G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
plexin A1
G00000112 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000114554 (Ensembl human gene)
5361 (Entrez Gene)
449 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PLXNA1 (GeneCards)
601055 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9099 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UIW2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • NOV

Literature (22)

Pubmed - other

  • Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling.

    Trynka G, Zhernakova A, Romanos J, Franke L, Hunt KA, Turner G, Bruinenberg M, Heap GA, Platteel M, Ryan AW, de Kovel C, Holmes GK, Howdle PD, Walters JR, Sanders DS, Mulder CJ, Mearin ML, Verbeek WH, Trimble V, Stevens FM, Kelleher D, Barisani D, Bardella MT, McManus R, van Heel DA and Wijmenga C

    Genetics Department, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Objective: Our previous coeliac disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) implicated risk variants in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region and eight novel risk regions. To identify more coeliac disease loci, we selected 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed more modest association in the GWAS for genotyping and analysis in four independent cohorts.

    Design: 458 SNPs were assayed in 1682 cases and 3258 controls from three populations (UK, Irish and Dutch). We combined the results with the original GWAS cohort (767 UK cases and 1422 controls); six SNPs showed association with p<1 x 10(-04) and were then genotyped in an independent Italian coeliac cohort (538 cases and 593 controls).

    Results: We identified two novel coeliac disease risk regions: 6q23.3 (OLIG3-TNFAIP3) and 2p16.1 (REL), both of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis of all 2987 cases and 5273 controls (rs2327832 p = 1.3 x 10(-08), and rs842647 p = 5.2 x 10(-07)). We investigated the expression of these genes in the RNA isolated from biopsies and from whole blood RNA. We did not observe any changes in gene expression, nor in the correlation of genotype with gene expression.

    Conclusions: Both TNFAIP3 (A20, at the protein level) and REL are key mediators in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inflammatory signalling pathway. For the first time, a role for primary heritable variation in this important biological pathway predisposing to coeliac disease has been identified. Currently, the HLA risk factors and the 10 established non-HLA risk factors explain approximately 40% of the heritability of coeliac disease.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: G0000934; Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02, GR068094MA

    Gut 2009;58;8;1078-83

  • Expression and function of semaphorin 3A and its receptors in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Ji JD, Park-Min KH and Ivashkiv LB

    Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

    Semaphorins are a large family of secreted and membrane-bound proteins. Recently, several roles of semaphorins in the immune system have emerged. Several semaphorins and their receptors are expressed in a variety of lymphoid and myeloid cells and affect immune cell functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, and cytokine production. However, the roles of class 3 semaphorins in human myeloid cells are not well known. Here we examined the regulation of expression of class 3 semaphorins and their receptors by inflammatory stimuli and their function in human macrophages. We show that the expression of Sema3A receptors (neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), NRP-2, plexin A1, plexin A2, and plexin A3) significantly increased during M-CSF-mediated differentiation of monocytes into macrophages under conditions that promote an M2 alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Consistent with increased NRP-1 expression, cell surface binding of Sema3A increased during M2 differentiation. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, which promote classical M1 macrophage activation affected expression of NRP-1, NRP-2 and plexin A1. IFN-gamma decreased NRP-1 expression and LPS suppressed NRP-2 and plexin A1 expression. Furthermore we show that Sema3A induced apoptosis in monocyte-derived macrophages and cooperated with anti-Fas CH11 antibody to augment apoptosis. Our results suggest that Sema3A plays a role in induction of apoptosis in monocyte-derived macrophages that are resistant to Fas-induced apoptosis, and that its function can be modulated in inflammatory conditions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI046712

    Human immunology 2009;70;4;211-7

  • The plexin-A1 receptor activates vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 2 and nuclear factor-kappaB to mediate survival and anchorage-independent growth of malignant mesothelioma cells.

    Catalano A, Lazzarini R, Di Nuzzo S, Orciari S and Procopio A

    Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Marche University, Ancona, Italy. a.catalano@univpm.it

    The semaphorins and their receptors, the neuropilins and the plexins, are constituents of a complex regulatory system that controls axonal guidance. Moreover, many types of tumor cells express various members of semaphorins and receptors, but the biological activities within tumor mass and the signal transduction mechanism(s) they use are largely unknown. Here, we show that in asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), Semaphorin-6D (Sema6D) and its receptor plexin-A1 are frequently expressed and trigger a prosurvival program that promotes anchorage-independent growth of MPM cells. Interestingly, the same response is also controlled by the tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent pathway. We found that in MPM cells, plexin-A1 and VEGF-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) are associated in a complex. Moreover, the presence of Sema6D promotes the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF-R2 in a plexin-A1-dependent manner. This is necessary for basal and Sema6D-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, and NF-kappaB mediates tumor cell survival. Expression of Sema6D and plexin-A1 is induced by asbestos fibers and overexpression of plexin-A1 in nonmalignant mesothelial cells inhibits cell death after asbestos exposure. This work identifies a new biological function of semaphorins in cancer cells and suggests the involvement of an undescribed survival pathway during MPM tumorigenesis.

    Cancer research 2009;69;4;1485-93

  • PlexinA1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with tumor angiogenesis and proliferation.

    Zhao XY, Chen L, Li YH and Xu Q

    Department of General Surgery, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China.

    Aim: To explore the expression of PlexinA1 in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with tumor angiogenesis and proliferation.

    Methods: PlexinA1 mRNA and protein expressions of Semaphorin6D were measured using semi-quantity reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting in 20 cases of gastric carcinoma and corresponding normal gastric mucosa. PlexinA1, Ki-67 expression and microvessel density (MVD) were detected by immunohistochemistry in 50 cases of gastric carcinoma and 20 cases of normal gastric mucosa.

    Results: The mRNA and protein expressions of PlexinA1 in gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa (0.71 +/- 0.37 vs 0.60 +/- 0.25, P = 0.0299 < 0.05, and 0.47 +/- 0.16 vs 0.21 +/- 0.08, P = 0.0000 < 0.01), and MVD within tumor tissues increased significantly with PlexinA1 mRNA expression (r =0.8736, P < 0.01) and PlexinA1 protein expression (r = 0.7286, P < 0.01), and MVD of the PlexinA1 positive staining group (25.25 +/- 3.93) was significantly higher than that of the negative group (19.56 +/- 1.75), (P < 0.01). Proliferation index of tumor cells within tumor tissues were positively correlated with PlexinA1 mRNA expression (r = 0.5420, P = 0.014 < 0.01) and PlexinA1 protein expression (r = 0.5024, P = 0.024 < 0.05). The proliferation index of the PlexinA1 positive staining group (567.69 +/- 125.61) was significantly higher than that of the negative group (369.58 +/- 116.88), (P < 0.01).

    Conclusion: PlexinA1 may play an important role in the occurrence and development of gastric carcinoma, and be related to tumor angiogenesis and proliferation.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2007;13;48;6558-61

  • [Expression of Plexin A1 in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with tumor angiogenesis and proliferation].

    Zhao XY, Chen L, Xu Q and Li YH

    Department of General Surgery, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853, China.

    Objective: To investigate the expression of Plexin A1 in gastric cancer(GC) and its relationship with angiogenesis and proliferation of GC.

    Methods: Plexin A1 mRNA expression in 20 cases of GC specimens and matched resected normal gastric tissue were examined by RT-PCR. Plexin A1, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) protein expression and microvessel density (MVD) in 50 cases of GC specimens and 20 cases of normal gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry.

    Results: RT-PCR showed that the expression of Plexin A1 in GC was significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa(0.71 +/- 0.37 vs 0.60 +/- 0.25, P < 0.05). MVD within tumor tissue increased significantly with Plexin A1 mRNA expression(r=0.8736, P < 0.01) and Plexin A1 protein expression (P < 0.01). The Plexin A1 expression was positively correlated with the proliferation index (Ki-67) of cancer cells (r=0.4851, P < 0.01). However, the Plexin A1 expression level had no relationship with the VEGF expression level.

    Conclusion: Plexin A1 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of GC. Plexin A1 may regulate angiogenesis, and promote the proliferation of GC cells.

    Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 2007;10;3;265-8

  • Plexin-A1 and its interaction with DAP12 in immune responses and bone homeostasis.

    Takegahara N, Takamatsu H, Toyofuku T, Tsujimura T, Okuno T, Yukawa K, Mizui M, Yamamoto M, Prasad DV, Suzuki K, Ishii M, Terai K, Moriya M, Nakatsuji Y, Sakoda S, Sato S, Akira S, Takeda K, Inui M, Takai T, Ikawa M, Okabe M, Kumanogoh A and Kikutani H

    Department of Molecular Immunology and CREST program of JST, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Semaphorins and their receptors have diverse functions in axon guidance, organogenesis, vascularization and/or angiogenesis, oncogenesis and regulation of immune responses. The primary receptors for semaphorins are members of the plexin family. In particular, plexin-A1, together with ligand-binding neuropilins, transduces repulsive axon guidance signals for soluble class III semaphorins, whereas plexin-A1 has multiple functions in chick cardiogenesis as a receptor for the transmembrane semaphorin, Sema6D, independent of neuropilins. Additionally, plexin-A1 has been implicated in dendritic cell function in the immune system. However, the role of plexin-A1 in vivo, and the mechanisms underlying its pleiotropic functions, remain unclear. Here, we generated plexin-A1-deficient (plexin-A1(-/-)) mice and identified its important roles, not only in immune responses, but also in bone homeostasis. Furthermore, we show that plexin-A1 associates with the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (Trem-2), linking semaphorin-signalling to the immuno-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adaptor protein, DAP12. These findings reveal an unexpected role for plexin-A1 and present a novel signalling mechanism for exerting the pleiotropic functions of semaphorins.

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;6;615-22

  • The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3.

    Muzny DM, Scherer SE, Kaul R, Wang J, Yu J, Sudbrak R, Buhay CJ, Chen R, Cree A, Ding Y, Dugan-Rocha S, Gill R, Gunaratne P, Harris RA, Hawes AC, Hernandez J, Hodgson AV, Hume J, Jackson A, Khan ZM, Kovar-Smith C, Lewis LR, Lozado RJ, Metzker ML, Milosavljevic A, Miner GR, Morgan MB, Nazareth LV, Scott G, Sodergren E, Song XZ, Steffen D, Wei S, Wheeler DA, Wright MW, Worley KC, Yuan Y, Zhang Z, Adams CQ, Ansari-Lari MA, Ayele M, Brown MJ, Chen G, Chen Z, Clendenning J, Clerc-Blankenburg KP, Chen R, Chen Z, Davis C, Delgado O, Dinh HH, Dong W, Draper H, Ernst S, Fu G, Gonzalez-Garay ML, Garcia DK, Gillett W, Gu J, Hao B, Haugen E, Havlak P, He X, Hennig S, Hu S, Huang W, Jackson LR, Jacob LS, Kelly SH, Kube M, Levy R, Li Z, Liu B, Liu J, Liu W, Lu J, Maheshwari M, Nguyen BV, Okwuonu GO, Palmeiri A, Pasternak S, Perez LM, Phelps KA, Plopper FJ, Qiang B, Raymond C, Rodriguez R, Saenphimmachak C, Santibanez J, Shen H, Shen Y, Subramanian S, Tabor PE, Verduzco D, Waldron L, Wang J, Wang J, Wang Q, Williams GA, Wong GK, Yao Z, Zhang J, Zhang X, Zhao G, Zhou J, Zhou Y, Nelson D, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Naylor SL, Yang H, Olson M, Weinstock G and Gibbs RA

    Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    After the completion of a draft human genome sequence, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium has proceeded to finish and annotate each of the 24 chromosomes comprising the human genome. Here we describe the sequencing and analysis of human chromosome 3, one of the largest human chromosomes. Chromosome 3 comprises just four contigs, one of which currently represents the longest unbroken stretch of finished DNA sequence known so far. The chromosome is remarkable in having the lowest rate of segmental duplication in the genome. It also includes a chemokine receptor gene cluster as well as numerous loci involved in multiple human cancers such as the gene encoding FHIT, which contains the most common constitutive fragile site in the genome, FRA3B. Using genomic sequence from chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, we were able to characterize the breakpoints defining a large pericentric inversion that occurred some time after the split of Homininae from Ponginae, and propose an evolutionary history of the inversion.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107

    Nature 2006;440;7088;1194-8

  • The activity of the plexin-A1 receptor is regulated by Rac.

    Turner LJ, Nicholls S and Hall A

    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Cell Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research UK, Oncogene and Signal Transduction Group, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    Plexins constitute a large family of transmembrane proteins that act as receptors for the semaphorin family of ligands. They are best known for their role in growth cone guidance, although they also are widely expressed outside the nervous system. Plexins are thought to control axon guidance by modifying the growth cone cytoskeleton, and Rho GTPases have been strongly implicated in this response. However, the exact contribution of Rho proteins is unclear. Sema3A/Plexin-A1-induced growth cone collapse, for example, requires Rac activity, which is a surprising result given that this GTPase is usually associated with membrane protrusions. We show here that Sema3A-induced collapse of COS-7 cells expressing Plexin-A1 also requires Rac but not Rho activity and that the cytoplasmic tail of Plexin-A1 interacts directly with activated Rac. However, collapse induced by a constitutively activated version of Plexin-A1 does not require Rac. We propose a novel function for Rac, namely that it acts upstream of Plexin-A1 during semaphoring-induced collapse, to regulate the activity of the receptor.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;32;33199-205

  • Dual roles of Sema6D in cardiac morphogenesis through region-specific association of its receptor, Plexin-A1, with off-track and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2.

    Toyofuku T, Zhang H, Kumanogoh A, Takegahara N, Suto F, Kamei J, Aoki K, Yabuki M, Hori M, Fujisawa H and Kikutani H

    Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Semaphorins, originally identified as axon guidance facto s in the nervous system, play integral roles in organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate a critical involvement of Sema6D in cardiac morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Sema6D o RNA interference against Sema6D induces expansion or narrowing of the ventricular chamber, respectively, during chick embryonic development. Sema6D also exerts region-specific activities on cardiac explants, a migration-promoting activity on outgrowing cells from the conotruncal segment, and a migration-inhibitory activity on those from the ventricle. Plexin-A1 mediates these activities as the major Sema6D-binding receptor. Plexin-A1 forms a receptor complex with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 in the conotruncal segment or with Off-track in the ventricle segment; these complexes are responsible for the effects of Sema6D on the respective regions. Thus, the differential association of Plexin-A1 with additional receptor components entitles Sema6D to exert distinct biological activities at adjacent regions. This is crucial for complex cardiac morphogenesis.

    Genes & development 2004;18;4;435-47

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Competing autocrine pathways involving alternative neuropilin-1 ligands regulate chemotaxis of carcinoma cells.

    Bachelder RE, Lipscomb EA, Lin X, Wendt MA, Chadborn NH, Eickholt BJ and Mercurio AM

    Division of Cancer Biology and Angiogenesis, Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. rbacheld@caregroup.harvard.edu

    Neuropilin-1 (NP1), in conjunction with plexins, promotes axon repulsion by binding to semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Although NP1 is expressed in carcinoma cells, its functions have remained elusive, and neither SEMA3A nor plexin expression has been explored in cancer. Here we provide evidence that breast carcinoma cells support an autocrine pathway involving SEMA3A, plexin-A1, and NP1 that impedes their ability to chemotax. Reducing SEMA3A or NP1 expression by RNA interference or inhibiting plexin-A1 signaling enhanced migration. Conversely, expression of constitutively active plexin-A1 impaired chemotaxis. The paradox of how breast carcinoma cells expressing these endogenous chemotaxis inhibitors are able to migrate is explained by their expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a NP1 ligand that competes with SEMA3A for receptor binding. Finally, we establish that the ratio of endogenous VEGF and SEMA3A concentrations in carcinoma cells determines their chemotactic rate. Our findings lead to the surprising conclusion that opposing autocrine loops involving NP1 regulate the chemotaxis of breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, our data indicate a novel autocrine function for VEGF in chemotaxis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA89209, CA93855

    Cancer research 2003;63;17;5230-3

  • Plexin-A1 and plexin-B1 specifically interact at their cytoplasmic domains.

    Usui H, Taniguchi M, Yokomizo T and Shimizu T

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, CREST, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a member of semaphorins and functions as an axonal repulsive guidance molecule. Neuropilin-1 and plexin-As form receptor complexes for Sema3A and plexin-As are thought to initiate the intracellular signaling cascade. However, the molecule by which plexin-As transduce their signal is not well understood. We searched molecules that interact with intracellular domains of plexin-A1 by yeast two-hybrid screening and identified a 349 amino acid fragment of plexin-B1 as a plexin-A1 interacting protein. We, then, cloned mouse plexin-B1 and confirmed their interaction in a mammalian expression system. Plexin-B1 physically associated with plexin-A1, but not with plexin-A2 or A3. Northern blot analysis showed the expression of both plexin-A1 and B1 in adult brain. We propose that plexin-A1 and B1 interact in the adult brain and transduce Sema3A signaling in cooperation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;300;4;927-31

  • Involvement of Fes/Fps tyrosine kinase in semaphorin3A signaling.

    Mitsui N, Inatome R, Takahashi S, Goshima Y, Yamamura H and Yanagi S

    Division of Proteomics, Department of Genome Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan.

    Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs)/TOAD64/Ulips/DRPs and CRAM have emerged as strong candidates for a role in semaphorin signaling. In this study we identified Fes/Fps (Fes) tyrosine kinase in the CRMP-CRAM complex and investigated whether Fes was involved in semaphorin3A (Sema3A) signaling. In COS-7 cells, the interaction between Fes and plexinA1 (PlexA1) and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PlexA1 by Fes were observed; however, these events were significantly attenuated by co-expression of neuropilin-1 (NP-1). Even with NP-1 co-expression, Sema3A was able to enhance the association of Fes with PlexA1 and Fes-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of PlexA1, CRAM and CRMP2. Co-expression of Fes with PlexA1 exhibited COS-7 cell contraction activity, indicating that Fes can convert inactive PlexA1 to its active form, whereas combination of Fes/NP-1/PlexA1 or Fes kinase-negative mutants/PlexA1 did not alter cell morphology. Finally, Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse of dorsal root ganglion neurons was suppressed by expression of Fes kinase-negative mutants. Taken together, our findings suggest that Fes links Sema3A signals to CRMP-CRAM, and that NP-1 negatively regulates PlexA1 activation by Fes in resting condition.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;13;3274-85

  • Antagonistic effects of Rnd1 and RhoD GTPases regulate receptor activity in Semaphorin 3A-induced cytoskeletal collapse.

    Zanata SM, Hovatta I, Rohm B and Püschel AW

    Molecular Neurogenetics Laboratory, Department of Neurochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Brain Research, D-60528 Frankfurt, Germany.

    The semaphorins are a large protein family that is involved in the patterning of neuronal connections in the developing nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The chemorepulsive axon guidance signal Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) induces the depolymerization of actin filaments and the collapse of sensory growth cones by activating a receptor complex that contains a plexin as the signal-transducing subunit. Here we show that, of a large number of GTPases tested, only Rnd1 and RhoD bind the cytoplasmic domain of Plexin-A1. Recruitment of active Rnd1 is sufficient to trigger signaling by Plexin-A1, even in the absence of Sema3A, and initiates cytoskeletal collapse by activating its cytoplasmic domain. RhoD, in contrast, blocks Plexin-A1 activation by Rnd1 and repulsion of sympathetic axons by Sema3A. Thus, the antagonism of two GTPases regulates the activity of the Sema3A receptor, and activation by Rnd1 appears to be an essential step in signaling by Plexin-A1.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;2;471-7

  • Plexin signaling via off-track and rho family GTPases.

    Whitford KL and Ghosh A

    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Two papers in this issue of Neuron examine new aspects of Semaphorin signaling via Plexin receptors. Winberg et al. present evidence that the transmembrane protein Off-track (OTK) interacts biochemically and genetically with Plexin A and is important for Sema 1a repulsive signaling. Hu et al. examine the coupling of Plexin B to Rac and RhoA and propose that Plexin B signaling involves inhibition of Rac function by direct sequestration and simultaneous activation of RhoA.

    Neuron 2001;32;1;1-3

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Plexina1 autoinhibition by the plexin sema domain.

    Takahashi T and Strittmatter SM

    Department of Neurology and, Section of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) binds to neuropilin-1 (NP1) and activates the transmembrane Plexin to transduce a repulsive axon guidance signal. Here, we show that Sema3 signals are transduced equally effectively by PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, but not by PlexinA3. Deletion analysis of the PlexinA1 ectodomain demonstrates that the sema domain prevents PlexinA1 activation in the basal state. Sema-deleted PlexinA1 is constitutively active, producing cell contraction, growth cone collapse, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The sema domain of PlexinA1 physically associates with the remainder of the PlexinA1 ectodomain and can reverse constitutive activation. Both the sema portion and the remainder of the ectodomain of PlexinA1 associate with NP1 in a Sema3A-independent fashion. Plexin A1 is autoinhibited by its sema domain, and Sema3A/NP1 releases this inhibition.

    Neuron 2001;29;2;429-39

  • The semaphorin 3A receptor may directly regulate the activity of small GTPases.

    Rohm B, Rahim B, Kleiber B, Hovatta I and Püschel AW

    Molecular Neurogenetics Laboratory, Department of Neurochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstr. 46, D-60528, Frankfurt, Germany.

    The axon guidance signal semaphorin 3A induces the rapid collapse of growth cones by activating a receptor complex that contains neuropilin-1 as the ligand-binding and a plexin as the signal-transducing subunit. Here we show that plexins bind Rho-like GTPases and may directly regulate their activity. The cytoplasmic domain of plexins shows sequence similarity to GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and mutation of two arginines that correspond to the catalytic residues of Ras GAPs inactivates plexin-A1. Our data suggest that plexins may be integral membrane proteins with an intrinsic GAP activity that is essential for their ability to induce growth cone collapse.

    FEBS letters 2000;486;1;68-72

  • Plexin-neuropilin-1 complexes form functional semaphorin-3A receptors.

    Takahashi T, Fournier A, Nakamura F, Wang LH, Murakami Y, Kalb RG, Fujisawa H and Strittmatter SM

    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    Class 1 and 3 semaphorins repulse axons but bind to different cell surface proteins. We find that the two known semaphorin-binding proteins, plexin 1 (Plex 1) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1), form a stable complex. Plex 1 alone does not bind semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), but the NP-1/Plex 1 complex has a higher affinity for Sema3A than does NP-1 alone. While Sema3A binding to NP-1 does not alter nonneuronal cell morphology, Sema3A interaction with NP-1/Plex 1 complexes induces adherent cells to round up. Expression of a dominant-negative Plex 1 in sensory neurons blocks Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Sema3A treatment leads to the redistribution of growth cone NP-1 and plexin into clusters. Thus, physiologic Sema3A receptors consist of NP-1/plexin complexes.

    Cell 1999;99;1;59-69

  • Plexins are a large family of receptors for transmembrane, secreted, and GPI-anchored semaphorins in vertebrates.

    Tamagnone L, Artigiani S, Chen H, He Z, Ming GI, Song H, Chedotal A, Winberg ML, Goodman CS, Poo M, Tessier-Lavigne M and Comoglio PM

    Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, University of Torino, Candiolo, Italy. Itamagnone@ircc.unito.it

    In Drosophila, plexin A is a functional receptor for semaphorin-1a. Here we show that the human plexin gene family comprises at least nine members in four subfamilies. Plexin-B1 is a receptor for the transmembrane semaphorin Sema4D (CD100), and plexin-C1 is a receptor for the GPI-anchored semaphorin Sema7A (Sema-K1). Secreted (class 3) semaphorins do not bind directly to plexins, but rather plexins associate with neuropilins, coreceptors for these semaphorins. Plexins are widely expressed: in neurons, the expression of a truncated plexin-A1 protein blocks axon repulsion by Sema3A. The cytoplasmic domain of plexins associates with a tyrosine kinase activity. Plexins may also act as ligands mediating repulsion in epithelial cells in vitro. We conclude that plexins are receptors for multiple (and perhaps all) classes of semaphorins, either alone or in combination with neuropilins, and trigger a novel signal transduction pathway controlling cell repulsion.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 22764

    Cell 1999;99;1;71-80

  • A family of transmembrane proteins with homology to the MET-hepatocyte growth factor receptor.

    Maestrini E, Tamagnone L, Longati P, Cremona O, Gulisano M, Bione S, Tamanini F, Neel BG, Toniolo D and Comoglio PM

    Institute of Genetics Biochemistry and Evolution, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia, Italy.

    In hunting for unknown genes on the human X chromosome, we identified a cDNA in Xq28 encoding a transmembrane protein (SEX) of 1871 amino acids. SEX shares significant homology with the extracellular domain of the receptors encoded by the oncogenes MET, RON, and SEA [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor family]. Further screenings of cDNA libraries identified three additional sequences closely related to SEX: these were named SEP, OCT, and NOV and were located on human chromosomes 3p, 1, and 3q, respectively. The proteins encoded by these genes contain large cytoplasmic domains characterized by a distinctive highly conserved sequence (SEX domain). Northern blot analysis revealed different expression of the SEX family of genes in fetal tissues, with SEX, OCT, and NOV predominantly expressed in brain, and SEP expressed at highest levels in kidney. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that SEX has a distinctive pattern of expression in the developing nervous system of the mouse, where it is found in postmitotic neurons from the first stages of neuronal differentiation (9.5 day postcoitus). The SEX protein (220 kDa) is glycosylated and exposed at the cell surface. Unlike the receptors of the HGF family, p220SEX, a MET-SEX chimera or a constitutively dimerized TPR-SEX does not show tyrosine kinase activity. These data define a gene family (SEX family) involved in the development of neural and epithelial tissues, which encodes putative receptors with unexpected enzymatic or binding properties.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA49152; Telethon: 271

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;2;674-8

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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