messenger-dependent catalytic activation. These results suggest that CG-NAP anchors hypophosphorylated PKCepsilon at the Golgi/centrosome area during maturation and serves as a scaffold for the phosphorylation reaction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;44;34592-6

  • Threonine phosphorylation of the beta 3 integrin cytoplasmic tail, at a site recognized by PDK1 and Akt/PKB in vitro, regulates Shc binding.

    Kirk RI, Sanderson MR and Lerea KM

    Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

    The mechanism of outside-in signaling by integrins parallels that for growth factor receptors. In both pathways, phosphorylation of a cytoplasmic segment on tyrosine generates a docking site for proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding domains. We recently observed that phosphorylation of a threonine (Thr-753), six amino acids proximal to tyrosine 759 in beta(3) of the platelet specific integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), inhibits outside-in signaling through this receptor. We hypothesized that the presence of phosphothreonine 753 either renders beta(3) a poor substrate for tyrosine kinases or inhibits the docking capabilities of the tyrosyl-phosphorylated form of beta(3.) The first alternative was tested by comparing the phosphorylation of beta(3) model peptides by the tyrosine kinase pp60(c-src) and we found that the presence of a phosphate group on a residue corresponding to Thr-753 did not detectably alter the kinetics of tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the presence of phosphate on this threonine inhibited the binding of Shc to tyrosyl-phosphorylated beta(3) peptide. The inhibitory effect of the phosphate group could be mimicked by substituting an aspartic acid for Thr-753, suggesting that a negative charge at this position modulates the binding of Shc and possibly other phosphotyrosine binding domain- and SH2-containing proteins. A survey of several protein kinases revealed that Thr-753 was avidly phosphorylated by PDK1 and Akt/PKB in vitro. These observations suggest that activation of PDK1 and/or Akt/PKB in platelets may modulate the binding activity and/or specificity of beta(3) for signaling molecules.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;40;30901-6

  • A 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) docking site is required for the phosphorylation of protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta ) and PKC-related kinase 2 by PDK1.

    Balendran A, Biondi RM, Cheung PC, Casamayor A, Deak M and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Division of Signal Transduction Therapy, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Members of the AGC subfamily of protein kinases including protein kinase B, p70 S6 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are activated and/or stabilized by phosphorylation of two residues, one that resides in the T-loop of the kinase domain and the other that is located C-terminal to the kinase domain in a region known as the hydrophobic motif. Atypical PKC isoforms, such as PKCzeta, and the PKC-related kinases, like PRK2, are also activated by phosphorylation of their T-loop site but, instead of possessing a phosphorylatable Ser/Thr in their hydrophobic motif, contain an acidic residue. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK1) activates many members of the AGC subfamily of kinases in vitro, including PKCzeta and PRK2 by phosphorylating the T-loop residue. In the present study we demonstrate that the hydrophobic motifs of PKCzeta and PKCiota, as well as PRK1 and PRK2, interact with the kinase domain of PDK1. Mutation of the conserved residues of the hydrophobic motif of full-length PKCzeta, full-length PRK2, or PRK2 lacking its N-terminal regulatory domain abolishes or significantly reduces the ability of these kinases to interact with PDK1 and to become phosphorylated at their T-loop sites in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of the hydrophobic motif of PRK2 in cells prevents the T-loop phosphorylation and thus inhibits the activation of PRK2 and PKCzeta. These findings indicate that the hydrophobic motif of PRK2 and PKCzeta acts as a "docking site" enabling the recruitment of PDK1 to these substrates. This is essential for their phosphorylation by PDK1 in cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;27;20806-13

  • A phosphoserine-regulated docking site in the protein kinase RSK2 that recruits and activates PDK1.

    Frödin M, Jensen CJ, Merienne K and Gammeltoft S

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Glostrup Hospital, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark. mf@dcb-glostrup.dk

    The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) is a growth factor-stimulated protein kinase with two kinase domains. The C-terminal kinase of RSK2 is activated by ERK-type MAP kinases, leading to autophosphorylation of RSK2 at Ser386 in a hydrophobic motif. The N-terminal kinase is activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) through phosphorylation of Ser227, and phosphorylates the substrates of RSK. Here, we identify Ser386 in the hydrophobic motif of RSK2 as a phosphorylation-dependent docking site and activator of PDK1. Treatment of cells with growth factor induced recruitment of PDK1 to the Ser386-phosphorylated hydrophobic motif and phosphorylation of RSK2 at Ser227. A RSK2-S386K mutant showed no interaction with PDK1 or phosphorylation at Ser227. Interaction with Ser386-phosphorylated RSK2 induced autophosphorylation of PDK1. Addition of a synthetic phosphoSer386 peptide (RSK2(373-396)) increased PDK1 activity 6-fold in vitro. Finally, mutants of RSK2 and MSK1, a RSK-related kinase, with increased affinity for PDK1, were constitutively active in vivo and phosphorylated histone H3. Our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism based on phosphoserine-mediated recruitment of PDK1 to RSK2, leading to coordinated phosphorylation and activation of PDK1 and RSK2.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;12;2924-34

  • Phosphorylation of protein kinase N by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 mediates insulin signals to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Dong LQ, Landa LR, Wick MJ, Zhu L, Mukai H, Ono Y and Liu F

    Department of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

    Growth factors such as insulin regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in many types of cells. However, the mechanism by which the insulin signal is transmitted to the actin cytoskeleton remains largely unknown. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase downstream effector phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) interacted with protein kinase N (PKN), a Rho-binding Ser/Thr protein kinase potentially implicated in a variety of cellular events, including phosphorylation of cytoskeletal components. PDK1 and PKN interacted in vitro and in intact cells, and this interaction was mediated by the kinase domain of PDK1 and the carboxyl terminus of PKN. In addition to a direct interaction, PDK1 also phosphorylated Thr(774) in the activation loop and activated PKN. Insulin treatment or ectopic expression of the wild-type PDK1 or PKN, but not protein kinase Czeta, induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization and membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and Rat1 cells that stably express the insulin receptor (Rat1-IR). However, the insulin-stimulated actin cytoskeleton reorganization in Rat1-IR cells was prevented by expression of kinase-defective PDK1 or PDK1-phosphorylation site-mutated PKN. Thus, phosphorylation by PDK1 appears to be necessary for PKN to transduce signals from the insulin receptor to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52933, R01 DK052933

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;10;5089-94

  • Rho GTPase control of protein kinase C-related protein kinase activation by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase.

    Flynn P, Mellor H, Casamassima A and Parker PJ

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom.

    The protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs) have been shown to be under the control of the Rho GTPases and influenced by autophosphorylation. In analyzing the relationship between these inputs, it is shown that activation in vitro and in vivo involves the activation loop phosphorylation of PRK1/2 by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Rho overexpression in cultured cells is shown to increase the activation loop phosphorylation of endogenous PRKs and is demonstrated to influence this process by controlling the ability of PRKs to bind to PDK1. The interaction of PRK1/2 with PDK1 is shown to be dependent upon Rho. Direct demonstration of ternary (Rho.PRK.PDK1) complex formation in situ is provided by the observation that PDK1 is recruited to RhoB-containing endosomes only if PRK is coexpressed. Furthermore, this in vivo complex is maintained after phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. The control of PRKs by PDK1 thus evidences a novel strategy of substrate-directed control involving GTPases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;15;11064-70

  • The PI3K-PDK1 connection: more than just a road to PKB.

    Vanhaesebroeck B and Alessi DR

    Cell Signalling Group, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 91 Riding House Street, London W1P 8BT, U.K. bartvanh@ludwig.ucl.ac.uk

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) generate specific inositol lipids that have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, differentiation and cytoskeletal changes. One of the best characterized targets of PI3K lipid products is the protein kinase Akt or protein kinase B (PKB). In quiescent cells, PKB resides in the cytosol in a low-activity conformation. Upon cellular stimulation, PKB is activated through recruitment to cellular membranes by PI3K lipid products and phosphorylation by 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Here we review the mechanism by which PKB is activated and the downstream actions of this multifunctional kinase. We also discuss the evidence that PDK1 may be involved in the activation of protein kinases other than PKB, the mechanisms by which this activity of PDK1 could be regulated and the possibility that some of the currently postulated PKB substrates targets might in fact be phosphorylated by PDK1-regulated kinases other than PKB.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;346 Pt 3;561-76

  • Identification of a pocket in the PDK1 kinase domain that interacts with PIF and the C-terminal residues of PKA.

    Biondi RM, Cheung PC, Casamayor A, Deak M, Currie RA and Alessi DR

    Divison of Signal Transduction Therapy, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. rbiondi@bad.dundee.ac.uk

    The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) phosphorylates and activates a number of protein kinases of the AGC subfamily. The kinase domain of PDK1 interacts with a region of protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), termed the PDK1-interacting fragment (PIF), through a hydrophobic motif. Here we identify a hydrophobic pocket in the small lobe of the PDK1 kinase domain, separate from the ATP- and substrate-binding sites, that interacts with PIF. Mutation of residues predicted to form part of this hydrophobic pocket either abolished or significantly diminished the affinity of PDK1 for PIF. PIF increased the rate at which PDK1 phosphorylated a synthetic dodecapeptide (T308tide), corresponding to the sequences surrounding the PDK1 phosphorylation site of PKB. This peptide is a poor substrate for PDK1, but a peptide comprising T308tide fused to the PDK1-binding motif of PIF was a vastly superior substrate for PDK1. Our results suggest that the PIF-binding pocket on the kinase domain of PDK1 acts as a 'docking site', enabling it to interact with and enhance the phosphorylation of its substrates.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;5;979-88

  • Evidence that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 mediates phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase in vivo at Thr-412 as well as Thr-252.

    Balendran A, Currie R, Armstrong CG, Avruch J and Alessi DR

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland.

    Protein kinase B and p70 S6 kinase are members of the cyclic AMP-dependent/cyclic GMP-dependent/protein kinase C subfamily of protein kinases and are activated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway when cells are stimulated with insulin or growth factors. Both of these kinases are activated in cells by phosphorylation of a conserved residue in the kinase domain (Thr-308 of protein kinase B (PKB) and Thr-252 of p70 S6 kinase) and another conserved residue located C-terminal to the kinase domain (Ser-473 of PKB and Thr-412 of p70 S6 kinase). Thr-308 of PKBalpha and Thr-252 of p70 S6 kinase are phosphorylated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in vitro. Recent work has shown that PDK1 interacts with a region of protein kinase C-related kinase-2, termed the PDK1 interacting fragment (PIF). Interaction with PIF converts PDK1 from a form that phosphorylates PKB at Thr-308 alone to a species capable of phosphorylating Ser-473 as well as Thr-308. This suggests that PDK1 may be the enzyme that phosphorylates both residues in vivo. Here we demonstrate that PDK1 is capable of phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase at Thr-412 in vitro. We study the effect of PIF on the ability of PDK1 to phosphorylate p70 S6 kinase. Surprisingly, we find that PDK1 bound to PIF is no longer able to interact with or phosphorylate p70 S6 kinase in vitro at either Thr-252 or Thr-412. The expression of PIF in cells prevents insulin-like growth factor 1 from inducing the activation of the p70 S6 kinase and its phosphorylation at Thr-412. Overexpression of PDK1 in cells induces the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase at Thr-412 in unstimulated cells, and a catalytically inactive mutant of PDK1 prevents the phosphorylation of p70 S6K at Thr-412 in insulin-like growth factor 1-stimulated cells. These observations indicate that PDK1 regulates the activation of p70 S6 kinase and provides evidence that PDK1 mediates the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase at Thr-412.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;52;37400-6

  • Potential role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 translocation in adipocytes.

    Grillo S, Grémeaux T, Le Marchand-Brustel Y and Tanti J

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM E9911 and INSERM U 145, Faculté de Médecine, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107, Nice, France.

    Insulin stimulation of Glut 4 translocation requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) but the downstream pathway remains ill-defined. We demonstrated that the overexpression of PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1), a downstream effector of PI 3-kinase, stimulated Glut 4 translocation in adipocytes. This effect does not require the PH domain of PDK1, but expression of the pleckstrin homology domain-deleted PDK1 inhibits the effect of insulin, but not okadaic acid, on Glut 4 translocation. These results support a role of the PDK1 pathway in the transmission of insulin signal to Glut translocation.

    FEBS letters 1999;461;3;277-9

  • Characterization of the structure and regulation of two novel isoforms of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase.

    Kobayashi T, Deak M, Morrice N and Cohen P

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI/WTB Complex, Dow Street, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U.K.

    The catalytic domain of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) is 54% identical with protein kinase B (PKB) and, like PKB, is activated in vitro by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and in vivo in response to signals that activate phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. Here we identify two novel isoforms of SGK, termed SGK2 and SGK3, whose catalytic domains share 80% amino acid sequence identity with each other and with SGK (renamed SGK1). Like SGK1, the mRNA encoding SGK3 is expressed in all tissues examined, but SGK2 mRNA is only present at significant levels in liver, kidney and pancreas and, at lower levels, in the brain. The levels of SGK2 mRNA in H4IIE cells and SGK3 mRNA in Rat2 fibroblasts are not increased by stimulation with serum or dexamethasone, whereas the level of SGK1 mRNA is increased greatly. SGK2 and SGK3 are activated in vitro by PDK1, albeit more slowly than SGK1, and their activation is accompanied by the phosphorylation of Thr(193) and Thr(253) respectively, the residues equivalent to the Thr in the 'activation loop' of PKB that is targeted by PDK1. The PDK1-catalysed phosphorylation and activation of SGK2 and SGK3, like SGK1, is greatly potentiated by mutating Ser(356) and Ser(419) respectively to Asp, these residues being equivalent to the C-terminal phosphorylation site of PKB. Like SGK1, SGK2 and SGK3 are activated 5-fold via a phosphorylation mechanism when cells are exposed to H(2)O(2) but, in contrast with SGK1, activation is only suppressed partially by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase. SGK2 and SGK3 are activated to a smaller extent by insulin-like growth factor-1 (2-fold) than SGK1 (5-fold). Like PKB and SGK1, SGK2 and SGK3 preferentially phosphorylate Ser and Thr residues that lie in Arg-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser/Thr motifs.

    The Biochemical journal 1999;344 Pt 1;189-97

  • 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is phosphorylated and activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1.

    Jensen CJ, Buch MB, Krag TO, Hemmings BA, Gammeltoft S and Frödin M

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Glostrup Hospital, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark.

    90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) belongs to a family of growth factor-activated serine/threonine kinases composed of two kinase domains connected by a regulatory linker region. The N-terminal kinase of RSK2 is involved in substrate phosphorylation. Its activation requires phosphorylation of the linker region at Ser(369), catalyzed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and at Ser(386), catalyzed by the C-terminal kinase, after its activation by ERK. In addition, the N-terminal kinase must be phosphorylated at Ser(227) in the activation loop by an as yet unidentified kinase. Here, we show that the isolated N-terminal kinase of RSK2 (amino acids 1-360) is phosphorylated at Ser(227) by PDK1, a constitutively active kinase, leading to 100-fold stimulation of kinase activity. In COS7 cells, ectopic PDK1 induced the phosphorylation of full-length RSK2 at Ser(227) and Ser(386), without involvement of ERK, leading to partial activation of RSK2. Similarly, two other members of the RSK family, RSK1 and RSK3, were partially activated by PDK1 in COS7 cells. Finally, our data indicate that full activation of RSK2 by growth factor requires the cooperation of ERK and PDK1 through phosphorylation of Ser(227), Ser(369), and Ser(386). Our study extend recent findings which implicate PDK1 in the activation of protein kinases B and C and p70(S6K), suggesting that PDK1 controls several major growth factor-activated signal transduction pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;38;27168-76

  • NF-kappaB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires the Akt serine-threonine kinase.

    Ozes ON, Mayo LD, Gustin JA, Pfeffer SR, Pfeffer LM and Donner DB

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, the Walther Oncology Center, Indianapolis 46202, USA.

    Activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB by inflammatory cytokines requires the successive action of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and an IKB-kinase (IKK) complex composed of IKKalpha and IKKbeta. Here we show that the Akt serine-threonine kinase is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF activates phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and its downstream target Akt (protein kinase B). Wortmannin (a PI(3)K inhibitor), dominant-negative PI(3)K or kinase-dead Akt inhibits TNF-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Constitutively active Akt induces NF-kappaB activity and this effect is blocked by dominant-negative NIK. Conversely, NIK activates NF-kappaB and this is blocked by kinase-dead Akt. Thus, both Akt and NIK are necessary for TNF activation of NF-kappaB. Akt mediates IKKalpha phosphorylation at threonine 23. Mutation of this amino acid blocks phosphorylation by Akt or TNF and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings indicate that Akt is part of a signalling pathway that is necessary for inducing key immune and inflammatory responses.

    Nature 1999;401;6748;82-5

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-241 is essential for the activity of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1: identification of five sites of phosphorylation in vivo.

    Casamayor A, Morrice NA and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U.K.

    3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) expressed in unstimulated 293 cells was phosphorylated at Ser-25, Ser-241, Ser-393, Ser-396 and Ser-410 and the level of phosphorylation of each site was unaffected by stimulation with insulin-like growth factor-1. Mutation of Ser-241 to Ala abolished PDK1 activity, whereas mutation of the other phosphorylation sites individually to Ala did not affect PDK1 activity. Ser-241, unlike the other phosphorylation sites on PDK1, was resistant to dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A(1). Ser-241 lies in the activation loop of the PDK1 kinase domain between subdomains VII and VIII in the equivalent position to the site that PDK1 phosphorylates on its protein kinase substrates. PDK1 expressed in bacteria was active and phosphorylated at Ser-241, suggesting that PDK1 can phosphorylate itself at this site, leading to its own activation.

    The Biochemical journal 1999;342 ( Pt 2);287-92

  • A PDK1 homolog is necessary and sufficient to transduce AGE-1 PI3 kinase signals that regulate diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Paradis S, Ailion M, Toker A, Thomas JH and Ruvkun G

    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    An insulin receptor-like signaling pathway regulates Caenorhabditis elegans metabolism, development, and longevity. Inactivation of the insulin receptor homolog DAF-2, the AGE-1 PI3K, or the AKT-1 and AKT-2 kinases causes a developmental arrest at the dauer stage. A null mutation in the daf-16 Fork head transcription factor alleviates the requirement for signaling through this pathway. We show here that a loss-of-function mutation in pdk-1, the C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Akt/PKB kinase PDK1, results in constitutive arrest at the dauer stage and increased life span; these phenotypes are suppressed by a loss of function mutation in daf-16. An activating mutation in pdk-1 or overexpression of wild-type pdk-1 relieves the requirement for AGE-1 PI3K signaling. Therefore, pdk-1 activity is both necessary and sufficient to propagate AGE-1 PI3K signals in the DAF-2 insulin receptor-like signaling pathway. The activating mutation in pdk-1 requires akt-1 and akt-2 gene activity in order to suppress the dauer arrest phenotype of age-1. This indicates that the major function of C. elegans PDK1 is to transduce signals from AGE-1 to AKT-1 and AKT-2. The activating pdk-1 mutation is located in a conserved region of the kinase domain; the equivalent amino acid substitution in human PDK1 activates its kinase activity toward mammalian Akt/PKB.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA075134, R01CA75134; NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG014161, R01AG14161

    Genes & development 1999;13;11;1438-52

  • Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a target of the PI 3-kinase-stimulated signaling pathway.

    Park J, Leong ML, Buse P, Maiyar AC, Firestone GL and Hemmings BA

    Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

    Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a novel member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family that is transcriptionally regulated. In this study, we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms that control SGK activity. We have established a peptide kinase assay for SGK and present evidence demonstrating that SGK is a component of the phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase signaling pathway. Treatment of human embryo kidney 293 cells with insulin, IGF-1 or pervanadate induced a 3- to 12-fold activation of ectopically expressed SGK. Activation was completely abolished by pretreatment of cells with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Treatment of activated SGK with protein phosphatase 2A in vitro led to kinase inactivation. Consistent with the similarity of SGK to other second-messenger regulated kinases, mutation of putative phosphorylation sites at Thr256 and Ser422 inhibited SGK activation. Cotransfection of PDK1 with SGK caused a 6-fold activation of SGK activity, whereas kinase-dead PDK1 caused no activation. GST-pulldown assays revealed a direct interaction between PDK1 and the catalytic domain of SGK. Treatment of rat mammary tumor cells with serum caused hyperphosphorylation of endogenous SGK, and promoted translocation to the nucleus. Both hyperphosphorylation and nuclear translocation could be inhibited by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-71514

    The EMBO journal 1999;18;11;3024-33

  • PDK1 acquires PDK2 activity in the presence of a synthetic peptide derived from the carboxyl terminus of PRK2.

    Balendran A, Casamayor A, Deak M, Paterson A, Gaffney P, Currie R, Downes CP and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

    Background: Protein kinase B (PKB) is activated by phosphorylation of Thr308 and of Ser473. Thr308 is phosphorylated by the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) but the identity of the kinase that phosphorylates Ser473 (provisionally termed PDK2) is unknown.

    Results: The kinase domain of PDK1 interacts with a region of protein kinase C-related kinase-2 (PRK2), termed the PDK1-interacting fragment (PIF). PIF is situated carboxy-terminal to the kinase domain of PRK2, and contains a consensus motif for phosphorylation by PDK2 similar to that found in PKBalpha, except that the residue equivalent to Ser473 is aspartic acid. Mutation of any of the conserved residues in the PDK2 motif of PIF prevented interaction of PIF with PDK1. Remarkably, interaction of PDK1 with PIF, or with a synthetic peptide encompassing the PDK2 consensus sequence of PIF, converted PDK1 from an enzyme that could phosphorylate only Thr308 of PKBalpha to one that phosphorylates both Thr308 and Ser473 of PKBalpha in a manner dependent on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3). Furthermore, the interaction of PIF with PDK1 converted the PDK1 from a form that is not directly activated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to a form that is activated threefold by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. We have partially purified a kinase from brain extract that phosphorylates Ser473 of PKBalpha in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and that is immunoprecipitated with PDK1 antibodies.

    Conclusions: PDK1 and PDK2 might be the same enzyme, the substrate specificity and activity of PDK1 being regulated through its interaction with another protein(s). PRK2 is a probable substrate for PDK1.

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;8;393-404

  • Activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase by agonists that activate phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase is mediated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and PDK2.

    Kobayashi T and Cohen P

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, MSI/WTB Complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. tkobayashi@bad.dundee.ac.uk

    The PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinases-1 and -2 (PDK1 and PDK2 respectively) is a key event in mediating the effects of signals that activate PtdIns 3-kinase. The catalytic domain of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is 54% identical with that of PKB and, although lacking the PtdIns(3,4, 5)P3-binding pleckstrin-homology domain, SGK retains the residues that are phosphorylated by PDK1 and PDK2, which are Thr256 and Ser422 in SGK. Here we show that PDK1 activates SGK in vitro by phosphorylating Thr256. We also show that, in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or hydrogen peroxide, transfected SGK is activated in 293 cells via a PtdIns 3-kinase-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of Thr256 and Ser422. The activation of SGK by PDK1 in vitro is unaffected by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, abolished by the mutation of Ser422 to Ala, and greatly potentiated by mutation of Ser422 to Asp (although this mutation does not activate SGK itself). Consistent with these findings, the Ser422Asp mutant of SGK is activated by phosphorylation (probably at Thr256) in unstimulated 293 cells, and activation is unaffected by inhibitors of PtdIns 3-kinase. Our results are consistent with a model in which activation of SGK by IGF-1 or hydrogen peroxide is initiated by a PtdIns(3,4, 5)P3-dependent activation of PDK2, which phosphorylates Ser422. This is followed by the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-independent phosphorylation at Thr256 that activates SGK, and is catalysed by PDK1. Like PKB, SGK preferentially phosphorylates serine and threonine residues that lie in Arg-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser/Thr motifs, and SGK and PKB inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3 similarly in vitro and in co-transfection experiments. These findings raise the possibility that some physiological roles ascribed to PKB on the basis of the overexpression of constitutively active PKB mutants might be mediated by SGK.

    The Biochemical journal 1999;339 ( Pt 2);319-28

  • Role of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in regulating the activity and localization of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1.

    Currie RA, Walker KS, Gray A, Deak M, Casamayor A, Downes CP, Cohen P, Alessi DR and Lucocq J

    Department of Biochemistry, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U.K. racurrie@bad.dundee.ac.uk

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) interacts stereoselectively with the d-enantiomer of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (KD 1.6 nM) and PtdIns(3,4)P2 (KD 5.2 nM), but binds with lower affinity to PtdIns3P or PtdIns(4,5)P2. The binding of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to PDK1 was greatly decreased by making specific mutations in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PDK1 or by deleting it. The same mutations also greatly decreased the rate at which PDK1 activated protein kinase Balpha (PKBalpha) in vitro in the presence of lipid vesicles containing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but did not affect the rate at which PDK1 activated a PKBalpha mutant lacking the PH domain in the absence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. When overexpressed in 293 or PAE cells, PDK1 was located at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol, but was excluded from the nucleus. Mutations that disrupted the interaction of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PtdIns(4,5)P2 with PDK1 abolished the association of PDK1 with the plasma membrane. Growth-factor stimulation promoted the translocation of transfected PKBalpha to the plasma membrane, but had no effect on the subcellular distribution of PDK1 as judged by immunoelectron microscopy of fixed cells. This conclusion was also supported by confocal microscopy of green fluorescent protein-PDK1 in live cells. These results, together with previous observations, indicate that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 plays several roles in the PDK1-induced activation of PKBalpha. First, it binds to the PH domain of PKB, altering its conformation so that it can be activated by PDK1. Secondly, interaction with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 recruits PKB to the plasma membrane with which PDK1 is localized constitutively by virtue of its much stronger interaction with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PtdIns(4,5)P2. Thirdly, the interaction of PDK1 with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 facilitates the rate at which it can activate PKB.

    The Biochemical journal 1999;337 ( Pt 3);575-83

  • Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation.

    Cardone MH, Roy N, Stennicke HR, Salvesen GS, Franke TF, Stanbridge E, Frisch S and Reed JC

    Program on Apoptosis and Cell Death Research, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Caspases are intracellular proteases that function as initiators and effectors of apoptosis. The kinase Akt and p21-Ras, an Akt activator, induced phosphorylation of pro-caspase-9 (pro-Casp9) in cells. Cytochrome c-induced proteolytic processing of pro-Casp9 was defective in cytosolic extracts from cells expressing either active Ras or Akt. Akt phosphorylated recombinant Casp9 in vitro on serine-196 and inhibited its protease activity. Mutant pro-Casp9(Ser196Ala) was resistant to Akt-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition in vitro and in cells, resulting in Akt-resistant induction of apoptosis. Thus, caspases can be directly regulated by protein phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-69381, CA-69515

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;282;5392;1318-21

  • Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1.

    Le Good JA, Ziegler WH, Parekh DB, Alessi DR, Cohen P and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.

    Phosphorylation sites in members of the protein kinase A (PKA), PKG, and PKC kinase subfamily are conserved. Thus, the PKB kinase PDK1 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of PKC isotypes. PDK1 phosphorylated the activation loop sites of PKCzeta and PKCdelta in vitro and in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent manner in vivo in human embryonic kidney (293) cells. All members of the PKC family tested formed complexes with PDK1. PDK1-dependent phosphorylation of PKCdelta in vitro was stimulated by combined PKC and PDK1 activators. The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;281;5385;2042-5

  • Regulation of protein kinase C zeta by PI 3-kinase and PDK-1.

    Chou MM, Hou W, Johnson J, Graham LK, Lee MH, Chen CS, Newton AC, Schaffhausen BS and Toker A

    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

    Background: Protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) is a member of the PKC family of enzymes and is involved in a wide range of physiological processes including mitogenesis, protein synthesis, cell survival and transcriptional regulation. PKC zeta has received considerable attention recently as a target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), although the mechanism of PKC zeta activation is, as yet, unknown. Recent reports have also shown that the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), which binds with high affinity to the PI 3-kinase lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ptdins-3,4,5-P3), phosphorylates and potently activates two other PI 3-kinase targets, the protein kinases Akt/PKB and p70S6K. We therefore investigated whether PDK-1 is the kinase that activates PKC zeta.

    Results: In vivo, PI 3-kinase is both necessary and sufficient to activate PKC zeta. PDK-1 phosphorylates and activates PKC zeta in vivo, and we have shown that this is due to phosphorylation of threonine 410 in the PKC zeta activation loop. In vitro, PDK-1 phosphorylates and activates PKC zeta in a Ptdins-3,4,5-P3-enhanced manner. PKC zeta and PDK-1 are associated in vivo, and membrane targeting of PKC zeta renders it constitutively active in cells.

    Conclusions: Our results have identified PDK-1 as the kinase that phosphorylates and activates PKC zeta in the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway. This phosphorylation and activation of PKC zeta by PDK-1 is enhanced in the presence of Ptdins-3,4-5-P3. Consistent with the notion that PKCs are enzymes that are regulated at the plasma membrane, a membrane-targeted PKC zeta is constitutively active in the absence of agonist stimulation. The association between PKC zeta and PDK-1 reveals extensive cross-talk between enzymes in the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;19;1069-77

  • Translocation of PDK-1 to the plasma membrane is important in allowing PDK-1 to activate protein kinase B.

    Anderson KE, Coadwell J, Stephens LR and Hawkins PT

    Department of Signalling, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK. karen.anderson@bbsrc.ac.uk

    Background: Protein kinase B (PKB) is involved in the regulation of apoptosis, protein synthesis and glycogen metabolism in mammalian cells. Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK-1) activates PKB in a manner dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), which is also needed for the translocation of PKB to the plasma membrane. It has been proposed that the amount of PKB activated is determined exclusively as a result of its translocation, and that a constitutively active pool of membrane-associated PDK-1 simply phosphorylates all the PKB made available. Here, we have investigated the effects of membrane localisation of PDK-1 on PKB activation.

    Results: Ectopically expressed PDK-1 translocated to the plasma membrane in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and translocation was sensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Translocation of PDK-1 also occurred upon its co-expression with constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinase, but not with an inactive form. Overexpression of PDK-1 enhanced the ability of PDGF to activate PKB. PDK-1 disrupted in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain which did not translocate to the membrane did not increase PKB activity in response to PDGF, whereas membrane-targeted PDK-1 activated PKB to the extent that it could not be activated further by PDGF.

    Conclusions: In response to PDGF, binding of Ptdlns (3,4,5)P3 and/or Ptdlns(3,4)P2 to the PH domain of PDK-1 causes its translocation to the plasma membrane where it co-localises with PKB, significantly contributing to the scale of PKB activation.

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;12;684-91

  • Activation of protein kinase B beta and gamma isoforms by insulin in vivo and by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 in vitro: comparison with protein kinase B alpha.

    Walker KS, Deak M, Paterson A, Hudson K, Cohen P and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, U.K. kswalker@BAD.dundee.ac.uk

    The regulatory and catalytic properties of the three mammalian isoforms of protein kinase B (PKB) have been compared. All three isoforms (PKBalpha, PKBbeta and PKBgamma) were phosphorylated at similar rates and activated to similar extents by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Phosphorylation and activation of each enzyme required the presence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PtdIns(3,4)P2, as well as PDK1. The activation of PKBbeta and PKBgamma by PDK1 was accompanied by the phosphorylation of the residues equivalent to Thr308 in PKBalpha, namely Thr309 (PKBbeta) and Thr305 (PKBgamma). PKBgamma which had been activated by PDK1 possessed a substrate specificity identical with that of PKBalpha and PKBbeta towards a range of peptides. The activation of PKBgamma and its phosphorylation at Thr305 was triggered by insulin-like growth factor-1 in 293 cells. Stimulation of rat adipocytes or rat hepatocytes with insulin induced the activation of PKBalpha and PKBbeta with similar kinetics. After stimulation of adipocytes, the activity of PKBbeta was twice that of PKBalpha, but in hepatocytes PKBalpha activity was four-fold higher than PKBbeta. Insulin induced the activation of PKBalpha in rat skeletal muscle in vivo, with little activation of PKBbeta. Insulin did not induce PKBgamma activity in adipocytes, hepatocytes or skeletal muscle, but PKBgamma was the major isoform activated by insulin in rat L6 myotubes (a skeletal-muscle cell line).

    The Biochemical journal 1998;331 ( Pt 1);299-308

  • Phosphorylation and activation of p70s6k by PDK1.

    Pullen N, Dennis PB, Andjelkovic M, Dufner A, Kozma SC, Hemmings BA and Thomas G

    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058, Basel, Switzerland.

    Activation of the protein p70s6k by mitogens leads to increased translation of a family of messenger RNAs that encode essential components of the protein synthetic apparatus. Activation of the kinase requires hierarchical phosphorylation at multiple sites, culminating in the phosphorylation of the threonine in position 229 (Thr229), in the catalytic domain. The homologous site in protein kinase B (PKB), Thr308, has been shown to be phosphorylated by the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase PDK1. A regulatory link between p70s6k and PKB was demonstrated, as PDK1 was found to selectively phosphorylate p70s6k at Thr229. More importantly, PDK1 activated p70s6k in vitro and in vivo, whereas the catalytically inactive PDK1 blocked insulin-induced activation of p70s6k.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;279;5351;707-10

  • Protein kinase B kinases that mediate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent activation of protein kinase B.

    Stephens L, Anderson K, Stokoe D, Erdjument-Bromage H, Painter GF, Holmes AB, Gaffney PR, Reese CB, McCormick F, Tempst P, Coadwell J and Hawkins PT

    Inositide Laboratory, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK.

    Protein kinase B (PKB) is activated in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinases and their lipid products phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] and PtdIns(3,4)P2 in the signaling pathways used by a wide variety of growth factors, antigens, and inflammatory stimuli. PKB is a direct target of these lipids, but this regulation is complex. The lipids can bind to the pleckstrin homologous domain of PKB, causing its translocation to the membrane, and also enable upstream, Thr308-directed kinases to phosphorylate and activate PKB. Four isoforms of these PKB kinases were purified from sheep brain. They bound PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and associated with lipid vesicles containing it. These kinases contain an NH2-terminal catalytic domain and a COOH-terminal pleckstrin homologous domain, and their heterologous expression augments receptor activation of PKB, which suggests they are the primary signal transducers that enable PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PtdIns- (3,4)P2 to activate PKB and hence to control signaling pathways regulating cell survival, glucose uptake, and glycogen metabolism.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;279;5351;710-4

  • Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/p90rsk that are inducible by MAPK.

    Dalby KN, Morrice N, Caudwell FB, Avruch J and Cohen P

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPKAP-K1; also known as p90rsk) contains two protein kinase domains in a single polypeptide. The N-terminal kinase domain is necessary for the phosphorylation of peptide substrates, whereas the C-terminal kinase domain is required for full activation of the N-terminal domain. Here we identify six sites in MAPKAP-K1a that become phosphorylated in transfected COS-1 cells. The inactive form of MAPKAP-K1a in unstimulated cells is partially phosphorylated at Ser222 and Ser733. Stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces the phosphorylation of Thr360, Ser364, Thr574, and Ser381 and increases the phosphorylation of Ser222 and Ser733. Our data indicate that mitogen-activated protein kinase activates the C-terminal kinase domain by phosphorylating Thr574 and contributes to the activation of the N-terminal kinase domain by phosphorylating Ser364. The activated C-terminal domain phosphorylates Ser381, which, together with phosphorylation of Ser364, activates the N-terminal kinase domain. The phosphorylation of Ser222 and Ser733, which can be catalyzed by the N-terminal domain, does not activate MAPKAP-K1a per se, but Ser222 phosphorylation appears to be required for activation. Ser222, Ser364, and Ser381 are situated in analogous positions to phosphorylation sites in protein kinase B, protein kinase C, and p70S6K, suggesting a common mechanism of activation for these growth factor-stimulated protein kinases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;3;1496-505

  • 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylates and activates the p70 S6 kinase in vivo and in vitro.

    Alessi DR, Kozlowski MT, Weng QP, Morrice N and Avruch J

    Department of Biochemistry, MRC Phosphorylation Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

    Background: The p70 S6 kinase, an enzyme critical for cell-cycle progression through the G1 phase, is activated in vivo by insulin and mitogens through coordinate phosphorylation at multiple sites, regulated by signaling pathways, some of which depend on and some of which are independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Pl 3-kinase). It is not known which protein kinases phosphorylate and activate p70.

    Results: Co-expression of p70 with 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a protein kinase that has previously been shown to phosphorylate and activate protein kinase B (PKB, also known as c-Akt), resulted in strong activation of the S6 kinase in vivo. In vitro, PDK1 directly phosphorylated Thr252 in the activation loop of the p70 catalytic domain, the phosphorylation of which is stimulated by PI 3-kinase in vivo and is indispensable for p70 activity. Whereas PDK1-catalyzed phosphorylation and activation of PKB in vitro was highly dependent on the presence of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ptdlns (3,4,5)P3), PDK1 catalyzed rapid phosphorylation and activation of p70 in vitro, independent of the presence of Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3. The ability of PDK1 to phosphorylate p70 Thr252 was strongly dependent on the phosphorylation of the p70 noncatalytic carboxy-terminal tail (amino acids 422-525) and of amino acid Thr412. Moreover, once Thr252 was phosphorylated, its ability to cause activation of the p70 S6 kinase was also controlled by the p70 carboxy-terminal tail and by phosphorylation of p70 Ser394, and most importantly, Thr412. The overriding determinant of the absolute p70 activity was the strong positive cooperativity between Thr252 and Thr412 phosphorylation; both sites must be phosphorylated to achieve substantial p70 activation.

    Conclusions: PDK1 is one of the components of the signaling pathway recruited by Pl 3-kinase for the activation of p70 S6 kinase as well as of PKB, and serves as a multifunctional effector downstream of the Pl 3-kinase.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK17776

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;2;69-81

  • Mitogenic activation, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of protein kinase Bbeta.

    Meier R, Alessi DR, Cron P, Andjelković M and Hemmings BA

    Friedrich Miescher Institute, P. O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

    Protein kinase B (PKB) is a member of the second messenger-dependent family of serine/threonine kinases that has been implicated in signaling pathways downstream of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Here we report the characterization of the human beta-isoform of PKB (PKBbeta). PKBbeta is ubiquitously expressed in a number of human tissues, with mRNA and protein levels elevated in heart, liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney. After transfection into HEK-293 or COS-1 cells, PKBbeta is activated 2- to 12-fold by mitogens and survival factors. Activation was due to phosphorylation on Thr-309 and Ser-474, which correspond to Thr-308 and Ser-473 implicated in the regulation of PKBalpha. Both phosphorylation and activation were prevented by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Moreover, membrane-targeted PKBbeta was constitutively activated when overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. Although the specific activity of PKBbeta was lower than that of PKBalpha toward Crosstide as a substrate (23 nmol/min/mg compared with 178 nmol/min/mg for PKBalpha), both enzymes showed similar substrate specificities. Using confocal microscopy, we show that activation of PKBbeta results in its nuclear translocation within 20 to 30 min after stimulation. These observations provide evidence that PKBbeta undergoes nuclear translocation upon mitogenic activation and support a role for PKB in signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases to the nucleus through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;48;30491-7

  • Further evidence that the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta by IGF-1 is mediated by PDK1/PKB-induced phosphorylation of Ser-9 and not by dephosphorylation of Tyr-216.

    Shaw M, Cohen P and Alessi DR

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK.

    293 cells were transfected with wild-type GSK3beta (WT-GSK3beta) or a mutant in which the PKB phosphorylation site (Ser-9) was altered to Ala (A9-GSK3beta). Upon stimulation with IGF-1 or insulin, WT-GSK3beta was inhibited 75% or 60%, respectively, whereas the activity of the A9-GSK3beta mutant was unaffected. Incubation of WT-GSK3beta with PP2A1 (a Ser/Thr-specific phosphatase) completely reversed the IGF-1- or insulin-induced inhibition. IGF-1 stimulation did not induce any tyrosine dephosphorylation of WT-GSK3beta or A9-GSK3beta. Coexpression of WT-GSK3beta in 293 cells with either PKB alpha (also known as AKT) or PDK1 (the 'upstream' activator of PKB) mimicked the IGF-1- or insulin-induced phosphorylation of Ser-9 and inactivation of GSK3beta.

    FEBS letters 1997;416;3;307-11

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt.

    del Peso L, González-García M, Page C, Herrera R and Nuñez G

    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    BAD is a distant member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death. Phosphorylation of BAD prevents this. BAD phosphorylation induced by interleukin-3 (IL-3) was inhibited by specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Akt, a survival-promoting serine-threonine protein kinase, was activated by IL-3 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. Active, but not inactive, forms of Akt were found to phosphorylate BAD in vivo and in vitro at the same residues that are phosphorylated in response to IL-3. Thus, the proapoptotic function of BAD is regulated by the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-64556

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1997;278;5338;687-9

  • 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1): structural and functional homology with the Drosophila DSTPK61 kinase.

    Alessi DR, Deak M, Casamayor A, Caudwell FB, Morrice N, Norman DG, Gaffney P, Reese CB, MacDougall CN, Harbison D, Ashworth A and Bownes M

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK. dralessi@bad.dundee.ac.uk

    Background: The activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as c-Akt) is stimulated by insulin or growth factors and results from its phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. We recently identified a protein kinase, termed PDK1, that phosphorylates PKB at Thr308 only in the presence of lipid vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3) or phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (Ptdlns(3,4)P2).

    Results: We have cloned and sequenced human PDK1. The 556-residue monomeric enzyme comprises a catalytic domain that is most similar to the PKA, PKB and PKC subfamily of protein kinases and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The PDK1 gene is located on human chromosome 16p13.3 and is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. Human PDK1 is homologous to the Drosophila protein kinase DSTPK61, which has been implicated in the regulation of sex differentiation, oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Expressed PDK1 and DSTPK61 phosphorylated Thr308 of PKB alpha only in the presence of Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3 or Ptdlns(3,4)P2. Overexpression of PDK1 in 293 cells activated PKB alpha and potentiated the IGF1-induced phosphorylation of PKB alpha at Thr308. Experiments in which the PH domains of either PDK1 or PKB alpha were deleted indicated that the binding of Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3 or Ptdlns(3,4)P2 to PKB alpha is required for phosphorylation and activation by PDK1. IGF1 stimulation of 293 cells did not affect the activity or phosphorylation of PDK1.

    Conclusions: PDK1 is likely to mediate the activation of PKB by insulin or growth factors. DSTPK61 is a Drosophila homologue of PDK1. The effect of Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3/Ptdlns(3,4)P2 in the activation of PKB alpha is at least partly substrate directed.

    Current biology : CB 1997;7;10;776-89

  • Dual requirement for a newly identified phosphorylation site in p70s6k.

    Moser BA, Dennis PB, Pullen N, Pearson RB, Williamson NA, Wettenhall RE, Kozma SC and Thomas G

    Department of Growth Control, Friedrich Miescher Institut, Basel, Switzerland.

    The activation of p70s6k is associated with multiple phosphorylations at two sets of sites. The first set, S411, S418, T421, and S424, reside within the autoinhibitory domain, and each contains a hydrophobic residue at -2 and a proline at +1. The second set of sites, T229 (in the catalytic domain) and T389 and S404 (in the linker region), are rapamycin sensitive and flanked by bulky aromatic residues. Here we describe the identification and mutational analysis of three new phosphorylation sites, T367, S371, and T447, all of which have a recognition motif similar to that of the first set of sites. A mutation of T367 or T447 to either alanine or glutamic acid had no apparent effect on p70s6k activity, whereas similar mutations of S371 abolished kinase activity. Of these three sites and their surrounding motifs, only S371 is conserved in p70s6k homologs from Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as many members of the protein kinase C family. Serum stimulation increased S371 phosphorylation; unlike the situation for specific members of the protein kinase C family, where the homologous site is regulated by autophosphorylation, S371 phosphorylation is regulated by an external mechanism. Phosphopeptide analysis of S371 mutants further revealed that the loss of activity in these variants was paralleled by a block in serum-induced T389 phosphorylation, a phosphorylation site previously shown to be essential for kinase activity. Nevertheless, the substitution of an acidic residue at T389, which mimics phosphorylation at this site, did not rescue mutant p70s6k activity, indicating that S371 phosphorylation plays an independent role in regulating intrinsic kinase activity.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1997;17;9;5648-55

  • Characterization of a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Balpha.

    Alessi DR, James SR, Downes CP, Holmes AB, Gaffney PR, Reese CB and Cohen P

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN, Scotland. dralessi@bad.dundee.ac.uk

    Background: Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as c-Akt, is activated rapidly when mammalian cells are stimulated with insulin and growth factors, and much of the current interest in this enzyme stems from the observation that it lies 'downstream' of phosphoinositide 3-kinase on intracellular signalling pathways. We recently showed that insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 induce the phosphorylation of PKB at two residues, Thr308 and Ser473. The phosphorylation of both residues is required for maximal activation of PKB. The kinases that phosphorylate PKB are, however, unknown.

    Results: We have purified 500 000-fold from rabbit skeletal muscle extracts a protein kinase which phosphorylates PKBalpha at Thr308 and increases its activity over 30-fold. We tested the kinase in the presence of several inositol phospholipids and found that only low micromolar concentrations of the D enantiomers of either phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) or PtdIns(3,4)P2 were effective in potently activating the kinase, which has been named PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). None of the inositol phospholipids tested activated or inhibited PKBalpha or induced its phosphorylation under the conditions used. PDK1 activity was not affected by wortmannin, indicating that it is not likely to be a member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase family. CONLCUSIONS: PDK1 is likely to be one of the protein kinases that mediate the activation of PKB by insulin and growth factors. PDK1 may, therefore, play a key role in mediating many of the actions of the second messenger(s) PtdIns(3,4, 5)P3 and/or PtdIns(3,4)P2.

    Current biology : CB 1997;7;4;261-9

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000035 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H4 Human orthologues of cluster 4 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 8
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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