G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001319
Gene symbol
ATP2A2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2
Orthologue
G00000070 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000174437 (Ensembl human gene)
488 (Entrez Gene)
409 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP2A2 (GeneCards)
Literature
108740 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:812 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P16615 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • SERCA2

Literature (91)

Pubmed - other

  • Alpha-kinase anchoring protein alphaKAP interacts with SERCA2A to spatially position Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and modulate phospholamban phosphorylation.

    Singh P, Salih M and Tuana BS

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada.

    The sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) is critical for sequestering cytosolic calcium into the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (SR) and regulating cardiac muscle relaxation. Protein-protein interactions indicated that it exists in complex with Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and its anchoring protein alphaKAP. Confocal imaging of isolated cardiomyocytes revealed the colocalization of CAMKII and alphaKAP with SERCA2a at the SR. Deletion analysis indicated that SERCA2a and CaMKII bind to different regions in the association domain of alphaKAP but not with each other. Although deletion of the putative N-terminal hydrophobic amino acid stretch in alphaKAP prevented its membrane targeting, it did not influence binding to SERCA2a or CaMKII. Both CaMKIIdelta(C) and the novel CaMKIIbeta(4) isoforms were found to exist in complex with alphaKAP and SERCA2a at the SR and were able to phosphorylate Thr-17 on phospholamban (PLN), an accessory subunit and known regulator of SERCA2a activity. Interestingly, the presence of alphaKAP was also found to significantly modulate the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of Thr-17 on PLN. These data demonstrate that alphaKAP exhibits a novel interaction with SERCA2a and may serve to spatially position CaMKII isoforms at the SR and to uniquely modulate the phosphorylation of PLN.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;41;28212-21

  • Atypical fast SERCA1a protein expression in slow myofibers and differential S-nitrosylation prevented by exercise during long term bed rest.

    Salanova M, Schiffl G and Blottner D

    Department of Vegetative Anatomy, Center of Space Medicine Berlin, Neuromuscular Group, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Arnimallee 22, Berlin 14195, Germany. michele.salanova@charite.de

    We monitored changes in SERCA isoform specific expression and S-nitrosylation in myofibers of lower limb soleus (SOL) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies before and after 60 days of voluntary long term bed rest (BR) without (BR-CTRL group, n = 8) and with exercise countermeasure (BR-EX group, n = 8). Before BR, a typical myofiber type-specific distribution of fast and slow SERCA1/2a isoforms was seen. After BR, a subpopulation (approx. 15%) of slow myofibers in BR-CTRL additionally expressed the fast SERCA1a isoform which was not seen in BR-EX. After BR, SERCA1a S-nitrosylation patterns analyzed by the biotin-switch assay decreased in disused SOL only but increased in both muscles following exercise. Differential SERCA1a S-nitrosylation and SERCA1a/2a co-expression in subsets of slow myofibers should be considered as signs of an altered cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis following chronic muscle disuse. Exercise preserved myofiber type-specific SERCA1a expression and S-nitrosylation in VL and SOL in a different way, suggesting muscle-specific responses to the countermeasure protocol applied during bed rest.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2009;132;4;383-94

  • Two novel mutations in the ATP2A2 gene in Chinese patients with Darier disease.

    HUO J, WANG X, DONG Y, WU J, LI X, LIU Y and XIAO S

    European journal of dermatology : EJD 2009;19;5;512-3

  • Modulation of B-cell endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1.

    Dellis O, Arbabian A, Brouland JP, Kovàcs T, Rowe M, Chomienne C, Joab I and Papp B

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Inserm UMR-S 940, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Université Paris VII, Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Hôpital Lariboisière, 16, rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris, France. olivier.dellis@inserm.fr

    Background: Calcium signaling plays an important role in B lymphocyte survival and activation, and is critically dependent on the inositol-1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced release of calcium stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Calcium is accumulated in the ER by Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases (SERCA enzymes), and therefore these enzymes play an important role in ER calcium homeostasis and in the control of B of cell activation. Because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can immortalize B cells and contributes to lymphomagenesis, in this work the effects of the virus on SERCA-type calcium pump expression and calcium accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of B cells was investigated.

    Results: Two Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium transport ATPase isoforms, the low Ca2+-affinity SERCA3, and the high Ca2+-affinity SERCA2 enzymes are simultaneously expressed in B cells. Latency type III infection of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines with immortalization-competent virus expressing the full set of latency genes selectively decreased the expression of SERCA3 protein, whereas infection with immortalization-deficient virus that does not express the EBNA2 or LMP-1 viral genes was without effect. Down-modulation of SERCA3 expression could be observed upon LMP-1, but not EBNA2 expression in cells carrying inducible transgenes, and LMP-1 expression was associated with enhanced resting cytosolic calcium levels and increased calcium storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. Similarly to virus-induced B cell immortalisation, SERCA3 expression was also decreased in normal B cells undergoing activation and blastic transformation in germinal centers of lymph node follicles.

    Conclusion: The data presented in this work indicate that EBV-induced immortalization leads to the remodelling of ER calcium homeostasis of B cells by LMP-1 that copies a previously unknown normal phenomenon taking place during antigen driven B cell activation. The functional remodelling of ER calcium homeostasis by down-regulation of SERCA3 expression constitutes a previously unknown mechanism involved in EBV-induced B cell immortalisation.

    Molecular cancer 2009;8;59

  • Gene remodeling in type 2 diabetic cardiomyopathy and its phenotypic rescue with SERCA2a.

    Karakikes I, Kim M, Hadri L, Sakata S, Sun Y, Zhang W, Chemaly ER, Hajjar RJ and Lebeche D

    Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

    Diabetes-associated myocardial dysfunction results in altered gene expression in the heart. We aimed to investigate the changes in gene expression profiles accompanying diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy and its phenotypic rescue by restoration of SERCA2a expression.

    Using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat model of type 2 diabetes and the Agilent rat microarray chip, we analyzed gene expression by comparing differential transcriptional changes in age-matched control versus diabetic hearts and diabetic hearts that received gene transfer of SERCA2a. Microarray expression profiles of selected genes were verified with real-time qPCR and immunoblotting. Our analysis indicates that diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with a downregulation of transcripts. Diabetic cardiomyopathic hearts have reduced levels of SERCA2a. SERCA2a gene transfer in these hearts reduced diabetes-associated hypertrophy, and differentially modulated the expression of 76 genes and reversed the transcriptional profile induced by diabetes. In isolated cardiomyocytes in vitro, SERCA2a overexpression significantly modified the expression of a number of transcripts known to be involved in insulin signaling, glucose metabolism and cardiac remodeling.

    Conclusion: This investigation provided insight into the pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling and the potential role of SERCA2a normalization in multiple pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-078731, HL076659, K01 HL076659, R01 HL078731, T32 HL007824

    PloS one 2009;4;7;e6474

  • Diminished sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) expression contributes to airway remodelling in bronchial asthma.

    Mahn K, Hirst SJ, Ying S, Holt MR, Lavender P, Ojo OO, Siew L, Simcock DE, McVicker CG, Kanabar V, Snetkov VA, O'Connor BJ, Karner C, Cousins DJ, Macedo P, Chung KF, Corrigan CJ, Ward JP and Lee TH

    Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom.

    Phenotypic modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is an important feature of airway remodeling in asthma that is characterized by enhanced proliferation and secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines. These activities are regulated by the concentration of free Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](i)). A rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is normalized by rapid reuptake of Ca(2+) into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) (SERCA) pump. We examined whether increased proliferative and secretory responses of ASM from asthmatics result from reduced SERCA expression. ASM cells were cultured from subjects with and without asthma. SERCA expression was evaluated by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Changes in [Ca(2+)](i), cell spreading, cellular proliferation, and eotaxin-1 release were measured. Compared with control cells from healthy subjects, SERCA2 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in ASM cells from subjects with moderately severe asthma. SERCA2 expression was similarly reduced in ASM in vivo in subjects with moderate/severe asthma. Rises in [Ca(2+)](i) following cell surface receptor-induced SR activation, or inhibition of SERCA-mediated Ca(2+) re-uptake, were attenuated in ASM cells from asthmatics. Likewise, the return to baseline of [Ca](i) after stimulation by bradykinin was delayed by approximately 50% in ASM cells from asthmatics. siRNA-mediated knockdown of SERCA2 in ASM from healthy subjects increased cell spreading, eotaxin-1 release and proliferation. Our findings implicate a deficiency in SERCA2 in ASM in asthma that contributes to its secretory and hyperproliferative phenotype in asthma, and which may play a key role in mechanisms of airway remodeling.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust: 078075

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;26;10775-80

  • Visualizing the store-operated channel complex assembly in real time: identification of SERCA2 as a new member.

    Sampieri A, Zepeda A, Asanov A and Vaca L

    Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México, DF 04510, Mexico.

    Depletion of intracellular calcium stores leads to the activation of calcium influx via the so-called store-operated channels (SOCs). Recent evidence positions Orai proteins as the putative channels responsible for this process. The stromal interacting molecule (STIM1) has been recently identified as the calcium sensor located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and responsible for communicating the deplete state of calcium stores to Orai at the plasma membrane (PM). However, recent experimental findings suggest that Orai and STIM1 are only part of a larger molecular complex required to modulate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In the present study we describe the assembly of the several of the components from the SOC complex in real-time, utilizing a novel imaging method. Using FRET imaging we show that under resting conditions (with calcium stores replenished) STIM1 travels continuously through the ER associated to the microtubule tracking protein, EB1. Upon depletion of the ER STIM1 dissociates from EB1 and aggregates into macromolecular complexes at the ER which includes the microsomal calcium ATPase. This association follows the assembly of Orai into macromolecular aggregates at the PM. We show that STIM1-Orai association follows a similar time course as that of Orai aggregation at the PM. During this last step of the process, calcium-selective, whole-cell inward currents developed, simultaneously. We show that this process is fully reversible. Replenishing intracellular calcium stores induces STIM1-Orai complex dissociation and shuts down inward currents. Under these conditions STIM1 re-associates to EB1, and reinitiates its travel through the ER.

    Cell calcium 2009;45;5;439-46

  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase activity in type I and II skeletal muscle fibres of chronic heart failure patients.

    Bekedam MA, van Beek-Harmsen BJ, van Mechelen W, Boonstra A, Visser FC and van der Laarse WJ

    Department of Cardiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University medical center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Background: Reduced exercise tolerance and muscle weakness are present in patients with CHF. Altered metabolism, histology and function in skeletal muscle of patients with CHF have been reported. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has control of Ca(++) release and uptake required for contraction and relaxation, respectively, and uses a considerable amount of energy. Little is known about SR alterations in CHF. We determined sarcoplasmic reticulum adenosine triphosphatase (SR ATPase) activity in different types of skeletal muscle fibres of CHF patients.

    Methods: SR ATPase activity, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (M ATPase) activity in single fibres of the vastus lateralis muscle in 16 CHF patients and 5 controls was determined using quantitative enzyme histochemistry.

    Results: SR ATPase activity of type II skeletal muscle fibers was significantly higher compared to type I fibres. SR ATPase activity in type II skeletal muscle fibres of CHF patients was higher than in control subjects.

    Conclusion: Increased skeletal muscle SR ATPase activity contributes to reduced exercise tolerance in CHF patients.

    International journal of cardiology 2009;133;2;185-90

  • Protective effects of Hsp70 on the structure and function of SERCA2a expressed in HEK-293 cells during heat stress.

    Fu MH and Tupling AR

    Dept. of Kinesiology, Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1.

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) can physically interact with and prevent thermal inactivation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 1a, the SERCA isoform expressed in adult fast-twitch skeletal muscle. This study examined whether Hsp70 could physically interact with and prevent thermal inactivation of SERCA2a, the SERCA isoform expressed in heart. HEK-293 cells were cotransfected with cDNAs encoding human Hsp70 and rabbit SERCA2a (S2a/Hsp70). Cells cotransfected with SERCA2a cDNA and pMT2 (S2a/pMT2) were used as control. One-half of the cells was heat shocked at 40 degrees C for 1 h (HS), and one-half was maintained at 37 degrees C before harvesting the cells and isolating microsomes. Western blot analysis showed that Hsp70 and SERCA2a were colocalized in the microsomal fraction. The levels of Hsp70 were approximately fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in S2a/Hsp70 compared with S2a/pMT2 and approximately twofold higher (P < 0.05) following HS in all cells. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that Hsp70 directly binds to SERCA2a. Following HS, maximal SERCA2a activity was reduced ( approximately 52%, P < 0.05) in S2a/pMT2 but was increased ( approximately 33%, P < 0.05) in S2a/Hsp70. Thermal inactivation of SERCA2a in S2a/pMT2 was associated with decreased ( approximately 49%, P < 0.05) binding capacity for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and increased carbonyl ( approximately 42%, P < 0.05) and nitrotyrosine ( approximately 40%, P < 0.05) levels in SERCA2a. By contrast, the HS-induced increase in maximal SERCA2a activity observed in S2a/Hsp70 corresponded with no change (P > 0.05) in FITC-binding capacity and reductions in carbonyl ( approximately 40%, P < 0.05) and nitrotyrosine ( approximately 23%, P < 0.05) levels in SERCA2a compared with S2a/pMT2. These results show that Hsp70 forms a protective interaction with SERCA2a during HS actually reducing oxidation and nitrosylation of SERCA2a thus increasing its maximal activity.

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2009;296;4;H1175-83

  • New molecular components supporting ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release: roles of junctophilin and TRIC channel in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

    Yamazaki D, Yamazaki T and Takeshima H

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

    Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores is mediated by Ca(2+) release channels, designated ryanodine and IP(3) receptors, and directly regulates important cellular reactions including muscle contraction, endo/exocrine secretion, and neural excitability. In order to function as an intracellular store, the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum is equipped with cooperative Ca(2+) uptake, storage and release machineries, comprising synergic collaborations among integral-membrane, cytoplasmic and luminal proteins. Our recent studies have demonstrated that junctophilins form junctional membrane complexes between the plasma membrane and the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum in excitable cells, and that TRIC (trimeric intracellular cation) channels act as novel monovalent cation-specific channels on intracellular membrane systems. Knockout mice have provided evidence that both junctophilins and TRIC channels support efficient ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in muscle cells. This review focuses on cardiac Ca(2+) release by discussing pathological defects of mutant cardiomyocytes lacking ryanodine receptors, junctophilins, or TRIC channels.

    Pharmacology & therapeutics 2009;121;3;265-72

  • The anti-apoptotic protein HAX-1 interacts with SERCA2 and regulates its protein levels to promote cell survival.

    Vafiadaki E, Arvanitis DA, Pagakis SN, Papalouka V, Sanoudou D, Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos A and Kranias EG

    Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Greece.

    Cardiac contractility is regulated through the activity of various key Ca(2+)-handling proteins. The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transport ATPase (SERCA2a) and its inhibitor phospholamban (PLN) control the uptake of Ca(2+) by SR membranes during relaxation. Recently, the antiapoptotic HS-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) was identified as a binding partner of PLN, and this interaction was postulated to regulate cell apoptosis. In the current study, we determined that HAX-1 can also bind to SERCA2. Deletion mapping analysis demonstrated that amino acid residues 575-594 of SERCA2's nucleotide binding domain are required for its interaction with the C-terminal domain of HAX-1, containing amino acids 203-245. In transiently cotransfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, recombinant SERCA2 was specifically targeted to the ER, whereas HAX-1 selectively concentrated at mitochondria. On triple transfections with PLN, however, HAX-1 massively translocated to the ER membranes, where it codistributed with PLN and SERCA2. Overexpression of SERCA2 abrogated the protective effects of HAX-1 on cell survival, after hypoxia/reoxygenation or thapsigargin treatment. Importantly, HAX-1 overexpression was associated with down-regulation of SERCA2 expression levels, resulting in significant reduction of apparent ER Ca(2+) levels. These findings suggest that HAX-1 may promote cell survival through modulation of SERCA2 protein levels and thus ER Ca(2+) stores.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL26057, HL64018, HL77101, P50 HL077101, R01 HL026057, R01 HL064018

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;1;306-18

  • Novel mutations of the ATP2A2 gene in two families with Darier's disease.

    Shi BJ, Feng J, Ma CC, Yan XN, Li WB, Wei YP, Hu G and Wang XL

    Department of Dermatology, Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 157 Xi Wu Road, 710004, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

    Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant genodermatology. Mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium pumping ATPase type 2 (SERCA2) have been id 1f40 entified as the molecular basis of DD. The aim of this study was to report two Chinese pedigree of DD and to explore the genetic mutations. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the exons and flanking intron boundaries of the ATP2A2 gene followed by direct sequencing. Two novel missense mutations were identified, a change of C203 to A (A68E) in exon 3 was found in one family and a change of C2759 to T (S920F) in exon 19 in the other, which were located within the transmembrane domain of SERCA2, highly conserved during evolution. The A68E and S920F mutations might be regarded as the causes of the disease in two Chinese families, but these were not tested functionally. Additional functional experiments are necessary to verify the relevance and suitability of these findings for future use in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

    Archives of dermatological research 2009;301;1;27-30

  • Proteomic analysis reveals Hrs ubiquitin-interacting motif-mediated ubiquitin signaling in multiple cellular processes.

    Pridgeon JW, Webber EA, Sha D, Li L and Chin LS

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells recognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway. To gain insight into the role of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in cells, we performed a proteomic screen for Hrs UIM-interacting ubiquitinated proteins in human brain by using an in vitro expression cloning screening approach. We have identified 48 ubiquitinated proteins that are specifically recognized by the UIM domain of Hrs. Among them, 12 are membrane proteins that are likely to be Hrs cargo proteins, and four are membrane protein-associated adaptor proteins whose ubiquitination may act as a signal to target their associated membrane cargo for Hrs-mediated endosomal sorting. Other classes of the identified proteins include components of the vesicular trafficking machinery, cell signaling molecules, proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-dependent transport, and enzymes involved in ubiquitination and metabolism, suggesting the involvement of Hrs UIM-mediated ubiquitin signaling in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. We have characterized the ubiquitination of two identified proteins, Munc18-1 and Hsc70, and their interaction with Hrs UIM, and provided functional evidence supporting a role for Hsc70 in the regulation of Hrs-mediated endosome-to-lysosome trafficking.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM082828, R01 GM082828, R01 GM082828-01A1, R01 GM082828-02, R01 GM082828-02S1; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047575, NS050650, R01 NS047575, R01 NS047575-01, R01 NS047575-02, R01 NS047575-03, R01 NS047575-04, R01 NS050650, R01 NS050650-01A1, R01 NS050650-02, R01 NS050650-03, R01 NS050650-04, T32 NS007480, T32 NS007480-05, T32 NS007480-06, T32 NS007480-07, T32 NS007480-08, T32 NS007480-09, T32NS007480

    The FEBS journal 2009;276;1;118-31

  • Training induced decrease in oxygen cost of cycling is accompanied by down-regulation of SERCA expression in human vastus lateralis muscle.

    Majerczak J, Karasinski J and Zoladz JA

    Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Rehabilitation, University School of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland.

    We have examined the effect of 5 week cycling endurance training program on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoforms (SERCA1 and 2) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle as well as on the oxygen uptake to power output ratio (VO2/PO) during incremental cycling. Fifteen untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after moderate intensity training. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after training program. Training resulted in higher (P = 0.048) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as well as in higher power output reached at VO(2max) (P = 0.0001). Moreover, lower (P = 0.02) VO2/PO ratio determined during incremental moderate intensity cycling (i.e. 30-120 W) as well as lower (P = 0.003) VO2/PO ratio reached at VO(2max) were observed after the training. A significant down regulation of SERCA2 protein (P = 0.03) and tendency (P = 0.055) to lower SERCA1 content accompanied by lower (P<10(-4)) plasma thyroid hormone concentration, with no changes (P = 0.67) in MyHC composition in vastus lateralis muscle were found after training. We have concluded that the increase in mechanical efficiency of cycling occurring during first weeks of endurance training is not related to changes in MyHC composition but it may be due to down-regulation of SERCA pumps.

    Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 2008;59;3;589-602

  • Increased FOG-2 in failing myocardium disrupts thyroid hormone-dependent SERCA2 gene transcription.

    Rouf R, Greytak S, Wooten EC, Wu J, Boltax J, Picard M, Svensson EC, Dillmann WH, Patten RD and Huggins GS

    MCRI Center for Translational Genomics, Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts University School of Medicine, 750 Washington St, Box 8486, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    Reduced expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA)2 and other genes in the adult cardiac gene program has raised consideration of an impaired responsiveness to thyroid hormone (T3) that develops in the advanced failing heart. Here, we show that human and murine cardiomyopathy hearts have increased expression of friend of GATA (FOG)-2, a cardiac nuclear hormone receptor corepressor protein. Cardiac-specific overexpression of FOG-2 in transgenic mice led to depressed cardiac function, activation of the fetal gene program, congestive heart failure, and early death. SERCA2 transcript and protein levels were reduced in FOG-2 transgenic hearts, and FOG-2 overexpression impaired T3-mediated SERCA2 expression in cultured cardiomyocytes. FOG-2 physically interacts with thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 and abrogated even high levels of T3-mediated SERCA2 1626 promoter activity. These results demonstrate that SERCA2 is an important target of FOG-2 and that increased FOG-2 expression may contribute to a decline in cardiac function in end-stage heart failure by impaired T3 signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: T32 HL069770, T32 HL069770-05, T32-HL069770-01A1; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA014140, R01 AA014140-04, R01-AA014140

    Circulation research 2008;103;5;493-501

  • SERCA pump activity is physiologically regulated by presenilin and regulates amyloid beta production.

    Green KN, Demuro A, Akbari Y, Hitt BD, Smith IF, Parker I and LaFerla FM

    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

    In addition to disrupting the regulated intramembraneous proteolysis of key substrates, mutations in the presenilins also alter calcium homeostasis, but the mechanism linking presenilins and calcium regulation is unresolved. At rest, cytosolic Ca(2+) is maintained at low levels by pumping Ca(2+) into stores in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the sarco ER Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps. We show that SERCA activity is diminished in fibroblasts lacking both PS1 and PS2 genes, despite elevated SERCA2b steady-state levels, and we show that presenilins and SERCA physically interact. Enhancing presenilin levels in Xenopus laevis oocytes accelerates clearance of cytosolic Ca(2+), whereas higher levels of SERCA2b phenocopy PS1 overexpression, accelerating Ca(2+) clearance and exaggerating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated Ca(2+) liberation. The critical role that SERCA2b plays in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is underscored by our findings that modulating SERCA activity alters amyloid beta production. Our results point to a physiological role for the presenilins in Ca(2+) signaling via regulation of the SERCA pump.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG16573, AG17968, P50 AG016573, R01 AG017968; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48071, R01 GM048071, R37 GM048071

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;181;7;1107-16

  • Two novel frame-shift mutations of ATP2A2 gene in Chinese patients with Darier's disease.

    Quan C, Liang YH, Zhang ZZ, Lv HL, Ren YQ, Lu WS, Gao M, Wang PG, Yang S and Zhang XJ

    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV 2008;22;6;745-6

  • A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).

    Melzer D, Perry JR, Hernandez D, Corsi AM, Stevens K, Rafferty I, Lauretani F, Murray A, Gibbs JR, Paolisso G, Rafiq S, Simon-Sanchez J, Lango H, Scholz S, Weedon MN, Arepalli S, Rice N, Washecka N, Hurst A, Britton A, Henley W, van de Leemput J, Li R, Newman AB, Tranah G, Harris T, Panicker V, Dayan C, Bennett A, McCarthy MI, Ruokonen A, Jarvelin MR, Guralnik J, Bandinelli S, Frayling TM, Singleton A and Ferrucci L

    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom.

    There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57)), CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21)), IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13)), LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10)), GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7)), SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7)), CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6)) and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6)) genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R), altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA), variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1) and altered transcription (GGT1). We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels (p = 6.8x10(-40)), but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis locations. The identification of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) may be a powerful complementary method of improving our understanding of disease pathways.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIA NIH HHS: N01-AG-6-2101, N01-AG-6-2103, N01-AG-6-2106, R01 AG024233, R01 AG24233-01

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;5;e1000072

  • Alterations in genes encoding sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pumps in association with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Korosec B, Glavac D, Volavsek M and Ravnik-Glavac M

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Recent studies have suggested that a perturbation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis or signaling could contribute to cancer development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether germline variants of the ATP2A2 and ATP2A3 genes might act as susceptibility alleles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In both genes, we identified eight different alterations in 11 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (11/79; P = 0.0002, odds ratio = 0.054, 95% confidence interval = 0.0069-0.4236). We also detected low expression level of both genes in connection with some of alterations, but could not correlate low expression level with methylation in the promoter region of either gene. The results suggest that Ca(2+) pumps of sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum are involved in an increased susceptibility to develop head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in humans.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2008;181;2;112-8

  • High glucose oxidizes SERCA cysteine-674 and prevents inhibition by nitric oxide of smooth muscle cell migration.

    Tong X, Ying J, Pimentel DR, Trucillo M, Adachi T and Cohen RA

    Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, X720, 650 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA. xytong@bu.edu

    Nitric oxide (NO) causes S-glutathiolation of the reactive cysteine-674 in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), thus increasing SERCA activity, and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Because increased VSMC migration contributes to accelerated neointimal growth and atherosclerosis in diabetes, the effect of culture of VSMC in high glucose (HG) was determined. Rat aortic VSMC were exposed to normal (5.5 mmol/L) or high (25 mmol/L) glucose for 3 days, and serum-induced cell migration during 6 h into a wounded cell monolayer was measured 5 min after adding the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or 24 h after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) to express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In normal glucose, SNAP or IL-1beta significantly inhibited migration in cells infected with adenovirus to express GFP or SERCA wild type (WT), but not with a C674S SERCA mutant. After HG, NO failed to inhibit migration, nor did it decrease calcium-dependent association of calmodulin with calcineurin, indicating that NO failed to decrease intracellular calcium levels via SERCA. In contrast, overexpression of SERCA WT, but not the SERCA C674S mutant, preserved the ability for NO to inhibit migration despite exposing the cells to HG. The antioxidant, Tempol, or overexpression of superoxide dismutase also prevented the effects of HG. Further studies showed that both biotinylated-iodoacetamide and NO-induced biotinylated glutathione labeling of SERCA C674 were decreased by HG, and a sequence-specific sulfonic acid antibody detected oxidation of the C674 SERCA thiol. These results indicate that failure of NO to inhibit migration in VSMC exposed to HG is due to oxidation of the SERCA reactive cysteine-674.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28178, N01HV28178, P01 HL068758, P01 HL68758, R01 HL031607, R01 HL031607-21A1, R01 HL31607; NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG027080, R01 AG27080

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2008;44;2;361-9

  • SERCA2b and 3 play a regulatory role in store-operated calcium entry in human platelets.

    Redondo PC, Salido GM, Pariente JA, Sage SO and Rosado JA

    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience of University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9ET, United Kingdom. pcr@unex.es

    Two agonist-releasable Ca(2+)stores have been identified in human platelets differentiated by the distinct sensitivity of their SERCA isoforms to thapsigargin (TG) and 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (TBHQ). Here we have examined whether the SERCA isotypes might be involved in store-operated Ca(2+)entry (SOCE) activated by the physiological agonist thrombin in human platelets. Ca(2+)-influx evoked by thrombin (0.01 U/mL) reached a maximum after 3 min, which was consistent with the decrease in the Ca(2+)content in the stores; afterwards, the extent of SOCE decreased with no correlation with the accumulation of Ca(2+)in the stores. Inhibition of SERCA2b, by 10 nM TG, and SERCA3, with 20 microM TBHQ, individually or simultaneously, accelerated Ca(2+) store discharge and subsequently enhanced the extent of SOCE stimulated by thrombin. In addition, TG and TBHQ modified the time course of thrombin-evoked SOCE from a transient to a sustained increase in Ca(2+) influx, which reveals a negative role for SERCAs in the regulation of SOCE. This effect was consistent under conditions that inhibit Ca(2+) extrusion by PMCA or the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that thrombin stimulates direct interaction between SERCA2b and 3 with the hTRPC1 channel, an effect that was found to be independent of SERCA activity. In summary, our results suggest that SERCA2b and 3 modulate thrombin-stimulated SOCE probably by direct interaction with the hTRPC1 channel in human platelets.

    Cellular signalling 2008;20;2;337-46

  • Platelet sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and mu-calpain activity are altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus and restored by rosiglitazone.

    Randriamboavonjy V, Pistrosch F, Bölck B, Schwinger RH, Dixit M, Badenhoop K, Cohen RA, Busse R and Fleming I

    Vascular Signaling Group, and Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Physiologie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt, Germany.

    Background: Platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus display hyperaggregability and increased thrombogenic potential.

    In platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, we found enhanced tyrosine nitration and inactivation of the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA-2), elevated platelet [Ca2+]i, and activation of mu-calpain. The tyrosine nitration of SERCA-2 and the activation of mu-calpain in vitro in platelets from healthy volunteers could be evoked in vitro by peroxynitrite. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 was identified as a mu-calpain substrate; its in vitro degradation was stimulated by peroxynitrite and prevented by calpain inhibitors. Calpain activation also was linked to hyperresponsiveness to thrombin and the loss of platelet sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (hemoglobin A1c >6.6%) contained little or no intact platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas degradation products were detectable. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone increased SERCA-2 expression in megakaryocytes, and treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with rosiglitazone for 12 weeks increased platelet SERCA-2 expression and Ca2+-ATPase activity, decreased SERCA-2 tyrosine nitration, and normalized platelet [Ca2+]i. Rosiglitazone also reduced mu-calpain activity, normalized platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and partially restored platelet sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Conclusions: These data identify megakaryocytes/platelets as additional cellular targets for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists and highlight potential benefits of rosiglitazone therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28178, R01-HL31607

    Circulation 2008;117;1;52-60

  • Role of Sp1 in transcription of human ATP2A2 gene in keratinocytes.

    Takagi A, Nishiyama C, Maeda K, Tokura T, Kawada H, Kanada S, Niwa Y, Nakano N, Mayuzumi N, Nishiyama M, Ikeda S, Okumura K and Ogawa H

    Atopy Research Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

    The ATP2A2 gene encodes Ca2+-dependent ATPase, the dysfunction of which causes Darier disease. In this study, we analyzed the promoter structure of the human ATP2A2 gene using primary normal human keratinocytes (NHK). Reporter assays showed that deletion of -550/-529, -488/-472, -390/-362, or -42/-21 resulted in a significant decrease in human ATP2A2 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Sp1 is a transcription factor that binds to the -550/-529 and -488/-472 regions of the promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that Sp1, but not Sp3, binds to the promoter region of the ATP2A2 gene in NHK cells in vivo. Knockdown of Sp1 expression by small interfering RNA resulted in a marked reduction in ATP2A2 promoter activity and ATP2A2 mRNA levels in NHK, suggesting that Sp1 positively transactivates the ATP2A2 promoter in NHK. This is early evidence demonstrating that Sp1 plays an important and positive role in ATP2A2 gene expression in NHK in vivo and in vitro.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2008;128;1;96-103

  • Histidine-rich Ca-binding protein interacts with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase.

    Arvanitis DA, Vafiadaki E, Fan GC, Mitton BA, Gregory KN, Del Monte F, Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos A, Sanoudou D and Kranias EG

    Molecular Biology Division, Center for Basic Research, Foundation for Biomedical Research of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    Depressed cardiac Ca cycling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) has been associated with attenuated contractility, which can progress to heart failure. The histidine-rich Ca-binding protein (HRC) is an SR component that binds to triadin and may affect Ca release through the ryanodine receptor. HRC overexpression in transgenic mouse hearts was associated with decreased rates of SR Ca uptake and delayed relaxation, which progressed to hypertrophy with aging. The present study shows that HRC may mediate part of its regulatory effects by binding directly to sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase type 2 (SERCA2) in cardiac muscle, which is confirmed by coimmunostaining observed under confocal microscopy. This interaction involves the histidine- and glutamic acid-rich domain of HRC (320-460 aa) and the part of the NH(2)-terminal cation transporter domain of SERCA2 (74-90 aa) that projects into the SR lumen. The SERCA2-binding domain is upstream from the triadin-binding region in human HRC (609-699 aa). Specific binding between HRC and SERCA was verified by coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays using human and mouse cardiac homogenates and by blot overlays using glutathione S-transferase and maltose-binding protein recombinant proteins. Importantly, increases in Ca concentration were associated with a significant reduction of HRC binding to SERCA2, whereas they had opposite effects on the HRC-triadin interaction in cardiac homogenates. Collectively, our data suggest that HRC may play a key role in the regulation of SR Ca cycling through its direct interactions with SERCA2 and triadin, mediating a fine cross talk between SR Ca uptake and release in the heart.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-26057, HL-64018, HL-77101

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2007;293;3;H1581-9

  • Recurrent p.N767S mutation in the ATP2A2 gene in a Japanese family with haemorrhagic Darier disease clinically mimicking epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation.

    Hamada T, Yasumoto S, Karashima T, Ishii N, Shimada H, Kawano Y, Imayama S, McGrath JA and Hashimoto T

    Department of Dermatology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahimachi, Kurume 830-0011, Japan. hamataka@med.kurume-u.ac.jp

    The British journal of dermatology 2007;157;3;605-8

  • The endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump SERCA2b interacts with G protein-coupled receptors and enhances their expression at the cell surface.

    Tuusa JT, Markkanen PM, Apaja PM, Hakalahti AE and Petäjä-Repo UE

    Biocenter Oulu and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O.Box 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland.

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a pivotal role in both cellular signaling and protein synthesis. However, it is not well understood how calcium metabolism and synthesis of secreted and membrane-bound proteins are related. Here we demonstrate that the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b), which maintains high Ca(2+) concentration in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, interacts specifically with the human delta opioid receptor during early steps of receptor biogenesis in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The interaction involves newly synthesized incompletely folded receptor precursors, because the association between the delta opioid receptor and SERCA2b (i) was short-lived and took place soon after receptor translation, (ii) was not affected by misfolding of the receptor, and (iii) decreased if receptor folding was enhanced by opioid receptor pharmacological chaperone. The physical association with SERCA2b was found to be a universal feature among G protein-coupled receptors within family A and was shown to occur also between the endogenously expressed luteinizing hormone receptor and SERCA2b in rat ovaries. Importantly, active SERCA2b rather than undisturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis was found to be essential for delta opioid receptor biogenesis, as inhibition of its Ca(2+) pumping activity by thapsigargin reduced the interaction and impaired the efficiency of receptor maturation, two phenomena that were not affected by a Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. Nevertheless, inhibition of SERCA2b did not compromise the functionality of receptors that were able to mature. Thus, we propose that the association with SERCA2b is required for efficient folding and/or membrane integration of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;371;3;622-38

  • Abrupt changes in FKBP12.6 and SERCA2a expression contribute to sudden occurrence of ventricular fibrillation on reperfusion and are prevented by CPU86017.

    Na T, Huang ZJ, Dai DZ, Zhang Y and Dai Y

    Research Division of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

    Aim: The occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is dependent on the deterioration of channelopathy in the myocardium. It is interesting to investigate molecular changes in relation to abrupt appearance of VF on reperfusion. We aimed to study whether changes in the expression of FKBP12.6 and SERCA2a and the endothelin (ET) system on reperfusion against ischemia were related to the rapid occurrence of VF and whether CPU86017, a class III antiarrhythmic agent which blocks I(Kr), I(Ks), and I(Ca.L), suppressed VF by correcting the molecular changes on reperfusion.

    Methods: Cardiomyopathy (CM) was produced by 0.4 mg/kg sc L-thyroxin for 10 d in rats, and subjected to 10 min coronary artery ligation/reperfusion on d 11. Expressions of the Ca2+ handling and ET system and calcium transients were conducted and CPU86017 was injected (4 mg/kg, sc) on d 6-10.

    Results: A high incidence of VF was found on reperfusion of the rat CM hearts, but there was no VF before reperfusion. The elevation of diastolic calcium was significant in the CM myocytes and exhibited abnormality of the Ca2+ handling system. The rapid downregulation of mRNA and the protein expression of FKBP12.6 and SERCA2a were found on reperfusion in association with the upregulation of the expression of the endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and protein kinase A (PKA), in contrast, no change in the ryanodine type 2 receptor (RyR2), phospholamban (PLB), endothelin A receptor (ETAR), and iNOS was found. CPU86017 removed these changes and suppressed VF.

    Conclusion: Abrupt changes in the expression of FKBP12.6, SERCA2a, PKA, and ECE on reperfusion against ischemia, which are responsible for the rapid occurrence of VF, have been observed. These changes are effectively prevented by CPU86017.

    Acta pharmacologica Sinica 2007;28;6;773-82

  • Cysteine-674 of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase is required for the inhibition of cell migration by nitric oxide.

    Ying J, Tong X, Pimentel DR, Weisbrod RM, Trucillo MP, Adachi T and Cohen RA

    Vascular Biology Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

    Objectives: Nitric oxide inhibits smooth muscle cell migration after arterial injury, but the detailed mechanism is not fully understood. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) lowers cell Ca2+ by increasing intracellular Ca2+ uptake and inhibiting extracellular Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies showed that NO causes cyclic GMP-independent arterial relaxation by increasing SERCA activity by inducing reversible S-glutathiolation at cysteine-674. Because Ca2+ is an important second messenger for cell migration, we hypothesized that NO also inhibits cell migration through redox regulation of SERCA activity via cysteine-674.

    To test our hypothesis, overexpression of either wild type (WT) or mutant SERCA in which cysteine-674 was mutated to serine was accomplished by stable transfection of HEK 293 or adenoviral expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In the cell models expressing mutant SERCA, biotinylated-iodoacetamide (BIAM) and biotinylated-glutathione labeling of SERCA was decreased, and NO failed to increase SERCA activity or decrease Ca2+ influx, thus validating that the expression of mutant SERCA prevents its redox-dependent activation. In the absence of NO, fetal bovine serum stimulated migration of both cell types expressing WT or C674S SERCA at similar rates. The NO donor S-nitrosopenicillamine inhibited migration of cells with WT SERCA, but had no effect on the migration of either HEK cells or VSMCs with C674S SERCA. The same result was obtained in VSMCs in which endogenous NO was produced by iNOS induced by interleukin (IL)-1beta. Blocking cyclic GMP did not prevent the inhibition of migration by NO.

    Conclusions: In cells overexpressing SERCA, the cyclic GMP-independent, redox regulation of SERCA cysteine-674 is required for the inhibition of cell migration by both exogenous and endogenously generated NO.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28178, R01 HL31607

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2007;27;4;783-90

  • Multiple alterations in Ca2+ handling determine the negative staircase in a cellular heart failure model.

    Palomeque J, Petroff MV, Sapia L, Gende OA, Mundiña-Weilenmann C and Mattiazzi A

    Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata 1900, Argentina.

    Background: The flat or negative force frequency relationship (FFR) is a hallmark of the failing heart. Either decreases in SERCA2a expression, increases in Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) expression or elevated Na(+)(i) have been independently proposed as mediators of the negative FFR.

    To determine whether each one of these mechanisms is sufficient to account for the negative FFR of the failing heart or on the contrary, various mechanisms, acting in concert are required. SERCA2a was pharmacologically inhibited with thapsigargin (TG) or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) or by using siRNA technology; Na(+)(i) was increased with either ouabain (Oua) or monensin and NCX protein was overexpressed by gene transfer (Ad.NCX), to mimic in nonfailing cat myocytes the phenotype of the failing heart and examine their effect on the FFR. The positive FFR of healthy myocytes remained unaffected after either SERCA2a inhibition, Na(+)(i) elevation, or NCX overexpression. However, the combination of TG + Oua, Oua + Ad.NCX, or TG + Ad.NCX, converted the positive FFR to negative. Moreover, the FFR became negative at lower frequencies, when the 3 interventions were combined.

    Conclusions: Ca(2+) handling has to be altered at several levels to explain the negative FFR of the failing heart. These anomalies in Ca(2+) homeostasis acting in synergy have additive effects.

    Journal of cardiac failure 2007;13;2;143-54

  • Prolactin stimulates prostate cell proliferation by increasing endoplasmic reticulum content due to SERCA 2b over-expression.

    Crépin A, Bidaux G, Vanden-Abeele F, Dewailly E, Goffin V, Prevarskaya N and Slomianny C

    Inserm, U800, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Contre le Cancer, Villeneuve d'Ascq, F-59655 France.

    Prolactin (PRL) has been shown to be involved in the differentiation and proliferation of numerous tissues, including the prostate gland. Moreover, variations in [Ca2+]ER (calcium concentration within the endoplasmic reticulum) may play a role in cell growth. However, few studies have focused on the regulation of calcium homoeostasis by prolactin. The present study evaluates the regulation of calcium pools as well as the possible role of [Ca2+]ER variations as a signal for growth modulation by PRL. We show that PRL stimulates the proliferation of normal SV40 immortalized epithelial prostate (PNT1A) cells with a maximum effect at a dose of 100 ng/ml. We also show that 100 ng/ml PRL increases the [Ca2+]ER when measured either by indirect quantification with Fura-2AM after application of 1 mM thapsigargin or by direct quantification with Mag-Fura-2AM within the endoplas-mic reticulum. Western blot analysis shows that the SERCA 2b (sarcoendoplasmic calcium ATPase 2b) is over-expressed in PNT1A cells treated with 100 ng/ml PRL for 24 h. A small inter-fering RNA SERCA 2a/b, used to down-regulate endogenous SERCA 2b expression, reduced both PNT1A cell proliferation and [Ca2+]ER. We thus identify [Ca2+]ER and SERCA 2b as protagonists in PRL-induced proliferation.

    The Biochemical journal 2007;401;1;49-55

  • [Reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic calcium pump SERCA2 in skeletal muscle from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low body weight].

    Morlà M, Iglesias A, Sauleda J, Cosio B, Agustí A and Busquets X

    Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca, Baleares, España.

    Objective: To compare the concentrations and extent of nitration of sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) adenosine triphosphatase 2 (SERCA2) in biopsies of the quadriceps femoris from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have normal or low body mass index (BMI).

    The patients were divided into 2 groups (n=7, each group), one containing individuals with normal BMI (> 21 kg/m(2)) and the other with low BMI (< 21 kg/m(2)). Forced spirometry and blood gas analysis were performed in both groups and percutaneous needle biopsies of the lateral portion of the quadriceps femoris muscle were performed. Western blots were used to assess the concentration of SERCA2 in the biopsy material. To determine whether or not the protein was tyrosine-nitrated, immunoprecipitation of SERCA2 was performed with an antinitrotyrosine antibody followed by Western blotting to determine the concentration of the tyrosine-nitrated protein.

    Results: Expression of SERCA2 was significantly lower in patients with low BMI (4.2 [0.5] vs 8.1 [1.2] integrated optical density units, P < .05). SERCA2 was also tyrosine-nitrated in the patients with low BMI. Finally, a significant negative correlation was observed between the concentration of SERCA2 and that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (determined in a previous study using the same biopsy material) in patients with COPD and low BMI (r=-0.89, P=.007), while such a correlation was not observed in patients with COPD and normal BMI (r=0.35, P=.43).

    Conclusions: In patients with COPD, SERCA2 concentration is reduced and the protein is tyrosine-nitrated in skeletal muscle from patients with low BMI compared to those with normal BMI. These results indicate the presence of a previously unrecognized cellular alteration in skeletal muscle from patients with COPD and low muscle weight.

    Archivos de bronconeumologia 2007;43;1;4-8

  • SERCA2a, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and ryanodine receptors gene expression in children with congenital heart defects.

    Vittorini S, Storti S, Parri MS, Cerillo AG and Clerico A

    Molecular Cardiology and Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, G Pasquinucci Hospital, Massa, Italy. simona.vittorini@ifc.cnr.it

    In animal models of conotruncal heart defects, an abnormal calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus and a depressed L-type calcium current have been described. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) is a membrane protein that catalyzes the ATP-dependent transport of Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the SR. The activity of SERCA is inhibited by phospholamban (PLN) and sarcolipin (SLN), and all these proteins participate in maintaining the normal intracellular calcium handling. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the major SR calcium-release channels required for excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our objective was to evaluate SERCA2a (i.e., the SERCA cardiac isoform), PLN, SLN, and RyR2 (i.e., the RyR isoform enriched in the heart) gene expression in myocardial tissue of patients affected by tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a conotruncal heart defect. The gene expression of target genes was assessed semiquantitatively by RT-PCR using the calsequestrin (CASQ, a housekeeping gene) RNA as internal standard in the atrial myocardium of 23 pediatric patients undergoing surgical correction of TOF, in 10 age-matched patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and in 13 age-matched children with atrial septal defect (ASD). We observed a significantly lower expression of PLN and SLN in TOF patients, 6ed while there was no difference between the expression of SERCA2a and RyR2 in TOF and VSD. These data suggest a complex mechanism aimed to enhance the intracellular Ca(2+) reserve in children affected by tetralogy of Fallot.

    Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2007;13;1-2;105-11

  • A724A polymorphism of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) in hypertensive patients.

    Kiec-Wilk B, Dembinska-Kiec A, Olszanecka A, Bodzioch M, Schmitz G and Kawecka-Jaszcz K

    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Medical College Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. mbbkiec@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    Background: Impaired function of calcium ion transporter sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2), encoded by ATP2A2 gene, was observed in hypertension. The aim of this study was to screen for mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls.

    Methods: The frequency of a novel mutation in exon 15 of ATP2A2, coding SERCA2, was studied in 107 hypertensive patients and a control group of 50 healthy volunteers. 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring (ABPM) was carried out. ATP2A2 genotyping was performed by denaturing HPLC and sequencing.

    Results: In exon 15 of the ATP2A2 gene, a novel c.2171G>A polymorphism was identified that does not change the amino acid sequence. The frequency of the A allele was significantly higher in normotensive controls than in hypertensive patients (p=0.017). GA genotype carriers demonstrated a tendency towards lower blood pressure values in the doctor's office (p=0.367 systolic, p=0.439 diastolic blood pressure) and measured by ABPM.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective role of the A724A (c.2171G>A) polymorphism of ATP2A2 in subjects without hypertension.

    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine 2007;45;4;467-70

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Alterations in the ATP2A2 gene in correlation with colon and lung cancer.

    Korosec B, Glavac D, Rott T and Ravnik-Glavac M

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    Sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPases (SERCA-type calcium pumps), proteins that accumulate calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum, play an important role in numerous signaling pathways controlling tumor growth, differentiation, and cell death. Reports that Atp2a2 (Serca2) haploinsufficient mice often developed cancer prompted us to study the involvement of the ATP2A2 gene in human cancer development. We found 13 different novel alterations of the ATP2A2 gene in 27 of 416 alleles of patients with two different types of cancer. Changes in ATP2A2 were significantly more common in patients with colon cancer (P < 0.0001, odds ratio OR = 25.3) or lung cancer (P = 0.046, OR = 8.05). The 13 alterations were missense mutations (2), intronic deletions (2), intronic insertions (1), and single-nucleotide alterations (8: two in the coding region, three in the intronic region, and three in the promoter region). We detected lost or reduced expression of ATP2A2 in all patients with alterations in the promoter region, as well as in patients with a combination of gene alterations. Our results suggest that germline alterations of ATP2A2 may predispose to lung and colon cancer and that an impaired ATP2A2 gene might be involved, directly or indirectly, as an early event in carcinogenesis.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2006;171;2;105-11

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation and increases sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 levels.

    King TD, Gandy JC and Bijur GN

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, Sparks Center 1009, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0017, USA.

    The ubiquitously expressed protein glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is constitutively active, however its activity is markedly diminished following phosphorylation of Ser21 of GSK3alpha and Ser9 of GSK3beta. Although several kinases are known to phosphorylate Ser21/9 of GSK3, for example Akt, relatively much less is known about the mechanisms that cause the dephosphorylation of GSK3 at Ser21/9. In the present study KCl-induced plasma membrane depolarization of SH-SY5Y cells, which increases intracellular calcium concentrations caused a transient decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, and GSK3 at Ser21/9. Overexpression of the selective protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, inhibitor-2, increased basal GSK3 phosphorylation at Ser21/9 and significantly blocked the KCl-induced dephosphorylation of GSK3beta, but not GSK3alpha. The phosphorylation of Akt was not affected by the overexpression of inhibitor-2. GSK3 activity is known to affect sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) levels. Overexpression of inhibitor-2 or treatment of cells with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and SB216763 increased the levels of SERCA2. These results indicate that the protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by KCl and that GSK3 activity regulates SERCA2 levels.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS044853, R01 NS044853, R01 NS044853-03

    Experimental cell research 2006;312;18;3693-700

  • Reduced expression of Ca2+-regulating proteins in the upper gastrointestinal tract of patients with achalasia.

    Fischer H, Fischer J, Boknik P, Gergs U, Schmitz W, Domschke W, Konturek JW and Neumann J

    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik B, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Germany.

    Aim: To compare expression of Ca(2+)-regulating proteins in upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of achalasia patients and healthy volunteers and to elucidate their role in achalasia.

    Methods: Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) isoforms 2a and 2b, phospholamban (PLB), calsequestrin (CSQ), and calreticulin (CRT) were assessed by quantitative Western blotting in esophagus and heart of rats, rabbits, and humans. Furthermore, expression profiles of these proteins in biopsies of lower esophageal sphincter and esophagus from patients with achalasia and healthy volunteers were analyzed.

    Results: SERCA 2a protein expression was much higher in human heart (cardiac ventricle) compared to esophagus. However, SERCA 2b was expressed predominantly in the esophagus. The highest CRT expression was noted in the human esophagus, while PLB, although highly expressed in the heart, was below our detection limit in upper GI tissue. Compared to healthy controls, CSQ and CRT expression in lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophageal body were significantly reduced in patients with achalasia (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: PLB in the human esophagus might be of lesser importance for regulation of SERCA than in heart. Lower expression of Ca(2+) storage proteins (CSQ and CRT) might contribute to increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure in achalasia, possibly by increasing free intracellular Ca(2+).

    World journal of gastroenterology 2006;12;37;6002-7

  • Up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) following sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2 gene silencing promotes cell survival: a potential role for TRPC1 in Darier's disease.

    Pani B, Cornatzer E, Cornatzer W, Shin DM, Pittelkow MR, Hovnanian A, Ambudkar IS and Singh BB

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA.

    The mechanism(s) involved in regulation of store operated calcium entry in Darier's disease (DD) is not known. We investigated the distribution and function of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) in epidermal skin cells. DD patients demonstrated up-regulation of TRPC1, but not TRPC3, in the squamous layers. Ca2+ influx was significantly higher in keratinocytes obtained from DD patients and showed enhanced proliferation compared with normal keratinocytes. Similar up-regulation of TRPC1 was also detected in epidermal layers of SERCA2+/- mice. HaCaT cells expressed TRPC1 in the plasma membrane. Expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HaCaT cells increased TRPC1 levels and thapsigargin-stimulated Ca2+ influx, which was blocked by store-operated calcium entry inhibitors. Thapsigargin-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ release was decreased in DD cells. DD keratinocytes exhibited increased cell survival upon thapsigargin treatment. Alternatively, overexpression of TRPC1 or SERCA2-siRNA in HaCaT cells demonstrated resistance to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. These effects were dependent on external Ca2+ and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Isotretinoin reduced Ca2+ entry in HaCaT cells and decreased survival of HaCaT and DD keratinocytes. These findings put forward a novel consequence of compromised SERCA2 function in DD wherein up-regulation of TRPC1 augments cell proliferation and restrict apoptosis. We suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of TRPC1 could potentially contribute to abnormal keratosis in DD.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 5P20RR017699, P20 RR017699, P20 RR017699-077011; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE 017102, R01 DE017102, R01 DE017102-01A1, R01 DE017102-02, R01 DE017102-03

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;10;4446-58

  • Human platelet Ca2+-ATPases: new markers of cell differentiation as illustrated in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Bredoux R, Corvazier E, Dally S, Chaabane C, Bobe R, Raies A, Moreau A and Enouf J

    Inserm U 689, IFR 139, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.

    The aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common form of scoliosis, is unclear. Previous studies showed controversial platelet abnormalities including intracellular calcium. Platelet Ca2+ homeostasis is controlled by a multi-Ca2+-ATPase system including SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) and PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) isoforms. Here, we first investigated the expression of PMCA4b, SERCA3a and SERCA2b isoforms in platelets of 17 patients with AIS. Patients presenting thoracic curves were found to present a higher PMCA4b expression coupled to a lower SERCA3a one in agreement with an abnormality in platelet maturation. Indeed, using PMA-treated MEG 01 cells, an in vitro model of megakaryocytopoiesis, we found an increase in SERCA3a expression, associated to a caspase-3 mediated C terminal proteolysis of PMCA4b. To look whether platelets reflect a basic defect in cell differentiation, we next identified osteoblast Ca2+-ATPases and studied their expressions in AIS. Major expressions of PMCA4b and SERCA2b were found in normal osteoblasts. Comparing platelets and osteoblasts in two additional patients with AIS, we found opposite and concerted regulations of the expressions of PMCA4b and caspase-3 substrate, PARP in both cell types. A systemic defect in cell differentiation involving caspase-3 can be proposed as a novel mechanism in the etiopathogenesis of the most frequent type of AIS. *R. Bredoux and E. Corvazier contributed equally to this work.

    Platelets 2006;17;6;421-33

  • Comprehensive analysis of expression and function of 51 sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase mutants associated with Darier disease.

    Miyauchi Y, Daiho T, Yamasaki K, Takahashi H, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Danko S, Suzuki H and Iizuka H

    Departments of Biochemistry and Dermatology, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan.

    We examined possible defects of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) associated with its 51 mutations found in Darier disease (DD) pedigrees, i.e. most of the substitution and deletion mutations of residues reported so far. COS-1 cells were transfected with each of the mutant cDNAs, and the expression and function of the SERCA2b protein was analyzed with microsomes prepared from the cells and compared with those of the wild type. Fifteen mutants showed markedly reduced expression. Among the other 36, 29 mutants exhibited completely abolished or strongly inhibited Ca2+-ATPase activity, whereas the other seven possessed fairly high or normal ATPase activity. In four of the aforementioned seven mutants, Ca2+ transport activity was significantly reduced or almost completely lost, therefore uncoupled from ATP hydrolysis. The other three were exceptional cases as they were seemingly normal in protein expression and Ca2+ transport function, but were found to have abnormalities in the kinetic properties altered by the three mutations, which happened to be in the three DD pedigrees found by us previously (Sato, K., Yamasaki, K., Daiho, T., Miyauchi, Y., Takahashi, H., Ishida-Yamamoto, A., Nakamura, S., Iizuka, H., and Suzuki, H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 35595-35603). Collectively, our results indicated that in most cases (48 of 51) DD mutations cause severe disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis by the defects in protein expression and/or transport function and hence DD, but even a slight disturbance of the homeostasis will result in the disease. Our results also provided further insight into the structure-function relationship of SERCAs and revealed critical regions and residues of the enzyme.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;32;22882-95

  • Darier's disease.

    Reinstein E and Shoenfeld Y

    Department of Medicine B and Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

    The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ 2006;8;8;588

  • Expression of SERCA2 (Darier's disease gene product) in acantholytic dermatoses.

    Porgpermdee S, Takagi A, Mayuzumi N, Ogawa H, Ikeda S and Nakamura S

    Journal of dermatological science 2006;43;2;146-9

  • Five mutations of ATP2A2 gene in Chinese patients with Darier's disease and a literature review of 86 cases reported in China.

    Ren YQ, Gao M, Liang YH, Hou YX, Wang PG, Sun LD, Xu SX, Li W, Du WH, Zhou FS, Shen YJ, Yang S and Zhang XJ

    Institute of Dermatology and Department of Dermatology, No: 1 Hospital, Anhui Medical University, 69 Meishan Road, 230032, Hefei, Anhui, China.

    Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells (acantholysis) and abnormal keratinization. To date, at least 140 mutations in the ATP2A2 gene have been identified as the genetic basis of DD. Here we reported three familial and two sporadic Chinese DD patients totally with four missense mutations (N767D, M494I, M494L, C318F) and one splice-site mutation (1288-6A-->G) in ATP2A2 gene, and presented a literature review of DD cases reported in China since 1989. Our data add new variants to the repertoire of ATP2A2 gene in DD and confirms that most mutations in the ATP2A2 gene are private and missense type. Likewise, the literature review indicates that DD is not uncommon in China and presents more information about genotype-phenotype correlations.

    Archives of dermatological research 2006;298;2;58-63

  • Relevance of brain natriuretic peptide in preload-dependent regulation of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase expression.

    Kögler H, Schott P, Toischer K, Milting H, Van PN, Kohlhaas M, Grebe C, Kassner A, Domeier E, Teucher N, Seidler T, Knöll R, Maier LS, El-Banayosy A, Körfer R and Hasenfuss G

    Abteilung für Kardiologie, Georg August Universität, Göttingen, Germany. hkogler@med.uni-goettingen.de

    Background: In heart failure (HF), ventricular myocardium expresses brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Despite the association of elevated serum levels with poor prognosis, BNP release is considered beneficial because of its antihypertrophic, vasodilating, and diuretic properties. However, there is evidence that BNP-mediated signaling may adversely influence cardiac remodeling, with further impairment of calcium homeostasis.

    We studied the effects of BNP on preload-dependent myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) expression. In rabbit isolated muscle strips stretched to high preload and shortening isotonically over 6 hours, the SERCA/glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA ratio was enhanced by 168% (n=8) compared with unloaded preparations (n=8; P<0.001). Recombinant human BNP at a concentration typically found in end-stage HF 16a0 patients (350 pg/mL) abolished SERCA upregulation by stretch (n=9; P<0.0001 versus BNP free). Inhibition of cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate (cGMP)-phosphodiesterase-5 mimicked this effect, whereas inhibition of cGMP-dependent protein kinase restored preload-dependent SERCA upregulation in the presence of recombinant human BNP. Furthermore, in myocardium from human end-stage HF patients undergoing cardiac transplantation (n=15), BNP expression was inversely correlated with SERCA levels. Moreover, among 23 patients treated with left ventricular assist devices, significant SERCA2a recovery occurred in those downregulating BNP.

    Conclusions: Our data indicate that preload stimulates SERCA expression. BNP antagonizes this mechanism via guanylyl cyclase-A, cGMP, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. This novel action of BNP to uncouple preload-dependent SERCA expression may adversely affect contractility in patients with HF.

    Circu 585 lation 2006;113;23;2724-32

  • Ca2+-ATPases in non-failing and failing heart: evidence for a novel cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 isoform (SERCA2c).

    Dally S, Bredoux R, Corvazier E, Andersen JP, Clausen JD, Dode L, Fanchaouy M, Gelebart P, Monceau V, Gwathmey JK, Hajjar R, Chaabane C, Bobe R, Raies A and En 1a44 ouf J

    INSERM U689, IFR139, Hôpital Lariboisière, 8 Rue Guy Patin, 75475 Paris Cedex 10, France.

    We recently documented the expression of a novel human mRNA variant encoding a yet uncharacterized SERCA [SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum)/ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Ca2+-ATPase] protein, SERCA2c [Gélébart, Martin, Enouf and Papp (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303, 676-684]. In the present study, we have analysed the expression and functional characteristics of SERCA2c relative to SERCA2a and SERCA2b isoforms upon their stable heterologous expression in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells). All SERCA2 proteins induced an increased Ca2+ content in the ER of intact transfected cells. In microsomes prepared from transfected cells, SERCA2c showed a lower apparent affinity for cytosolic Ca2+ than SERCA2a and a catalytic turnover rate similar to SERCA2b. We further demonstrated the expression of the endogenous SERCA2c protein in protein lysates isolated from heart left ventricles using a newly generated SERCA2c-specific antibody. Relative to the known uniform distribution of SERCA2a and SERCA2b in cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle tissue, SERCA2c was only detected in a confined area of cardiomyocytes, in close proximity to the sarcolemma. This finding led us to explore the expression of the presently known cardiac Ca2+-ATPase isoforms in heart failure. Comparative expression of SERCAs and PMCAs (plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases) was performed in four nonfailing hearts and five failing hearts displaying mixed cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies. Relative to normal subjects, cardiomyopathic patients express more PMCAs than SERCA2 proteins. Interestingly, SERCA2c expression was significantly increased (166+/-26%) in one patient. Taken together, these results demonstrate the expression of the novel SERCA2c isoform in the heart and may point to a still unrecognized role of PMCAs in cardiomyopathies.

    The Biochemical journal 2006;395;2;249-58

  • The effects of the phenylalanine 256 to valine mutation on the sensitivity of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) Ca2+ pump isoforms 1, 2, and 3 to thapsigargin and other inhibitors.

    Wootton LL and Michelangeli F

    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

    Three isoforms of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) are known to exist in mammalian cells. This study investigated the effects of thapsigargin and a variety of commonly used hydrophobic inhibitors on these SERCA isoforms (i.e. SERCA1b, SERCA2b, and SERCA3a), which were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. In addition, the study assessed whether the introduction of the phenylalanine to valine mutation at position 256 (F256V), known to reduce the potency of thapsigargin inhibition in avian SERCA1, affects the other SERCA isoforms in a similar manner and whether this mutation also affects the inhibition by other inhibitors. This study has shown that the sensitivity to thapsigargin is different for the SERCA isoforms (apparent K(i) values being 0.21, 1.3, and 12 nm for SERCA1b, SERCA2b, and SERCA3a, respectively). The reduction in thapsigargin sensitivity caused by the F256V mutation was also different for the three isoforms, with SERCA2b only being modestly affected by this mutation. Although some of the other inhibitors investigated (i.e. cyclopiazonic acid and curcumin) showed some differences in their sensitivity toward the SERCA isoforms, most were little affected by the F256V mutation, indicating that they inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase by binding to sites on SERCA distinct from that of thapsigargin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;11;6970-6

  • Cardiomyopathic etiology and SERCA2a reverse remodeling during mechanical support of the failing human heart.

    Heerdt PM, Klotz S and Burkhoff D

    Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA. pmheerd@mail.med.cornell.edu

    Many hearts in end-stage, chronic failure (CHF) retain the capacity to reverse abnormal expression of genes regulating myocyte calcium cycling when supported with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). In the present study, we determined whether LVAD-induced upregulation of the gene encoding for the key calcium cycling protein sarcoplasmic endoreticular calcium adenosine triphosphatase subtype 2a (SERCA2a) is influenced by the nature of underlying disease broadly characterized as ischemic (ICM) or idiopathic dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy. Data from Northern blot analysis of SERCA2a messenger (m)RNA within 84 heart samples (50 CHF [23 DCM and 27 ICM] and 34 CHF+LVAD [18 DCM and 16 ICM]) were used for characterizing gene expression. In addition, measurements of the force-frequency relationship (FFR), a reflection of in vivo SERCA2a function, were obtained in myocardial trabeculae isolated from 75 hearts (51 CHF [29 DCM and 22 ICM] and 24 CHF+LVAD [10 DCM and 14 ICM]). SERCA2a mRNA demonstrated upregulation after LVAD that was not influenced by ICM or DCM. However, only in DCM hearts was the proportion of trabeculae exhibiting a normal FFR increased after LVAD. Thus, although upregulated SERCA2a gene expression after LVAD support is independent of myopathic origin, normalization of myocardial FFR, an index of SERCA2a function, is not. These data provide new insight into the process of cardiac "reverse molecular remodeling," and underscore potential differences in the impact of disease processes on posttranscriptional events.

    Anesthesia and analgesia 2006;102;1;32-7

  • Collaborative effect of SERCA and PMCA in cytosolic calcium homeostasis in human platelets.

    Redondo PC, Rosado JA, Pariente JA and Salido GM

    Department of Physiology, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain. pcr@unex.es

    Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) is finely regulated by several mechanisms that either increase or reduce [Ca2+]c. Two different Ca2+ pumps have been described so far as the main mechanisms for Ca2+ removal from the cytosol, either by its sequestration into the stores, mediated by the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) or by Ca2+ extrusion to the extracellular medium, by the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA). We have used inhibitors of these pumps to analyze their Ca2+ clearance efficacy in human platelets stimulated by the physiological agonist thrombin. Results demonstrate that, after platelet stimulation with thrombin, activation of SERCA precedes that of PMCA, although the ability of PMCA to remove Ca2+ from the cytosol last longer than that of SERCA. The efficacy of SERCA and PMCA removing Ca2+ from the cytosol is reduced when the concentration of thrombin increases. This phenomenon correlates with the greater increase in [Ca2+]c induced by higher concentrations of thrombin, which further confirms that SERCA and PMCA activities are regulated by [Ca2+]c.

    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 2005;61;4;507-16

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on calcium pump ATPase expression in human diaphragm.

    Nguyen T, Rubinstein NA, Vijayasarathy C, Rome LC, Kaiser LR, Shrager JB and Levine S

    Respiratory Muscle Research Laboratory, Section of General Thoracic Surgery (4 Silverstein Pavilion), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St., Philadelphia, PA 19104-4283, USA.

    We have previously demonstrated that human diaphragm remodeling elicited by severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain isoform transformation. To test the hypothesis that COPD-induced diaphragm remodeling also elicits a fast-to-slow isoform shift in the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), the other major ATPase in skeletal muscle, we obtained intraoperative biopsies of the costal diaphragm from 10 severe COPD patients and 10 control subjects. We then used isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies to characterize diaphragm fibers with respect to the expression of SERCA isoforms. Compared with control diaphragms, COPD diaphragms exhibited a 63% decrease in fibers expressing only fast SERCA (i.e., SERCA1; P < 0.001), a 190% increase in fibers containing both fast and slow SERCA isoforms (P < 0.01), and a 19% increase (P < 0.05) in fibers expressing only the slow SERCA isoform (i.e., SERCA2). Additionally, immunoblot experiments carried out on diaphragm homogenates indicated that COPD diaphragms expressed only one-third the SERCA1 content noted in control diaphragms; in contrast, COPD and control diaphragms did not differ with respect to SERCA2 content. The combination of these histological and immunoblot results is consistent with the hypothesis that diaphragm remodeling elicited by severe COPD is characterized by a fast-to-slow SERCA isoform transformation. Moreover, the combination of these SERCA data and our previously reported myosin heavy chain isoform data (Levine S, Nguyen T, Kaiser LR, Rubinstein NA, Maislin G, Gregory C, Rome LC, Dudley GA, Sieck GC, and Shrager JB. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168: 706-713, 2003) suggests that diaphragm remodeling elicited by severe COPD should decrease ATP utilization by the diaphragm.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 38404, AR 46125

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2005;98;6;2004-10

  • Three novel mutations in the ATP2A2 gene in Hungarian families with Darier's disease, including a novel splice site generating intronic nucleotide change.

    Racz E, Csikós M, Benko R, Kornseé Z and Kárpáti S

    Journal of dermatological science 2005;38;3;231-4

  • Age-dependent suppression of SERCA2a mRNA in pediatric atrial myocardium.

    Pavlovic M, Schaller A, Pfammatter JP, Carrel T, Berdat P and Gallati S

    Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, 3010 Berne, Switzerland. mladen.pavlovic@insel.ch <mladen.pavlovic@insel.ch&gt;

    Differential expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) and phospholamban (PLB) has been shown in heart failure and atrial arrhythmias. We investigated the influence of volume overload and age on their expression in pediatric atrial myocardium. Right atrial specimens from 18 children with volume overloaded right atrium (VO) and 12 patients without overload were studied. Each group was further divided into patients less than and older than 12 months of age. Only in the younger patients SERCA2a was significantly reduced in the VO group. In younger patients PLB mRNA level tended to be lower in VO. The PLB:SERCA protein ratio was significantly reduced in the VO group. Age itself did not influence the SERCA2a and PLB expression, if the hemodynamic overload was not taken into account. This study is the first to show a combined influence of volume overload and age on atrial SERCA2a expression.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;326;2;344-8

  • S-Glutathiolation by peroxynitrite activates SERCA during arterial relaxation by nitric oxide.

    Adachi T, Weisbrod RM, Pimentel DR, Ying J, Sharov VS, Schöneich C and Cohen RA

    Vascular and Myocardial Biology Units, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University Medical Center, X707, 650 Albany Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02118-2393, USA. Tadachi@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp

    Nitric oxide (NO) physiologically stimulates the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase (SERCA) to decrease intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and relax cardiac, skeletal and vascular smooth muscle. Here, we show that NO-derived peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) directly increases SERCA activity by S-glutathiolation and that this modification of SERCA is blocked by irreversible oxidation of the relevant cysteine thiols during atherosclerosis. Purified SERCA was S-glutathiolated by ONOO(-) and the increase in Ca(2+)-uptake activity of SERCA reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles required the presence of glutathione. Mutation of the SERCA-reactive Cys674 to serine abolished these effects. Because superoxide scavengers decreased S-glutathiolation of SERCA and arterial relaxation by NO, ONOO(-) is implicated as the intracellular mediator. NO-dependent relaxation as well as S-glutathiolation and activation of SERCA were decreased by atherosclerosis and Cys674 was found to be oxidized to sulfonic acid. Thus, irreversible oxidation of key thiol(s) in disease impairs NO-induced relaxation by preventing reversible S-glutathiolation and activation of SERCA by NO/ONOO(-).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55993-06, N01-HV-28178, R01 HL31607-21; NIA NIH HHS: AG P01 12993

    Nature medicine 2004;10;11;1200-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Enrichment of endoplasmic reticulum with cholesterol inhibits sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase-2b activity in parallel with increased order of membrane lipids: implications for depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and apoptosis in cholesterol-loaded macrophages.

    Li Y, Ge M, Ciani L, Kuriakose G, Westover EJ, Dura M, Covey DF, Freed JH, Maxfield FR, Lytton J and Tabas I

    Department of Medicine, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic lesions accumulate large amounts of unesterified, or "free," cholesterol (FC). FC accumulation induces macrophage apoptosis, which likely contributes to plaque destabilization. Apoptosis is triggered by the enrichment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with FC, resulting in depletion of ER calcium stores, and induction of the unfolded protein response. To explain the mechanism of ER calcium depletion, we hypothesized that FC enrichment of the normally cholesterol-poor ER membrane inhibits the macrophage ER calcium pump, sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase-2b (SERCA2b). FC enrichment of ER membranes to a level similar to that occurring in vivo inhibited both the ATPase activity and calcium sequestration function of SERCA2b. Enrichment of ER with ent-cholesterol or 14:0-18:0 phosphatidylcholine, which possess the membrane-ordering properties of cholesterol, also inhibited SERCA2b. Moreover, at various levels of FC enrichment of ER membranes, there was a very close correlation between increasing membrane lipid order, as monitored by 16-doxyl-phosphatidycholine electron spin resonance, and SERCA2b inhibition. In view of these data, we speculate that SERCA2b, a conformationally active protein with 11 membrane-spanning regions, loses function due to decreased conformational freedom in FC-ordered membranes. This biophysical model may underlie the critical connection between excess cholesterol, unfolded protein response induction, macrophage death, and plaque destabilization in advanced atherosclerosis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR 016292; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 54591, HL 57560, HL 75662; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 25862, GM 47969

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;35;37030-9

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Identification of mutations in the ATP2A2 gene in patients with Darier's disease from Hungary.

    Rácz E, Csikós M, Kornsée Z, Horváth A and Kárpáti S

    Semmelweis University, Department of Dermato-Venereology, Budapest, Hungary. raczem@bor.sote.hu

    Mutation analysis in the ATP2A2 gene had been performed in eight Hungarian patients with Darier's disease (DD), to get more information about phenotype-genotype relations. All patients had moderate to severe skin symptoms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the entire coding region of ATP2A2 was performed. Mutation detection strategies included heteroduplex scanning by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and direct nucleotide sequencing. We found distinct, heterozygous mutations (five missense, one nonsense, one deletion, and one insertion), six of which were novel. In a 31-year-old DD woman with learning difficulties we disclosed a previously described missense mutation (D702N) in exon 15. A 44-year-old DD woman had a novel T insertion at nucleotide 559 in exon 7 of the ATP2A2 gene, which resulted in a premature termination codon (PTC) at codon 192. A woman, whose skin symptoms developed unusually late, at the age 50, had a new T deletion (1320delT) in exon 11 resulting in a PTC at codon 448. Our most severe case had a known missense mutation N39T, resulting in a non-conservative amino acid change at the upstream stalk region. Three new missense mutations (A161D, R164S, and Q790P) affected conservative regions of the SERCA2 protein within the activation (A)-domain and the M6 transmembrane region. A further new nonsense mutation (C909X) was detected in the M8 transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that differences in DD phenotypes are probably also related to factors different from the type of causative mutation.

    Experimental dermatology 2004;13;6;396-9

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • TRAM2 protein interacts with endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump Serca2b and is necessary for collagen type I synthesis.

    Stefanovic B, Stefanovic L, Schnabl B, Bataller R and Brenner DA

    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA. branko.stefanovic@med.fsu.edu

    Cotranslational insertion of type I collagen chains into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their subsequent folding into a heterotrimeric helix is a complex process which requires coordinated action of the translation machinery, components of translocons, molecular chaperones, and modifying enzymes. Here we describe a role for the protein TRAM2 in collagen type I expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibroblasts. Activated HSCs are collagen-producing cells in the fibrotic liver. Quiescent HSCs produce trace amounts of type I collagen, while upon activation collagen synthesis increases 50- to 70-fold. Likewise, expression of TRAM2 dramatically increases in activated HSCs. TRAM2 shares 53% amino acid identity with the protein TRAM, which is a component of the translocon. However, TRAM2 has a C terminus with only a 15% identity. The C-terminal part of TRAM2 interacts with the Ca(2+) pump of the ER, SERCA2b, as demonstrated in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen and by immunoprecipitations in human cells. TRAM2 also coprecipitates with anticollagen antibody, suggesting that these two proteins interact. Deletion of the C-terminal part of TRAM2 inhibits type I collagen synthesis during activation of HSCs. The pharmacological inhibitor of SERCA2b, thapsigargin, has a similar effect. Depletion of ER Ca(2+) with thapsigargin results in inhibition of triple helical collagen folding and increased intracellular degradation. We propose that TRAM2, as a part of the translocon, is required for the biosynthesis of type I collagen by coupling the activity of SERCA2b with the activity of the translocon. This coupling may increase the local Ca(2+) concentration at the site of collagen synthesis, and a high Ca(2+) concentration may be necessary for the function of molecular chaperones involved in collagen folding.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 1R01DK59466-01A1, R01 DK059466

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;4;1758-68

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • P160L mutation in the Ca(2+) ATPase 2A domain in a patient with severe Darier disease.

    Godic A, Glavac D, Korosec B, Miljković J, Potocnik M and Kansky A

    Department of Dermatovenereology, University Clinical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia. aleksandar.godic@mf.uni-lj.si

    Darier disease (DD) is caused by mutations of the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2). The mutations affect protein expression, degradation and activity. We report a patient with severe sporadic DD, who did not respond adequately to repeated courses of orally administered acitretin and isotretinoin. He was found to harbor the missense P160L mutation of the ATP2A2 gene in a heterozygous state in the A domain of SERCA2 and polymorphism in intron 18 (2741 + 54 G --> A). The A domain plays a key role in translocation of Ca(2+) from cytoplasm to endoplasmic reticulum lumen, thus establishing a low intracellular Ca(2+) concentration.

    Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland) 2004;209;2;142-4

  • Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA1 and -2) in human extraocular muscles.

    Kjellgren D, Ryan M, Ohlendieck K, Thornell LE and Pedrosa-Domellöf F

    Department of Clinical Science, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Umeå, S-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.

    Purpose: To investigate the composition of the fibers in human extraocular muscles (EOMs) with respect to the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPases (SERCA)-1 and -2 and to investigate possible correlations between SERCA and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition.

    Methods: EOM samples were processed for immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific against SERCA1 (fast isoform), SERCA2 (slow isoform), or different MyHCs. A total of 1571 fibers were analyzed. Microsomal EOM fractions were analyzed with SDS-PAGE and immunoblots.

    Results: The fast fibers, containing MyHCIIa, accounted for 79% of the fibers in the orbital layer (OL) and 74% in the global layer (GL). More than 99% of these fibers contained SERCA1, and 86% of them coexpressed SERCA1 and -2. Almost all slow fibers stained with SERCA2; 54% of those in the GL and all in the OL coexpressed SERCA1 and -2. Fifteen percent of the fibers in the GL and less than 1% in the OL were MyHCeom(pos)/MyHCIIa(neg) fibers. All these contained SERCA1 and in the OL also stained strongly with anti-SERCA2. Biochemically SERCA2 was more abundant than SERCA1.

    Conclusions: The human EOMs had a very complex pattern of expression of the major protein regulating fiber relaxation rate. The coexistence of SERCA1 and -2, together with complex mixtures of MyHCs in most of the fibers provide the human EOMs with a unique molecular portfolio that allows a highly specific fine-tuning regimen of contraction and relaxation.

    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2003;44;12;5057-62

  • Dissection of the functional differences between sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 1 and 2 isoforms and characterization of Darier disease (SERCA2) mutants by steady-state and transient kinetic analyses.

    Dode L, Andersen JP, Leslie N, Dhitavat J, Vilsen B and Hovnanian A

    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, United Kingdom. leonard.dode@well.ox.ac.uk

    Steady-state and rapid kinetic studies were conducted to functionally characterize the overall and partial reactions of the Ca2+ transport cycle mediated by the human sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) isoforms, SERCA2a and SERCA2b, and 10 Darier disease (DD) mutants upon heterologous expression in HEK-293 cells. SERCA2b displayed a 10-fold decrease in the rate of Ca2+ dissociation from E1Ca2 relative to SERCA2a (i.e. SERCA2b enzyme manifests true high affinity at cytosolic Ca2+ sites) and a lower rate of dephosphorylation. These fundamental kinetic differences explain the increased apparent affinity for activation by cytosolic Ca2+ and the reduced catalytic turnover rate in SERCA2b. Relative to SERCA1a, both SERCA2 isoforms displayed a 2-fold decrease of the rate of E2 to E1Ca2 transition. Furthermore, seven DD mutants were expressed at similar levels as wild type. The expression level was 2-fold reduced for Gly23 --> Glu and Ser920 --> Tyr and 10-fold reduced for Gly749 --> Arg. Uncoupling between Ca2+ translocation and ATP hydrolysis and/or changes in the rates of partial reactions account for lack of function for 7 of 10 mutants: Gly23 --> Glu (uncoupling), Ser186 --> Phe, Pro602 --> Leu, and Asp702 --> Asn (block of E1 approximately P(Ca2) to E2-P transition), Cys318 --> Arg (uncoupling and 3-fold reduction of E2-P to E2 transition rate), and Thr357 --> Lys and Gly769 --> Arg (lack of phosphorylation). A 2-fold decrease in the E1 approximately P(Ca2) to E2-P transition rate is responsible for the 2-fold decrease in activity for Pro895 --> Leu. Ser920 --> Tyr is a unique DD mutant showing an enhanced molecular Ca2+ transport activity relative to wild-type SERCA2b. In this case, the disease may be a consequence of the low expression level and/or reduction of Ca2+ affinity and sensitivity to inhibition by lumenal Ca2+.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;48;47877-89

  • Mutations in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform cause Darier's disease.

    Dhitavat J, Dode L, Leslie N, Sakuntabhai A, Lorette G and Hovnanian A

    The Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    Darier's disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder, characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells and abnormal keratinization. ATP2A2 encoding the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)2 has been identified as the defective gene in Darier's disease. All mutations previously reported occur in the region of ATP2A2 encoding both SERCA2a and SERCA2b isoforms. These isoforms result from alternative splicing of exon 20, with SERCA2b being the major isoform expressed in the epidermis. In this report, we studied a family affected with Darier's disease and identified a deletion (2993delTG) in a region of exon 20 of ATP2A2, which is specific for SERCA2b. This heterozygous mutation predicts a frameshift with a premature termination codon (PTC+32aa) in the eleventh transmembrane domain of SERCA2b. It segregates with the disease phenotype in the family members tested, and functional analysis shows a drastic reduction of the expression of the mutated protein in comparison with the wild-type SERCA2b. Our result suggests that the mutated allele causes the disease phenotype through loss of function of SERCA2b isoform. This finding indicates that SERCA2b plays a key role in the biology of the epidermis, and its defects are sufficient to cause Darier's disease.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2003;121;3;486-9

  • Ca2+ -dependent interaction of S100A1 with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase2a and phospholamban in the human heart.

    Kiewitz R, Acklin C, Schäfer BW, Maco B, Uhrík B, Wuytack F, Erne P and Heizmann CW

    Departm 6fb ent of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Steinwiesstr. 75, CH-8032, Zürich, Switzerland.

    The Ca(2+)-binding S100A1 protein displays a specific and high expression level in the human myocardium and is considered to be an important regulator of heart contractility. Diminished protein levels detected in dilated cardiomyopathy possibly contribute to impaired Ca(2+) handling and contractility in heart failure. To elucidate the S100A1 signaling pathway in the human heart, we searched for S100A1 target proteins by applying S100A1-specific affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation techniques. We detected the formation of a Ca(2+)-dependent complex of S100A1 with SERCA2a and PLB in the human myocardium. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we showed that all three proteins co-localize at the level of the SR in primary mouse cardiomyocytes and confirmed these results by immunoelectron microscopy in human biopsies. Our results support a regulatory role of S100A1 in the contraction-relaxation cycle in the human heart.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;306;2;550-7

  • Multiple effects of SERCA2b mutations associated with Darier's disease.

    Ahn W, Lee MG, Kim KH and Muallem S

    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. Shmuel.Muallen@UTSouthwestern.edu

    Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, encoding sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump type 2b isoform (SERCA2b). Although >100 mutations in the ATP2A2 gene were identified, no apparent relation between genotype/phenotype emerged. In this work, we analyzed 12 DD-associated mutations from all of the regions of SERCA2b to study the underlying pathologic mechanism of DD and to elucidate the role of dimerization in SERCA2b activity. Most mutations markedly affected protein expression, partially because of enhanced proteasome-mediated degradation. All of the mutants showed lower activity than the wild type pump. Notably, several mutants that cause relatively severe phenotype of DD inhibited the activity of the endogenous and the co-expressed wild type SERCA2b. Importantly, these effects were not attributed to changes in passive Ca2+ leak, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity, or sensitivity to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Rather, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that SERCA2b monomers interact to influence the activity of each other. These findings reveal multiple molecular mechanisms to account for the plethora of pathologic states observed in DD and provide the first evidence for the importance of SERCA2b dimerization in pump function in vivo.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE13902; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 38939

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;23;20795-801

  • Identification of a new SERCA2 splice variant regulated during monocytic differentiation.

    Gélébart P, Martin V, Enouf J and Papp B

    U. 348 INSERM, IFR-6, Hôpital Lariboisière, 8, rue Guy Patin, 75010 Paris, France.

    Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum-type calcium transport ATPases (SERCA enzymes) pump calcium ions from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum. We report that in addition to the ubiquitously expressed SERCA2b isoform, a new splice variant of SERCA2 can be detected (SERCA2c) that arises from the inclusion of a short intronic sequence located between exons 20 and 21 of the SERCA2a isoform. Sequence analysis revealed classical splice donor and acceptor sites, as well as a branch-point site. Due to the presence in the new exon of an in-frame stop codon that is preceded by a 17 bp coding sequence, this mRNA potentially codes for a protein with a truncated C-terminus containing a short unique C-terminal peptide stretch. SERCA2c message was detected in epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cell lines, as well as in primary human monocytes. Moreover, we found that during monocytic differentiation total SERCA2 ATPase expression is induced on the protein and mRNA level and that the novel SERCA2c messenger is also up-regulated during this process. These data indicate that the alternative splicing pattern of the 3(') region of the SERCA2 primary transcript is more complex than that previously thought and that this enzyme may be involved in the process of monocyte differentiation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;303;2;676-84

  • Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf is caused by mutation in ATP2A2: evidence that it is allelic to Darier's disease.

    Dhitavat J, Macfarlane S, Dode L, Leslie N, Sakuntabhai A, MacSween R, Saihan E and Hovnanian A

    Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf is a localized disorder of keratinization affecting the distal extremities. Onset is early in life and the disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Although histology of acrokeratosis verruciformis lesions shows no evidence of dyskeratosis, a possible relationship with Darier's disease has long been postulated on the basis of clinical similarity. ATP2A2 encoding the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase2 pump has been identified as the defective gene in Darier's disease. In this report, we studied a family affected with acrokeratosis verruciformis in six generations and identified a heterozygous P602L mutation in ATP2A2. This mutation predicts a nonconservative amino acid substitution in the ATP binding domain of the molecule. The mutation segregates with the disease phenotype in the family and was not found in 50 controls. Moreover, functional analysis of the P602L mutant showed that it has lost its ability to transport Ca2+. This result demonstrates loss of function of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase2 mutant in acrokeratosis verruciformis, thus providing evidence that acrokeratosis verruciformis and Darier's disease are allelic disorders.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2003;120;2;229-32

  • Sarcolipin inhibits polymerization of phospholamban to induce superinhibition of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs).

    Asahi M, Kurzydlowski K, Tada M and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6, Canada.

    Sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase of fast-twitch skeletal muscle (SERCA1a), is also expressed in cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscles where phospholamban (PLN) and SERCA2a are expressed. Co-expression in HEK-293 cells of SLN tagged N-terminally with a FLAG epitope (NF-SLN), PLN, and SERCAs followed by measurement of the Ca(2+) dependence of Ca(2+) transport activity in isolated microsomal fractions showed that NF-SLN can reduce the apparent Ca(2+) affinity of both SERCA1a (DeltaK(Ca) = -0.22 +/- 0.01 pCa units) and SERCA2a (DeltaK 18f3 (Ca) = -0.37 +/- 0.04 pCa units). When SERCA1a or SERCA2a were co-expressed with both NF-SLN and PLN, inhibition was synergistic, reducing DeltaK(Ca) by about -1.0 pCa units. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that NF-SLN increased the binding of PLN to SERCA, whereas PLN did not increase the binding of NF-SLN to SERCA. Elevated Ca(2+) dissociates both PLN and NF-SLN from their complexes with both SERCA1a and SERCA2a, but NF-SLN induced resistance to Ca(2+) dissociation of the PLN.SERCA complex. Co-immunoprecipitation of PLN and NF-SLN without SERCA showed that NF-SLN binds directly to PLN and that NF-SLN inhibits the formation of PLN pentamers. Thus the ability of NF-SLN to elevate the content of PLN monomers can account, at least in part, for the superinhibitory effects of NF-SLN in the presence of PLN.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;30;26725-8

  • Mutation analysis of the ATP2A2 gene in Taiwanese patients with Darier's disease.

    Chao SC, Yang MH and Lee JY

    Department of Dermatology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, 138 Sheng-Li Road, 704 Tainan, Taiwan.

    Background: Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized by abnormal keratinization and acantholysis. Pathogenic mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2, a calcium pump of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum, have recently been identified.

    Objectives: To identify mutations of the ATP2A2 gene in Taiwanese patients with DD.

    Methods: Mutation analysis of genomic DNA was performed on five families with DD and two sporadic cases. All 21 exons and the flanking intron boundaries were amplified and followed by direct sequencing. Restriction fragment analysis or direct sequencing in each family and in normal controls further verified the mutations.

    Results: Mutations in the functional domains of the ATP2A2 gene were identified and verified in all seven pedigrees. They consisted of four mis-sense mutations (R131Q, P680L, G703S, G807R), one altered splice-site mutation (2980 + 5insA) and one frameshift deletion mutation (1457-1458delAG). Of these, R131Q, which was reported twice previously, was detected in two unrelated families. The remaining five were novel mutations.

    Conclusions: Six pathogenic mutations in the ATP2A2 gene were identified in seven Taiwanese DD pedigrees. The results confirmed that most mutations in the ATP2A2 gene are private and of the mis-sense type.

    The British journal of dermatology 2002;146;6;958-63

  • Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase-2 gene: structure and transcriptional regulation of the human gene.

    Zarain-Herzberg A and Alvarez-Fernández G

    Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF. angelz@bq.unam.mx

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs) belong to a family of active calcium transport enzymes encoded by the SERCA1, 2, and 3 genes. In this study, we describe the complete structure of the human SERCA2 gene and its 5 -regulatory region. The hSERCA2 gene is located in chromosome 12 position q24.1 in Contig NT_009770.8, spans 70 kb, and is organized in 21 exons intervened by 20 introns. The last two exons of the pre-mRNA produce by alternatively splicing the cardiac/slow-twitch muscle-specific SERCA2a isoform and the ubiquitous SERCA2b isoform. The sequence of the proximal 225-bp regulatory region of the SERCA2 genes is 80% G+C-rich and is conserved among human, rabbit, rat, and mouse species. It contains a TATA-like-box, an E-box/USF sequence, a CAAT-box, four Sp1 binding sites, and a thyroid hormone responsive element (TRE). There are two other conserved regulatory regions located between positions -410 to -661 bp and from -919 to -1410 bp. Among the DNA cis-elements present in these two regulatory regions there are potential binding sites for: GATA-4, -5, -6, Nkx-2.5/Csx, OTF-1, USF, MEF-2, SRF, PPAR/RXR, AP-2, and TREs. Upstream from position -1.5 kb, there is no significant homology among the SERCA2 genes cloned. In addition, the human gene has several repeated sequences mainly of the Alu and L2 type located upstream from position -1.7 kb, spanning in a continuous fashion for more than 40 kb. In this study, we report the cloning of 2.4 kb of 5-regulatory region and demonstrate that the proximal promoter region is sufficient for expression in cardiac myocytes, and the region from -225 to -1232 bp contains regulatory DNA elements which down-regulate the expression of the SERCA2 gene in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    TheScientificWorldJournal 2002;2;1469-83

  • Evidence for calcineurin-mediated regulation of SERCA 2a activity in human myocardium.

    Münch G, Bölck B, Karczewski P and Schwinger RH

    Laboratory of Muscle Research and Molecular Cardiology, Klinik III für Innere Medizin, University of Cologne, Germany.

    Compromised SERCA 2a activity is a key malfunction leading to the Ca(2+) cycling alterations in failing human myocardium. SERCA 2a activity is regulated by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) but alterations of the CaM-kinase pathway regarding SERCA 2a in heart failure are unresolved. Therefore we investigated the CaM-kinase and phosphatase calcineurin mediated regulation of SERCA 2a in failing and non-failing human myocardium. We studied human myocardial preparations from explanted hearts from non-failing organ donors (NF, n=8) and from patients with terminal heart failure undergoing cardiac transplantation (dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM, n=8). SERCA 2a activity was determined using a NADH-coupled enzyme assay [expressed in nmol ATP/(mg protein x min)] and by(45)Ca(2+) uptake. Protein expression of SERCA 2a, phospholamban, calsequestrin and calcineurin was assessed by Western blotting (expressed as densitometric units/microg protein); phosphorylation of cardiac proteins was detected with specific phospho-antibodies for phospholamban at threonine-17 (PT17) or by incorporation of [gamma -(32)P] (expressed as pmol(32)P/mg). Maximal(45)Ca(2+) uptake (in pmol/mg/min) (NF: 3402+/-174; DCM: 2488+/-189) and maximal SERCA 2a activity were reduced in DCM compared to NF (V(max): NF: 125+/-9; DCM: 98+/-5). The V(max) reduction could be mimicked by calcineurin in vitro in NF (NF(control): 72.1+/-3.7; NF(+calcineurin): 49.8+/-2.9) and restored in DCM by CaM-kinase in vitro (DCM(control): 98+/-5; DCM(+CaM-kinase): 120+/-6). Protein expression of SERCA 2a, phospholamban and calsequestrin remained similar, but calcineurin expression was significantly increased in failing human hearts (NF: 11.6+/-1.5 v DCM: 17.1+/-1.6). Although the capacity of endogenous CaM-kinase to phosphorylate PT17 was significantly higher in DCM (DCM(control): 128+/-36; DCM(+endogenous CaM-kinase): 205+/-20) compared to NF myocardium (NF(control): 273+/-37; NF(+endogenous CaM-kinase): 254+/-31), net phosphorylation at threonine-17 phospholamban was significantly lower in DCM (DCM 130+/-11 v NF 170+/-11). A calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of phospholamban could be mimicked in vitro by incubation of NF preparations with calcineurin (NF(control) 80.7+/-4.4 v NF(+calcineurin) 30.7+/-4.1, P<0.05). In human myocardium, the V(max) of SERCA 2a and the phosphorylation of phospholamban is modulated by CaM-kinase and calcineurin, at least in vitro. In failing human myocardium, despite increased CaM-kinase activity, calcineurin dephosphorylation leads to decreased net phosphorylation of threonine-17 phospholamban in vivo. Increased calcineurin activity contributes to the impaired V(max) of SERCA 2a in failing human myocardium and the disorder in Ca(2+)-handling in heart failure.

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2002;34;3;321-34

  • Reconstitution of the cytoplasmic interaction between phospholamban and Ca(2+)-ATPase of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Kimura Y and Inui M

    Department of Pharmacology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan.

    Phospholamban (PLN) reversibly inhibits the Ca(2+)-ATPase of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2a) through a direct protein-protein interaction, playing a pivotal role in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) in heart muscle cells. The interaction between PLN and SERCA2a occurs at multiple sites within the cytoplasmic and membrane domains. Here, we have reconstituted the cytoplasmic protein-protein interaction using bacterially expressed fusion proteins of the cytoplasmic domain of PLN and the long cytoplasmic loop of SERCA2a. We have developed two methods to evaluate the binding of the fusion proteins, one with glutathione-Sepharose beads and the other with a 96-well plate. Essentially the same results were obtained by the two methods. The affinity of the binding (K(D)) was 0.70 microM. The association was inhibited by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the PLN fusion protein and by usage of anti-PLN monoclonal antibody. It was also diminished by substitution at the phosphorylation site of PLN of Ser(16) to Asp. These results suggest that PLN can bind SERCA2a in the absence of the membrane domains and that the modifications of the cytoplasmic domain of PLN that activate SERCA2a parallel the disruption of the association between the two fusion proteins. It has been shown that the removal of PLN inhibition of SERCA2a rescues cardiac function and morphology in the mouse dilated cardiomyopathy model. Our assay system can be applied to the screening of novel inotropic agents that remove the inhibition of SERCA2a by PLN, improving the relaxation as well as the contractility of the failing heart.

    Molecular pharmacology 2002;61;3;667-73

  • Modulation of SERCA: implications for the failing human heart.

    Frank KF, Bölck B, Brixius K, Kranias EG and Schwinger RH

    Laboratory of Muscle Research and Molecular Cardiology, Clinic III for Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Str. 9, 50924 Kö1n, Germany. konrad.frank@medizin.uni-koeln.de

    Human heart failure is characterized by distinct alterations in the intracellular homeostasis and key regulators of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sequestration mechanisms. Systolic peak Ca2+ is reduced, diastolic Ca2+ levels are increased and diastolic Ca2+ decay is prolonged. Recently specific changes in the expression, function and modulation of SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) have been elucidated. As such, in a variety of studies SERCA expression appeared to be decreased in the failing human heart, although these findings have been discussed controversially depending on the studied tissue, especially with respect to the non-failing samples and regional variation in the obtained samples. However, consistent findings of a diminished Ca2+ dependent SERCA activation were found. Increasing evidence has been provided that one of the underlying mechanisms for a decreased activation of SERCA is its altered regulation. With respect to this, the modulations through phospholamban and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) play a detrimental role in regulating SERCA function. Phospholamban phosphorylation of SERCA at the serine-16 and threonine-17 site is diminished in human heart failure resulting in decreases in the apparent affinity for Ca2+ of the SR Ca2+ uptake rates. In contrast, activation of CaMK II leads to an increased maximal velocity of SR Ca2+ sequestration that may enhance SR Ca2+-load. Additional regulation has been recently elucidated by changes in the apparent coupling ratio of Ca2+ transported per ATP hydrolysed. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding how SERCA is modulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

    Basic research in cardiology 2002;97 Suppl 1;I72-8

  • Phospholamban domain IB forms an interaction site with the loop between transmembrane helices M6 and M7 of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases.

    Asahi M, Green NM, Kurzydlowski K, Tada M and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

    Transmembrane helix M6 of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) has been shown to form a site of interaction with phospholamban (PLN). Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out in the cytoplasmic loop (L67) between M6 and M7 in SERCA1a to detect other SERCA-PLN binding sites. Mutants N810A, D813A, and R822A had diminished ability to interact functionally with PLN, but only D813A and R822A had reduced physical interaction with PLN. PLN mutants R25A, Q26A, N27A, L28A, Q29A, and N30A had enhanced physical interaction with wild-type (wt) SERCA1a, but physical interaction of these PLN mutants with SERCA1a mutants D813A and R822A was reduced about 2.5 fold (range 1.44-2.82). Exceptions were the interactions of PLN N27A and N30A with SERCA1a D813A, which were reduced by 7.3- and 5.8-fold, respectively. A superinhibitory PLN deletion mutant, PLNDelta21-29, had strong physical interactions with SERCA1a and with SERCA1a mutant D813A. Physical interactions with SERCA1a and mutant D813A were sharply diminished, however, for the PLN deletion mutant, PLNDelta21-30, lacking PLN N30. Physical interactions between SERCA1a and a PLN-cytochrome b(5) chimera containing PLN residues 1-29 were much stronger than those between a PLN-cytochrome b(5) chimera containing PLN residues 1-21 and lacking N27. These results suggest that a SERCA1-PLN interaction site occurs between L67 of SERCA1a and domain IB of PLN, which involves SERCA1a D813 and PLN N27 and N30.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;18;10061-6

  • SERCA1 truncated proteins unable to pump calcium reduce the endoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration and induce apoptosis.

    Chami M, Gozuacik D, Lagorce D, Brini M, Falson P, Peaucellier G, Pinton P, Lecoeur H, Gougeon ML, le Maire M, Rizzuto R, Bréchot C and Paterlini-Bréchot P

    The French Institute of Health and Medical Research Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM/Pasteur U370)/Necker Faculty Institute of Medicine, 75015 Paris, France.

    By pumping calcium from the cytosol to the ER, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCAs) play a major role in the control of calcium signaling. We describe two SERCA1 splice variants (S1Ts) characterized by exon 4 and/or exon 11 splicing, encoding COOH terminally truncated proteins, having only one of the seven calcium-binding residues, and thus unable to pump calcium. As shown by semiquantitative RT-PCR, S1T transcripts are differentially expressed in several adult and fetal human tissues, but not in skeletal muscle and heart. S1T proteins expression was detected by Western blot in nontransfected cell lines. In transiently transfected cells, S1T homodimers were revealed by Western blot using mildly denaturing conditions. S1T proteins were shown, by confocal scanning microscopy, to colocalize with endogenous SERCA2b into the ER membrane. Using ER-targeted aequorin (erAEQ), we have found that S1T proteins reduce ER calcium and reverse elevation of ER calcium loading induced by SERCA1 and SERCA2b. Our results also show that SERCA1 variants increase ER calcium leakage and are consistent with the hypothesis of a cation channel formed by S1T homodimers. Finally, when overexpressed in liver-derived cells, S1T proteins significantly induce apoptosis. These data reveal a further mechanism modulating Ca(2+) accumulation into the ER of nonmuscle cells and highlight the relevance of S1T proteins to the control of apoptosis.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;153;6;1301-14

  • Role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase on heat production and thermogenesis.

    de Meis L

    Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, RJ, Brazil.

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle retains a membrane bound Ca2+-ATPase which is able to interconvert different forms of energy. A part of the chemical energy released during ATP hydrolysis is converted into heat and in the bibliography it is assumed that the amount of heat produced during the hydrolysis of an ATP molecule is always the same, as if the energy released during ATP cleavage were divided in two non-interchangeable parts: one would be converted into heat, and the other used for Ca2+ transport. Data obtained in our laboratory during the past three years indicate that the amount of heat released during the hydrolysis of ATP may vary between 7 and 32 kcal/mol depending on whether or not a transmembrane Ca2+ gradient is formed across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Drugs such as heparin and dimethyl sulfoxide are able to modify the fraction of the chemical energy released during ATP hydrolysis which is used for Ca2+ transport and the fraction which is dissipated in the surrounding medium as heat.

    Bioscience reports 2001;21;2;113-37

  • Exclusion of the Darier's disease gene, ATP2A2, as a common susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder.

    Jacobsen NJ, Franks EK, Elvidge G, Jones I, McCandless F, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ and Craddock N

    Neuropsychiatric Genetics Unit, Division of Psychological Medicine, Tenovus Building, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.

    Bipolar affective disorder is a genetically complex psychiatric disorder with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. We have previously reported cosegregation of bipolar affective disorder and Darier's disease, a dominant skin disorder with a neuropsychiatric component. The gene for Darier's disease was mapped to chromosome 12q23-q24.1 and linkage studies by us and others have subsequently implicated this region as harbouring a susceptibility gene for bipolar affective disorder. In this study we have investigated the Darier's disease gene ATP2A2, the calcium pumping ATPase SERCA2, as a potential susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder under the hypothesis that variations in SERCA2 have pleiotropic effects in brain. Support for this hypothesis comes from clinical evidence of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in Darier's disease, genetic data produced in our study showing non-random clustering of missense mutations in ATP2A2 in neuropsychiatric Darier patients, and functional data demonstrating the role of SERCA2 in intracellular calcium regulation. In a panel of 15 unrelated bipolar patients from multiply affected families showing increased allele sharing at markers in the 12q23-q24.1 region, we performed mutational screening of the ATP2A2 coding sequence, promoter regions, and 3' untranslated region and identified six sequence variations. These were analysed in a large sample of bipolar patients (n = 324) and control subjects (n = 327). Analysis of allele and genotype distributions for all six variations, and of haplotype frequencies showed no evidence for the involvement of ATP2A2 in producing susceptibility to bipolar disorder.

    Molecular psychiatry 2001;6;1;92-7

  • Mosaicism for ATP2A2 mutations causes segmental Darier's disease.

    Sakuntabhai A, Dhitavat J, Burge S and Hovnanian A

    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    Epidermal naevi are localized malformations of the epidermis consisting of verrucoid scaly papules and plaques following Blaschko's lines. Genetic mosaicism has been proposed to underlie the development of linear epidermal naevi. Rarely, epidermal naevi show acantholytic histology similar to Darier's disease, a dominantly inherited skin condition characterized by widespread warty papules. As patients with acantholytic dyskeratotic naevi often give a history of worsening after sun exposure and the lesions are typical of Darier's disease, numerous authors have proposed that these patients have segmental Darier's disease. The postulated relationship has not been proven, however. Recently, we identified ATP2A2, which encodes the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase isoform 2 as the defective gene in Darier's disease. In this report, we investigated the involvement of ATP2A2 in acantholytic dyskeratotic naevi following Blaschko's lines in two patients. We identified a nonsense mutation (Y894X) in the first patient and a nonconservative glycine to arginine mutation at codon 769 (G769R) in the other patient. These mutations were present in affected skin, and were not detected in unaffected skin or in leukocytes. We conclude that acantholytic dyskeratotic naevi can arise from a somatic mutation in ATP2A2. These individuals are mosaics for the mutation, but the risk of transmission of generalized Darier's disease will depend on whether the germline is affected. Our findings provide further evidence that Blaschko's lines do reflect genetic mosaicism and that the term acantholytic dyskeratotic naevus might be replaced in the future by segmental Darier's disease induced by postzygotic mosaicism. J Invest Dermatol 115:1144-1147 2000

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2000;115;6;1144-7

  • Physical interactions between phospholamban and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases are dissociated by elevated Ca2+, but not by phospholamban phosphorylation, vanadate, or thapsigargin, and are enhanced by ATP.

    Asahi M, McKenna E, Kurzydlowski K, Tada M and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6, Canada.

    Previous co-immunoprecipitation studies (Asahi, M., Kimura, Y., Kurzydlowski, K., Tada, M., and MacLennan, D. H. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 32855-32862) revealed that physical interactions between phospholamban (PLN) and the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA1a) were retained, even with PLN monoclonal antibody 1D11 bound to an epitope lying between PLN residues 7 and 17. Because the 1D11 antibody relieves inhibitory interaction between the two proteins, it was of interest to determine whether PLN phosphorylation or elevation of Ca(2+), which also relieves inhibitory interactions between PLN and SERCA, would disrupt physical interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ca(2+) or after phosphorylation of PLN by protein kinase A. Physical interactions were dissociated by elevated Ca(2+) but not by PLN phosphorylation. The addition of ATP enhanced interactions between PLN and SERCA. The further addition of vanadate and thapsigargin, both of which stabilize the E(2) conformation, did not diminish binding of PLN to SERCA. These data suggest that physical interactions between PLN and SERCA are stable when SERCA is in the Ca(2+)-free E(2) conformation but not when it is in the E(1) conformation and that phosphorylation of PLN does not dissociate physical interactions between PLN and SERCA.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;20;15034-8

  • ATP2A2 mutations in Darier's disease and their relationship to neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

    Jacobsen NJ, Lyons I, Hoogendoorn B, Burge S, Kwok PY, O'Donovan MC, Craddock N and Owen MJ

    Neuropsychiatric Genetics Unit, Division of Psychological Medicine, Tenovus Building, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.

    Darier's disease (DD) is a rare, dominantly inherited disorder that affects the skin producing a variety of types of lesion. Close examination of lesional DD skin shows the presence of abnormal keratinization (epidermal differentiation) and acantholysis (loss of cohesion) of keratinocytes. A number of clinical studies have described the co-occurrence of various neurological and psychiatric symptoms with DD, including mood disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation and a slowly progressive encephalopathy. A single locus for DD has been mapped to chromosome 12q23-q24.1, and a variety of missense, nonsense, frameshift and splicing mutations in the ATP2A2 gene have been described recently in families with DD. This gene encodes the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-pumping ATPase SERCA2, which has a central role in intra-cellular calcium signalling. In this study, we performed mutation analysis on ATP2A2 in 19 unrelated DD patients, of whom 10 had neuropsychiatric phenotypes. We identified and verified 17 novel mutations predicting conservative and non-conservative amino acid changes, potential premature translation terminations and potential altered splicing. Our findings confirm that mutations in ATP2A2 are associated with DD. In neuropsychiatric cases, there was a non-random clustering of mutations in the 3' end of the gene ( P = 0.01), and a predominance of the missense type (70% versus 38% in DD patients). This supports the hypothesis that the DD gene has pleiotropic effects in brain and that mutations in SERCA2 are implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 1999;8;9;1631-6

  • ATP2A2 mutations in Darier's disease: variant cutaneous phenotypes are associated with missense mutations, but neuropsychiatric features are independent of mutation class.

    Ruiz-Perez VL, Carter SA, Healy E, Todd C, Rees JL, Steijlen PM, Carmichael AJ, Lewis HM, Hohl D, Itin P, Vahlquist A, Gobello T, Mazzanti C, Reggazini R, Nagy G, Munro CS and Strachan T

    Human Genetics Unit, School of Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

    Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized clinically by multiple keratotic papules, and histologically by focal loss of adhesion between epidermal cells (acantholysis) and by abnormal keratinization. Variant forms of cutaneous phenotype, sometimes familial, have been described. Associated neuropsychiatric features, including mental handicap, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy, have also been reported. The cause of DD was shown recently to be mutation in the ATP2A2 gene at 12q24.1, which encodes the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase type 2 (SERCA2). Here, we show that while both common isoforms of SERCA2 are expressed in the cytoplasm of cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts, in adult skin sections only the longer isoform, SERCA2b, was expressed abundantly in epidermal structures. Extended mutation analysis in European DD patients using single-strand conformation polymorphism and/or direct sequencing identified 40 different patient-specific mutations in 47 families. The majority (23/40) were likely to result in nonsense-mediated RNA decay. The remaining 17 were missense mutations distributed throughout the protein and were associated significantly with atypical clinical features. The clearest association was with the familial haemorrhagic variant where all four families tested had a missense mutation. Three of the families (one Scottish family and two unrelated Italian families) exhibited the same N767S substitution in the M5 transmembrane domain, and a fourth family, from Sweden, had a C268F substitution in the M3 transmembrane domain. Neuropsychiatric features did not appear to be associated with a specific class of mutation and may be an intrinsic, but inconsistent, effect of defective ATP2A2 expression.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 1999;8;9;1621-30

  • Spectrum of novel ATP2A2 mutations in patients with Darier's disease.

    Sakuntabhai A, Burge S, Monk S and Hovnanian A

    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells (acantholysis) and abnormal keratinization. Recently, we identified ATP2A2 encoding the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase isoform 2 as the defective gene in DD. Now we report a spectrum of ATP2A2 mutations in 19 families and six sporadic cases with DD and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations. All 21 exons and flanking intron boundaries were amplified and screened for mutations by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing. We identified 24 novel mutations that are scattered throughout the ATP2A2 gene. Two families shared an identical mutation on a common disease-associated haplotype, suggesting inheritance from a common ancestor. The majority of the mutations (54%; 13/24) led to a premature termination codon which further supports the proposal that haploin-sufficiency is a common molecular mechanism for DD. Thirty-eight per cent of mutations (9/24) result in non-conservative amino acid substitutions at highly conserved positions. Two mutations predict mutated polypeptides lacking or carrying additional amino acids. Marked inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability of the disease was observed. These results illustrate the considerable diversity of ATP2A2 mutations causing DD and suggest that additional factors are important contributors to the clinical phenotype.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 1999;8;9;1611-9

  • Mutations in ATP2A2, encoding a Ca2+ pump, cause Darier disease.

    Sakuntabhai A, Ruiz-Perez V, Carter S, Jacobsen N, Burge S, Monk S, Smith M, Munro CS, O'Donovan M, Craddock N, Kucherlapati R, Rees JL, Owen M, Lathrop GM, Monaco AP, Strachan T and Hovnanian A

    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, UK.

    Darier disease (DD) is an autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells (acantholysis) and abnormal keratinization. Recently we constructed a 2.4-Mb, P1-derived artificial chromosome contig spanning the DD candidate region on chromosome 12q23-24.1. After screening several genes that mapped to this region, we identified mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase type 2 isoform (SERCA2) and is highly expressed in keratinocytes. Thirteen mutations were identified, including frame 1f40 shift deletions, in-frame deletions or insertions, splice-site mutations and non-conservative missense mutations in functional domains. Our results demonstrate that mutations in ATP2A2 cause DD and disclose a role for this pump in a Ca(2+)-signalling pathway regulating cell-to-cell adhesion and differentiation of the epidermis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Nature genetics 1999;21;3;271-7

  • Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump by Bcl-2.

    Kuo TH, Kim HR, Zhu L, Yu Y, Lin HM and Tsang W

    Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    Members of the bcl-2 gene family encode proteins that function either to promote or to inhibit apoptosis. Despite numerous efforts, the mechanism of action of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is still not clear. In particular, the relation between Bcl-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store is not well-understood. In the present work, we examined the effect of Bcl-2 on the ER store. We demonstrate that overexpression of Bcl-2 in breast epithelial cells modulates ER store by upregulating calcium pump (SERCA) expression without affecting the release channel (IP3R). The steady state levels of SERCA2 mRNA and protein were both increased in Bcl-2 expression clones. The increase in SERCA2 protein leads to accelerated calcium uptake and enhanced Ca2+ loading. In addition, we also show the detection of intracellular interaction between Bcl-2 and SERCA molecules by co-immunoprecipitation. Since high lumenal Ca2+ concentration of ER is essential for normal cell functions, the results suggest that Bcl-2 preserves the ER Ca2+ store by upregulating SERCA gene expression as well as by a possible interaction with the pump.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-64139; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-39481

    Oncogene 1998;17;15;1903-10

  • Insulin receptor substrate proteins create a link between the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade and the Ca2+-ATPases in muscle and heart.

    Algenstaedt P, Antonetti DA, Yaffe MB and Kahn CR

    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    Following phosphorylation by the insulin receptor kinase, the insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 bind to and activate several Src homology 2 (SH2) domain proteins. To identify novel proteins that interact with IRS proteins in muscle, a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library was created in the lambdaEXlox system and probed with baculovirus-produced and tyrosine-phosphorylated human IRS-1. One clone of the 10 clones which was positive through three rounds of screening represented the C terminus of the human homologue of the adult fast twitch skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) including the cytoplasmic tail and part of transmembrane region 10. Western blot analysis of extracts of rat muscle demonstrated co-immunoprecipitation of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 with the skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) and the cardiac muscle isoform (SERCA2). In both cases, injection of insulin stimulated a 2- to 6-fold increase in association of which was maximal within 5 min. In primary cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells and C2C12 cells, the insulin-stimulated interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 and -2 was dose-dependent with a maximum induction at 100 nM insulin. This interaction was confirmed in a "pull down" experiment using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the C terminus of the human SERCA isoform and phosphorylated IRS-1 in vitro and could be blocked by a FLVRES-like domain peptide present in the human SERCA sequence. Affinity chromatography of phosphopeptide libraries using the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the C terminus of SERCA1 indicated a consensus sequence for binding of XpYGSS; this is identical to potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites at position 431 of human IRS-1 and at position 500 of human IRS-2. In streptozotocin diabetic rats the interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 in skeletal muscle and SERCA2 in cardiac muscle was significantly reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that the IRS proteins bind to the Ca2+-ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in an insulin-regulated fashion, thus creating a potential link between the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade and effects of insulin on calcium.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 33201, P30 DK36836

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;38;23696-702

  • Identification of Ser38 as the site in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase that is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

    Toyofuku T, Curotto Kurzydlowski K, Narayanan N and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, C. H. Best Institute, Ontario, Canada.

    In previous studies (Xu, A., Hawkins, C., and Narayanan, N. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 8394-8397), the Ca(2+)-ATPase of cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) was shown to be phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase) on a serine residue, likely to be either Ser38, Ser167, or Ser531. SERCA2 and SERCA2 mutants S38A, S167A, and S531A were expressed in HEK-293 cells and tested for phosphorylation with CaM kinase. Mutant S38A was not phosphorylated, while mutants S167A and S531A were phosphorylated, suggesting that Ser38 is the site of CaM kinase phosphorylation in SERCA2. This conclusion was supported by the observation that phosphorylation of SERCA2 and mutants S167A and S531A by CaM kinase increased the Vmax for Ca2+ transport, while the Vmax for Ca2+ transport by mutant S38A was unaffected by exposure to a phosphorylation reaction mix. SERCA1, containing a potential CaM kinase phosphorylation site at Ser167 and two SERCA1 mutants, K35R plus H38S and T532S, in which potential CaM kinase sites were created, were not phosphorylated by CaM kinase, and Vmax for Ca2+ transport was unaffected by exposure to a phosphorylation reaction mix. Thus phosphorylation of Ser38 in SERCA2 results in a unique activation of Vmax for Ca2+ transport, providing a potential regulatory mechanism for Ca2+ removal from cardiac and other tissues in which SERCA2 is expressed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;42;26492-6

  • Chromosome mapping of five human cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum protein genes.

    Otsu K, Fujii J, Periasamy M, Difilippantonio M, Uppender M, Ward DC and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Charles H. Best Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments were performed using genomic and complementary DNA probes in order to determine the location on human chromosomes for five genes expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The chromosome location of each gene was determined in terms of both cytogenetic bands and fractional chromosome length. The ATP2A2 gene, expressing the SERCA2 isoform of the Ca2+ pump, maps to bands 12q23-q24.1, the phospholamban gene (PLN) to 6q22.1, the human skeletal muscle calsequestrin gene (CASQ1) to band 1q21, the cardiac calsequestrin gene (CASQ2) to bands 1p11-p13.3, and the cardiac calcium release channel gene (RYR2) to the interval between band 1q42.1 (distal) and band 1q43 (proximal).

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00272

    Genomics 1993;17;2;507-9

  • Molecular cloning of cDNAs from human kidney coding for two alternatively spliced products of the cardiac Ca2+-ATPase gene.

    Lytton J and MacLennan DH

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, C. H. Best Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Ca2+-ATPase molecules present in the microsomal fraction from non-muscle cells were examined immunologically. Rabbit whole brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, and COS-1 cell microsomes all displayed a polypeptide of about 110 kDa which was immunoreactive with a polyclonal antiserum against the cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase molecule, but was not immunoreactive with a monoclonal antibody specific for the fast-twitch muscle Ca2+-ATPase. cDNAs encoding the full length of two Ca2+-ATPase molecules were isolated from a human kidney library using a mixture of nucleotide probes derived from both rabbit fast-twitch and cardiac muscle Ca2+-ATPase cDNAs. The human kidney cDNAs, HK1 and HK2, are the products of alternative splicing. HK2 codes for a protein identical to rabbit cardiac muscle Ca2+-ATPase, with the exception of 6 scattered amino acid replacements, whereas HK1 codes for a protein identical to that encoded by HK2, but with the carboxyl-terminal 4 amino acids replaced by an extended sequence of 49 amino acids. cDNAs of the HK1 type are by far the most abundant in the library. The partial structure of a 40-kilobase genomic DNA encoding all but the 5' end of the human cardiac Ca2+-ATPase is described. The exons which give rise to the alternatively spliced products were located by Southern blotting and sequencing, and the alternative splicing patterns were determined.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;29;15024-31

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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