G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
latrophilin 3
G00000068 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000150471 (Ensembl human gene)
23284 (Entrez Gene)
404 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LPHN3 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:20974 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9HAR2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • KIAA0768
  • LEC3

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association study of biochemical traits in Korcula Island, Croatia.

    Zemunik T, Boban M, Lauc G, Janković S, Rotim K, Vatavuk Z, Bencić G, Dogas Z, Boraska V, Torlak V, Susac J, Zobić I, Rudan D, Pulanić D, Modun D, Mudnić I, Gunjaca G, Budimir D, Hayward C, Vitart V, Wright AF, Campbell H and Rudan I

    University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia.

    Aim: To identify genetic variants underlying biochemical traits--total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, albumin, and fibrinogen, in a genome-wide association study in an isolated population where rare variants of larger effect may be more easily identified.

    Methods: The study included 944 adult inhabitants of the island of Korcula, as a part of larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Biochemical measurements were performed in a single laboratory with stringent internal and external quality control procedures. Examinees were genotyped using Human Hap370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 346027 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).

    Results: A total of 31 SNPs were associated with 7 investigated traits at the level of P<1.00 x 10(-5). Nine of SNPs implicated the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid regulation (P=4.10 x 10(-6)-2.58 x 10(-12)), as previously found in other populations. All 22 remaining associations fell into the P=1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(-6) significance range. One of them replicated the association between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and HDL, and 7 associations were more than 100 kilobases away from the closest known gene. Nearby SNPs, rs4767631 and rs10444502, in gene kinase suppressor of ras 2 (KSR2) on chromosome 12 were associated with LDL cholesterol levels, and rs10444502 in the same gene with total cholesterol levels. Similarly, rs2839619 in gene PBX/knotted 1 homeobox 1 (PKNOX1) on chromosome 21 was associated with total and LDL cholesterol levels. The remaining 9 findings implied possible associations between phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene and total cholesterol; USP46, RAP1GDS1, and ZCCHC16 genes and triglycerides; BCAT1 and SLC14A2 genes and albumin; and NR3C2, GRIK2, and PCSK2 genes and fibrinogen.

    Conclusion: Although this study was underpowered for most of the reported associations to reach formal threshold of genome-wide significance under the assumption of independent multiple testing, replications of previous findings and consistency of association between the identified variants and more than one studied trait make such findings interesting for further functional follow-up studies. Changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in much larger samples in outbred populations.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127561128

    Croatian medical journal 2009;50;1;23-33

  • Genetics meets metabolomics: a genome-wide association study of metabolite profiles in human serum.

    Gieger C, Geistlinger L, Altmaier E, Hrabé de Angelis M, Kronenberg F, Meitinger T, Mewes HW, Wichmann HE, Weinberger KM, Adamski J, Illig T and Suhre K

    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

    The rapidly evolving field of metabolomics aims at a comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a cell or body fluid. It thereby provides a functional readout of the physiological state of the human body. Genetic variants that associate with changes in the homeostasis of key lipids, carbohydrates, or amino acids are not only expected to display much larger effect sizes due to their direct involvement in metabolite conversion modification, but should also provide access to the biochemical context of such variations, in particular when enzyme coding genes are concerned. To test this hypothesis, we conducted what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first GWA study with metabolomics based on the quantitative measurement of 363 metabolites in serum of 284 male participants of the KORA study. We found associations of frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with considerable differences in the metabolic homeostasis of the human body, explaining up to 12% of the observed variance. Using ratios of certain metabolite concentrations as a proxy for enzymatic activity, up to 28% of the variance can be explained (p-values 10(-16) to 10(-21)). We identified four genetic variants in genes coding for enzymes (FADS1, LIPC, SCAD, MCAD) where the corresponding metabolic phenotype (metabotype) clearly matches the biochemical pathways in which these enzymes are active. Our results suggest that common genetic polymorphisms induce major differentiations in the metabolic make-up of the human population. This may lead to a novel approach to personalized health care based on a combination of genotyping and metabolic characterization. These genetically determined metabotypes may subscribe the risk for a certain medical phenotype, the response to a given drug treatment, or the reaction to a nutritional intervention or environmental challenge.

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;11;e1000282

  • The human and mouse repertoire of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Bjarnadóttir TK, Fredriksson R, Höglund PJ, Gloriam DE, Lagerström MC and Schiöth HB

    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

    The adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (also termed LN-7TM or EGF-7TM receptors) are membrane-bound proteins with long N-termini containing multiple domains. Here, 2 new human adhesion-GPCRs, termed GPR133 and GPR144, have been found by searches done in the human genome databases. Both GPR133 and GPR144 have a GPS domain in their N-termini, while GPR144 also has a pentraxin domain. The phylogenetic analyses of the 2 new human receptors show that they group together without close relationship to the other adhesion-GPCRs. In addition to the human genes, mouse orthologues to those 2 and 15 other mouse orthologues to human were identified (GPR110, GPR111, GPR112, GPR113, GPR114, GPR115, GPR116, GPR123, GPR124, GPR125, GPR126, GPR128, LEC1, LEC2, and LEC3). Currently the total number of human adhesion-GPCRs is 33. The mouse and human sequences show a clear one-to-one relationship, with the exception of EMR2 and EMR3, which do not seem to have orthologues in mouse. EST expression charts for the entire repertoire of adhesion-GPCRs in human and mouse were established. Over 1600 ESTs were found for these receptors, showing widespread distribution in both central and peripheral tissues. The expression patterns are highly variable between different receptors, indicating that they participate in a number of physiological processes.

    Genomics 2004;84;1;23-33

  • The multiple actions of black widow spider toxins and their selective use in neurosecretion studies.

    Ushkaryov YA, Volynski KE and Ashton AC

    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AY, UK. y.ushkaryov@imperial.ac.uk

    The black widow spider venom contains several large protein toxins--latrotoxins--that are selectively targeted against different classes of animals: vertebrates, insects, and crustaceans. These toxins are synthesised as large precursors that undergo proteolytic processing and activation in the lumen of the venom gland. The mature latrotoxins demonstrate strong functional structure conservation and contain multiple ankyrin repeats, which mediate toxin oligomerisation. The three-dimensional structure has been determined for alpha-latrotoxin (alphaLTX), a representative venom component toxic to vertebrates. This reconstruction explains the mechanism of alphaLTX pore formation by showing that it forms tetrameric complexes, harbouring a central channel, and that it is able to insert into lipid membranes. All latrotoxins cause massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals of respective animals after binding to specific neuronal receptors. A G protein-coupled receptor latrophilin and a single-transmembrane receptor neurexin have been identified as major high-affinity receptors for alphaLTX. Latrotoxins act by several Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent mechanisms based on pore formation and activation of receptors. Mutant recombinant alphaLTX that does not form pores has been used to dissect the multiple actions of this toxin. As a result, important insights have been gained into the receptor signalling and the role of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in the effect of alphaLTX.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: B14085; Wellcome Trust: 074359

    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology 2004;43;5;527-42

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • alpha-Latrotoxin and its receptors: neurexins and CIRL/latrophilins.

    Südhof TC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Basic Neuroscience, and the Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75390-9111, USA. Thomas.Sudhof@UTSouthwestern.edu

    alpha-Latrotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from black widow spider venom, triggers synaptic vesicle exocytosis from presynaptic nerve terminals. alpha-Latrotoxin is a large protein toxin (120 kDa) that contains 22 ankyrin repeats. In stimulating exocytosis, alpha-latrotoxin binds to two distinct families of neuronal cell-surface receptors, neurexins and CLs (Cirl/latrophilins), which probably have a physiological function in synaptic cell adhesion. Binding of alpha-latrotoxin to these receptors does not in itself trigger exocytosis but serves to recruit the toxin to the synapse. Receptor-bound alpha-latrotoxin then inserts into the presynaptic plasma membrane to stimulate exocytosis by two distinct transmitter-specific mechanisms. Exocytosis of classical neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine) is induced in a calcium-independent manner by a direct intracellular action of alpha-latrotoxin, while exocytosis of catecholamines requires extracellular calcium. Elucidation of precisely how alpha-latrotoxin works is likely to provide major insight into how synaptic vesicle exocytosis is regulated, and how the release machineries of classical and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters differ.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R37-MH52804-06

    Annual review of neuroscience 2001;24;933-62

  • The calcium-independent receptor for alpha-latrotoxin from human and rodent brains interacts with members of the ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank family of multidomain proteins.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H, Gundelfinger ED, Richter D and Bockers TM

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und Klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Subtypes of the calcium-independent receptors for alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL1-3) define a distinct subgroup within the large family of the seven-transmembrane region cell surface receptors. The physiological function of CIRLs is unknown because neither extracellular ligands nor intracellular coupling proteins (G-proteins) have been identified. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel interaction between the C termini of CIRL1 and -2 and the PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of a recently discovered multidomain protein family (ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank) present in human and rat brain. In vitro, CIRL1 and CIRL2 interacted strongly with the PDZ domain of ProSAP1. The specificity of this interaction has been verified by in vivo experiments using solubilized rat brain membrane fractions and ProSAP1 antibodies; only CIRL1, but not CIRL2, was co-immunoprecipitated with ProSAP1. In situ hybridization revealed that ProSAP1 and CIRL1 are co-expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Colocalization was also observed at the subcellular level, as both CIRL1 and ProSAP1 are enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction from rat brain. Expression of all three CIRL isoforms is highly regulated during postnatal brain development, with CIRL3 exhibiting its highest expression levels immediately after birth, followed by CIRL2 and finally CIRL1 in aged rats.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32387-90

  • A family of heptahelical receptors with adhesion-like domains: a marriage between two super families.

    Hayflick JS

    ICOS Corporation, Bothell, WA 98021, USA. jhayflick@icos.com

    Some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulators of cell adhesion via inside-out effector signaling pathways. Such is the case with leukocyte chemokine receptors which stimulate intracellular second messenger pathways resulting in upregulation of integrin adhesion to ligands present in the extracellular matrix or on opposing cells resulting in chemotaxis and extravasation during immune surveillance. Remarkably, a family of GPCRs has recently been discovered that may themselves be triggered by cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Along with a canonical heptahelical membrane-spanning region, these intriguing proteins contain putative cell adhesion-like modules. The evidence to date suggests that they are involved in lymphocyte activation, macrophage biology, synaptic exocytosis and planar polarization during organogenesis.

    Journal of receptor and signal transduction research 2000;20;2-3;119-31

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XI. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    In our series of projects for accumulating sequence information on the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we have newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0711 to KIAA0810. These cDNA clones were selected according to their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) in vitro. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 4.3 kb and 2.6 kb (869 amino acid residues), respectively. Sequence analyses against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 78 genes were similar to those of known genes, 64% of which (50 genes) were categorized as proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. As additional information concerning genes characterized in this study, the chromosomal locations of the clones were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels and the expression profiles among 10 human tissues were examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction which was substantially improved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;5;277-86

  • Construction and characterization of a normalized cDNA library.

    Soares MB, Bonaldo MF, Jelene P, Su L, Lawton L and Efstratiadis A

    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.

    We have developed a simple procedure based on reassociation kinetics that can reduce effectively the high variation in abundance among the clones of a cDNA library that represent individual mRNA species. For this normalization, we used as a model system a library of human infant brain cDNAs that were cloned directionally into a phagemid vector and, thus, could be easily converted into single-stranded circles. After controlled primer extension to synthesize a short complementary strand on each circular template, melting and reannealing of the partial duplexes at relatively low C0t, and hydroxyapatite column chromatography, unreassociated circles were recovered from the flow through fraction and electroporated into bacteria, to propagate a normalized library without a requirement for subcloning steps. An evaluation of the extent of normalization has indicated that, from an extreme range of abundance of 4 orders of magnitude in the original library, the frequency of occurrence of any clone examined in the normalized library was brought within the narrow range of only 1 order of magnitude.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 2 S07 RR05395-03; NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00362; NICHD NIH HHS: 1R55HD28422

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;20;9228-32

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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