G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001307
Gene symbol
GRIA2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
Orthologue
G00000058 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000120251 (Ensembl human gene)
2891 (Entrez Gene)
253 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GRIA2 (GeneCards)
Literature
138247 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4572 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P42262 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • GLURB

Literature (65)

Pubmed - other

  • Glutamatergic (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) hypofrontality in schizophrenia: too little juice or a miswired brain?

    Marek GJ, Behl B, Bespalov AY, Gross G, Lee Y and Schoemaker H

    Neuroscience Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois [corrected] 60064-6075, USA. gerard.marek@abbott.com

    Dopamine D2 receptor blockade has been an obligate mechanism of action present in all medications that effectively treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) and have been approved by regulatory agencies since the 1950s. Blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptors plays a contributory role in the actions of the second generation of antipsychotic drugs, the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Nevertheless, substantial unmet medical needs remain for the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Recognition that dissociative anesthetics block the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel has inspired a search for glutamatergic therapeutic mechanisms because ketamine and phencyclidine are known to induce psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbate the symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. Current pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia emphasize that hypofunction of NMDA receptors at critical sites in local circuits modulate the function of a given brain region or control projections from one region to another (e.g., hippocampal-cortical or thalamocortical projections). The demonstration that a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist prodrug decreased both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia raised hopes that glutamatergic mechanisms may provide therapeutic advantages. In addition to discussing the activation of mGlu2 receptors with mGlu2/3 receptor agonists or mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), we discuss other methods that may potentially modulate circuits with hypofunctional NMDA receptors such as glycine transporter inhibitors and mGlu5 receptor PAMs. The hope is that by modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission, the dysfunctional circuitry of the schizophrenic brain (both local circuits and long-loop pathways) will be improved.

    Molecular pharmacology 2010;77;3;317-26

  • Crystal structure of the GluR2 amino-terminal domain provides insights into the architecture and assembly of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Clayton A, Siebold C, Gilbert RJ, Sutton GC, Harlos K, McIlhinney RA, Jones EY and Aricescu AR

    Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK.

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are functionally diverse but have a common architecture, including the 400-residue amino-terminal domain (ATD). We report a 1.8-A resolution crystal structure of human GluR2-ATD. This dimeric structure provides a mechanism for how the ATDs can drive receptor assembly and subtype-restricted composition. Lattice contacts in a 4.1-A resolution crystal form reveal a tetrameric (dimer-dimer) arrangement consistent with previous cellular and cryo-electron microscopic data for full-length AMPA receptors.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0500365, G0500367, G0700232, G0900084, G9900061, MC_U138197108; Wellcome Trust

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;392;5;1125-32

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • The GluR2 subunit inhibits proliferation by inactivating Src-MAPK signalling and induces apoptosis by means of caspase 3/6-dependent activation in glioma cells.

    Beretta F, Bassani S, Binda E, Verpelli C, Bello L, Galli R and Passafaro M

    DTI Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan 20129, Italy.

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most invasive and undifferentiated type of brain tumour, and so surgical interventions are ineffective. We found that GluR2 is absent in fast-growing GBM-derived tumour stem cells and high-grade glioma specimens, but is expressed in slow-growing stem cells and low-grade glioma specimens. More remarkably, GluR2 overexpression in U-87MG cells inhibits proliferation by inactivating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-Src phosphorylation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, we observed that the scaffold protein GRIP is essential for the effect of GluR2 on ERK-Src inactivation. These findings indicate that the absence of the GluR2 subunit favours malignancy.

    Funded by: Telethon: TCR07006

    The European journal of neuroscience 2009;30;1;25-34

  • Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.

    Need AC, Keefe RS, Ge D, Grossman I, Dickson S, McEvoy JP and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics research, the very richness of the clinical data presents challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting association results for these trials one gene at a time, ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand, suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new hypotheses that can be tested through both replication efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate handling of these forms of data therefore requires dissemination of association statistics without undue emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769 polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21 pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is impossible to know which of these associations may be real, although in total they form a valuable resource that is immediately available to the scientific community.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: N01 MH90001

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;7;946-57

  • A genomewide association study of response to lithium for prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Perlis RH, Smoller JW, Ferreira MA, McQuillin A, Bass N, Lawrence J, Sachs GS, Nimgaonkar V, Scolnick EM, Gurling H, Sklar P and Purcell S

    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. rperlis@partners.org

    Objective: Lithium remains a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, but the mechanisms by which it prevents the recurrence of mood episodes are not known. The authors utilized data from a genomewide association study to examine associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the outcome of lithium treatment in two cohorts of patients with bipolar I disorder or bipolar II disorder.

    Method: The hazard for mood episode recurrence was examined among 1,177 patients with bipolar I disorder or bipolar II disorder, including 458 individuals treated with lithium carbonate or citrate, who were participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) cohort. SNPs showing the greatest evidence of association in Cox regression models were then examined for association with positive lithium response among 359 bipolar I or II disorder patients treated with lithium carbonate or citrate in a second cohort from the University College London.

    Results: The strongest association in the STEP-BD cohort (minimum p=5.5 x 10(-7)) was identified for a region on chromosome 10p15 (rs10795189). Of the regions showing suggestive evidence (p<5 x 10(-4)) of association with lithium response, five were further associated with positive lithium response in the University College London cohort, including SNPs in a region on chromosome 4q32 spanning a gene coding for the glutamate/alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionate (AMPA) receptor GRIA2.

    Conclusions: Multiple novel loci merit further examination for association with lithium response in bipolar disorder patients, including one region that spans the GRIA2 gene, for which expression has been shown to be regulated by lithium treatment.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0500791, G9623693N; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-062137, MH-063445, MH-067288, MH63420, N01 MH080001, N01MH80001, R01 MH062137, R01 MH063420, R01 MH063445, R01 MH067288

    The American journal of psychiatry 2009;166;6;718-25

  • AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity require SQSTM1/p62.

    Jiang J, Parameshwaran K, Seibenhener ML, Kang MG, Suppiramaniam V, Huganir RL, Diaz-Meco MT and Wooten MW

    Department of Biological Sciences and Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA.

    SQSTM1/p62 is a multidomain/scaffold for the atypical protein kinase Cs (aPKC). Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors by PKC has been shown to regulate their insertion in the postsynaptic membrane. Here, we directly tested whether p62 could interact with AMPA receptor subunits and influence their trafficking and phosphorylation. GluR1 receptor intracellular loop L2-3 and the ZZ-type zinc finger domain of p62 are essential for the interaction between these two proteins. In this context, both p62 and aPKC-mediated phosphorylation were necessary for surface delivery of the receptor. Our findings reveal that p62 is the first protein identified that interacts with a region of the GluR receptor other than the C-terminal tail. Furthermore, mice deficient in p62 displayed impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), along with diminished surface expression of GluR1 and phosphorylation of S818. Lastly, we identify a conserved sequence (ISExSL) shared by all p62 interacting-aPKC substrates. These findings support a model where p62 interaction and aPKC phosphorylation act together to mediate AMPA receptor trafficking and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33661, R01 NS033661, R01 NS033661-09, R01 NS036715, R01 NS036715-08

    Hippocampus 2009;19;4;392-406

  • Correlating AMPA receptor activation and cleft closure across subunits: crystal structures of the GluR4 ligand-binding domain in complex with full and partial agonists.

    Gill A, Birdsey-Benson A, Jones BL, Henderson LP and Madden DR

    Departments of Biochemistry and Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, 7200 Vail Building, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.

    AMPA receptors are glutamate-gated ion channels that are essential mediators of synaptic signals in the central nervous system. They form tetramers that are assembled as combinations of subunits GluR1-4, each of which contains a ligand-binding domain (LBD). Crystal structures of the GluR2 LBD have revealed an agonist-binding cleft, which is located between two lobes and which acts like a Venus flytrap. In general, agonist efficacy is correlated with the extent of cleft closure. However, recent observations show that cleft closure is not the sole determinant of the relative efficacy for glutamate receptors. In addition, these studies have focused on the GluR2 subunit, which is the specific target of a physiologically important RNA-editing modification in vivo. We therefore sought to test the generality of the cleft closure-efficacy correlation for other AMPA-R subunits. Here, we present crystal structures of the GluR4(flip) LBD in complex with both full and partial agonists. As for GluR2, both agonists stabilize a closed-cleft conformation, and the partial agonist induces a smaller cleft closure than the full agonist. However, a detailed analysis of LBD-kainate interactions reveals the importance of subtle backbone conformational changes in the ligand-binding pocket in determining the magnitude of agonist-associated conformational changes. Furthermore, the GluR4 subunit exhibits a different correlation between receptor activation and LBD cleft closure than does GluR2.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: R01 DA014137, R01 DA014137-14A2, R01 DA014137-15, R01-DA014137; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32 DK007301, T32 DK07301

    Biochemistry 2008;47;52;13831-41

  • Study on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 genes highlights a positive association between schizophrenia and GRIA3 in female patients.

    Magri C, Gardella R, Valsecchi P, Barlati SD, Guizzetti L, Imperadori L, Bonvicini C, Tura GB, Gennarelli M, Sacchetti E and Barlati S

    Division of Biology and Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, Brescia University School of Medicine, Viale Europa, Brescia, Italy.

    Impairment of glutamatergic neurotransmission is one of the major hypotheses proposed to explain the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Therefore, the genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system could be considered potential candidate genes for schizophrenia susceptibility. A systematic study on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor genes has been carried out and the results obtained from the analysis on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 are reported. No evidence of association with schizophrenia was found for the GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes; strong evidence of association with schizophrenia was found for GRIA3. This X-linked gene showed a different behavior in the two genders; a positive association with schizophrenia was observed among females but not in males. Female carriers of rs1034428 A allele were found to have a 2.19-fold higher risk of developing schizophrenia compared to non-carriers and 3.28-fold higher risk for developing a non-paranoid phenotype. The analysis at the haplotype level showed that susceptibility to schizophrenia was associated with the specific haplotype rs989638-rs1034428-rs2227098 CAC (P = 0.0008). We conclude that, of the three AMPA genes analyzed here, only GRIA3 seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but only in females.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008;147B;6;745-53

  • Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors containing Q/R-unedited GluR2 direct human neural progenitor cell differentiation to neurons.

    Whitney NP, Peng H, Erdmann NB, Tian C, Monaghan DT and Zheng JC

    Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985800 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

    We identify calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors on human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and present a physiological role in neurogenesis. RNA editing of the GluR2 subunit at the Q/R site is responsible for making most AMPA receptors impermeable to calcium. Because a single-point mutation could eliminate the need for editing at the Q/R site and Q/R-unedited GluR2 exists during embryogenesis, the Q/R-unedited GluR2 subunit presumably has some important actions early in development. Using calcium imaging, we found that NPCs contain calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, whereas NPCs differentiated to neurons and astrocytes express calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors. We utilized reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and BbvI digestion to demonstrate that NPCs contain Q/R-unedited GluR2, and differentiated cells contain Q/R-edited GluR2 subunits. This is consistent with the observation that the nuclear enzyme responsible for Q/R-editing, adenosine deaminase (ADAR2), is increased during differentiation. Activation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces NPCs to differentiate to the neuronal lineage and increases dendritic arbor formation in NPCs differentiated to neurons. AMPA-induced differentiation of NPCs to neurons is abrogated by overexpression of ADAR2 in NPCs. This elucidates the role of AMPA receptors as inductors of neurogenesis and provides a possible explanation for why the Q/R editing process exists.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR015635, P20 RR15635; NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS043985, R01 NS 41858, R01 NS041858

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2008;22;8;2888-900

  • Elevated GRIA1 mRNA expression in Layer II/III and V pyramidal cells of the DLPFC in schizophrenia.

    O'Connor JA and Hemby SE

    Molecular and Systems Pharmacology Graduate Program, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

    The functional integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is altered in schizophrenia leading to profound deficits in working memory and cognition. Growing evidence indicates that dysregulation of glutamate signaling may be a significant contributor to the pathophysiology mediating these effects; however, the contribution of NMDA and AMPA receptors in the mediation of this deficit remains unclear. The equivocality of data regarding ionotropic glutamate receptor alterations of subunit expression in the DLPFC of schizophrenics is likely reflective of subtle alterations in the cellular and molecular composition of specific neuronal populations within the region. Given previous evidence of Layer II/III and V pyramidal cell alterations in schizophrenia and the significant influence of subunit composition on NMDA and AMPA receptor function, laser capture microdissection combined with quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of AMPA (GRIA1-4) and NMDA (GRIN1, 2A and 2B) subunit mRNA levels in Layer II/III and Layer V pyramidal cells in the DLPFC. Comparisons were made between individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and controls (n=15/group). All subunits were expressed at detectable levels in both cell populations for all diseases as well as for the control group. Interestingly, GRIA1 mRNA was significantly increased in both cell types in the schizophrenia group compare to controls, while similar trends were observed in major depressive disorder (Layers II/III and V) and bipolar disorder (Layer V). These data suggest that increased GRIA1 subunit expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH074313, R01 MH074313, R01 MH074313-05

    Schizophrenia research 2007;97;1-3;277-88

  • Electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptors are differentially modulated depending on the associated member of the TARP family.

    Kott S, Werner M, Körber C and Hollmann M

    Department of Biochemistry I, Receptor Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    The family of AMPA receptors is encoded by four genes that are differentially spliced to result in the flip or flop versions of the four subunits GluR1 to GluR4. GluR2 is further modified at the so-called Q/R site by posttranscriptional RNA editing. Delivery of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane and synaptic trafficking are controlled by transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Additionally, TARPs influence essential electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptor channels such as desensitization and agonist efficacies. Here, we compare the influence of all known TARPs (gamma2, gamma3, gamma4, and gamma8) on agonist-induced currents of the four AMPA receptor subunits, including flip and flop splice variants and editing variants. We show that, although agonist-induced currents of all homomeric AMPA receptor subunits as well as all heteromeric combinations tested are significantly potentiated when coexpressed with members of the TARP family in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the extent of TARP-mediated increase in agonist-induced responses is highly dependent on both the AMPA receptor subunit and the coexpressed TARP. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splice variant of the AMPA receptor plays a key role in determining the modulation of electrophysiological properties by associated TARPs. We furthermore present evidence that individual TARP-AMPA receptor interactions control the degree of desensitization of AMPA receptors. Consequently, because of their subunit-specific impact on the electrophysiological properties, TARPs play a major role as modulatory subunits of AMPA receptors and thus contribute to the functional diversity of AMPA receptors encountered in the CNS.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;14;3780-9

  • Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission.

    Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA and Fukata M

    Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan.

    Abnormally synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain causes epilepsy. Most inherited forms of epilepsy result from mutations in ion channels. However, one form of epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), is characterized by mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, LGI1. We show that ADAM22, a transmembrane protein that when mutated itself causes seizure, serves as a receptor for LGI1. LGI1 enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. The mutated form of LGI1 fails to bind to ADAM22. ADAM22 is anchored to the postsynaptic density by cytoskeletal scaffolds containing stargazin. These studies in rat brain indicate possible avenues for understanding human epilepsy.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;313;5794;1792-5

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 gates injurious signals in ischemic stroke.

    Soundarapandian MM, Tu WH, Peng PL, Zervos AS and Lu Y

    Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

    Ischemic stroke, or a brain attack, is the third leading cause of death in developed countries. A critical feature of the disease is a highly selective pattern of neuronal loss; certain identifiable subsets of neurons--particularly CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus are severely damaged, whereas others remain intact. A key step in this selective neuronal injury is Ca2+/Zn2+ entry into vulnerable neurons through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels, a principle subtype of glutamate receptors. AMPA receptor channels are assembled from glutamate receptor (GluR)1, -2, -3, and -4 subunits. Circumstance data have indicated that the GluR2 subunits dictate Ca2+/Zn2+ permeability of AMPA receptor channels and gate injurious Ca2+/Zn2+ signals in vulnerable neurons. Therefore, targeting to the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 can be considered a practical strategy for stroke therapy.

    Molecular neurobiology 2005;32;2;145-55

  • Evidence for low GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit expression at synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Gryder DS, Castaneda DC and Rogawski MA

    Epilepsy Research Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3702, USA.

    Fast excitatory synaptic responses in basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons are mainly mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) subtype. AMPA receptors containing an edited GluR2 subunit are calcium impermeable, whereas those that lack this subunit are calcium permeable and also inwardly rectifying. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which synapses in the rat BLA have AMPA receptors with GluR2 subunits. We assessed GluR2 protein expression in the BLA by immunocytochemistry with a GluR2 subunit-specific antiserum at the light and electron microscopic level; for comparison, a parallel examination was carried out in the hippocampus. We also recorded from amygdala brain slices to examine the voltage-dependent properties of AMPA receptor- mediated evoked synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons. At the light microscopic level, GluR2 immunoreactivity was localized to the perikarya and proximal dendrites of BLA neurons; dense labeling was also present over the pyramidal cell layer of hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3. In electron micrographs from the BLA, most of the synapses were asymmetrical with pronounced postsynaptic densities (PSD). They contained clear, spherical vesicles apposed to the PSD and were predominantly onto spines (86%), indicating that they are mainly with BLA principal neurons. Only 11% of morphological synapses in the BLA were onto postsynaptic elements that showed GluR2 immunoreactivity, in contrast to hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in which 76% and 71% of postsynaptic elements were labeled (p < 0.001). Synaptic staining in the BLA and hippocampus, when it occurred, was exclusively postsynaptic, and particularly heavy over the PSD. In whole-cell voltage clamp recordings, 72% of BLA principal neurons exhibited AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents evoked by external capsule stimulation that were inwardly rectifying. Although BLA principal neurons express perikaryal and proximal dendritic GluR2 immunoreactivity, few synapses onto these neurons express GluR2, and a preponderance of principal neurons have inwardly rectifying AMPA-mediated synaptic currents, suggesting that targeting of GluR2 to synapses is restricted. Many BLA synaptic AMPA receptors are likely to be calcium permeable and could play roles in synaptic plasticity, epileptogenesis and excitoxicity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: Z01 NS002732-19

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;94;6;1728-38

  • PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Lu W and Ziff EB

    Program in Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH067229

    Neuron 2005;47;3;407-21

  • Protein-protein coupling/uncoupling enables dopamine D2 receptor regulation of AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

    Zou S, Li L, Pei L, Vukusic B, Van Tol HH, Lee FJ, Wan Q and Liu F

    Department of Neuroscience, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R8.

    here is considerable evidence that dopamine D2 receptors can modulate AMPA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains essentially unclear. Here we report that D2 receptors inhibit AMPA-mediated neurotoxicity through two pathways: the activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) and downregulation of AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression, both involving a series of protein-protein coupling/uncoupling events. Agonist stimulation of D2 receptors promotes the formation of the direct protein-protein interaction between the third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor and the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) while uncoupling the NSF interaction with the carboxyl tail (CT) of the glutamate receptor GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors. Previous studies have shown that full-length NSF directly couples to the GluR2CT and facilitates AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression. Furthermore, the CT region of GluR2 subunit is also responsible for several other intracellular protein couplings, including p85 subunit of PI-3K. Therefore, the direct coupling of D2-NSF and concomitant decrease in the NSF-GluR2 interaction results in a decrease of AMPA receptor membrane expression and an increase in the interaction between GluR2 and the p85 and subsequent activation of PI-3K. Disruption of the D2-NSF interaction abolished the ability of D2 receptor to attenuate AMPA-mediated neurotoxicity by blocking the D2 activation-induced changes in PI-3K activity and AMPA receptor plasma membrane expression. Furthermore, the D2-NSF-GluR2-p85 interactions are also responsible for the D2 inhibition of ischemia-induced cell death. These data may provide a new avenue to identify specific targets for therapeutics to modulate glutamate receptor-governed diseases, such as stroke.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;17;4385-95

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Differential preservation of AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampi of Alzheimer's disease patients according to Braak stage.

    Carter TL, Rissman RA, Mishizen-Eberz AJ, Wolfe BB, Hamilton RL, Gandy S and Armstrong DM

    Laboratory of Neuronal Vulnerability and Aging, The Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Jefferson Health System, Wynewood, PA 19096, USA. Troy.Carter@jefferson.edu

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, characterized pathologically by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, contains regions that are differentially prone toward development of AD pathology. Within these "vulnerable" regions, specific cell populations appear to be selectively affected; the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal subiculum subfield constitute such a vulnerable region. This study investigated whether the AMPA receptor subunit content (GluR1, GluR2, GluR2/3) within "vulnerable" vs. "resistant" sectors of the hippocampus is quantitatively altered with increasing AD neuropathology, as determined by Braak staging. We hypothesize that the glutamate-mediated vulnerability is highly influenced by the repertoire of glutamate receptors expressed on hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that AMPA receptor subunit proteins are relatively spared across all Braak stages in resistant subfields (CA2/CA3/Dentate Gyrus). However, within vulnerable sectors, i.e., subiculum, GluR2, and GluR2/3 protein levels decreased 63.77% and 60.60%, respectively, in association with Braak stages I-II and stages III-IV, respectively. In Braak stages V-VI, GluR2 and GluR2/3 protein levels were similar to those of Braak stages I-II. In contrast to GluR2 and GluR2/3, GluR1 protein levels were unchanged within vulnerable sectors throughout all stages of the disease. In interpreting these data, it may be relevant to consider that the GluR2 subunit impedes the flow of Ca(+2) through the AMPA receptor ion channel. Thus, we hypothesize that in resistant sectors, the presence of the GluR2 subunit may provide a neuroprotective role by limiting the flow of extracellular Ca(+2), whereas in vulnerable regions, the reduction of GluR2 may contribute to the vulnerability via a mechanism involving an increase in intracellular Ca(+2) and destabilization of intracellular Ca(+2) homeostasis.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG08206, AG10491; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41017

    Experimental neurology 2004;187;2;299-309

  • Inhibition of glutamate receptor 2 translation by a polymorphic repeat sequence in the 5'-untranslated leaders.

    Myers SJ, Huang Y, Genetta T and Dingledine R

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    Previous studies have identified multiple transcription initiation sites for the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) gene, resulting in a heterogeneous population of GluR2 transcripts in vivo that differ in the length of their 5'-untranslated leaders (5'-UTR). We designed a series of monocistronic and dicistronic GluR2 cDNA constructs that model the natural in vivo transcripts and investigated their translation efficiencies in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, Xenopus oocytes, and primary cultured neurons. Transcripts containing long 5' leaders (429 and 481 bases) were translated poorly compared with those with shorter leaders (341 or fewer bases). None of the five initiation codons in the 5'-UTR or the leader length per se were responsible for translation regulation. Rather, control of translation was mediated by a sequence containing a 34-42 nucleotide imperfect GU repeat predicted to form secondary structure in vivo. This translation suppression domain is included in some but not all rat and human GluR2 transcripts in vivo, depending on the site of transcription initiation. Rat cortex GluR2 transcripts that lack the translation suppression sequence were preferentially associated with polyribosomes. Furthermore, the GU-repeat cluster was found to be polymorphic in humans, raising the possibility that expansion or contraction of the GU-repeat cluster in certain populations might modify the level of GluR2 protein expression in neurons.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2004;24;14;3489-99

  • RNA editing (R/G site) and flip-flop splicing of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in nervous tissue of epilepsy patients.

    Vollmar W, Gloger J, Berger E, Kortenbruck G, Köhling R, Speckmann EJ and Musshoff U

    Institute of Physiology, University Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

    Editing and alternative splicing of mRNA are posttranscriptional steps probably involved in pathophysiological aspects of epilepsy. The present study analyses the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 with respect to the expression of (i) editing at the R/G site and (ii) flip-flop cassettes. Nervous tissue from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy was analysed by RT-PCR followed by restriction enzyme assays. Human autoptic tissue served as control. R/G editing status: the relative amount of edited RNA was significantly increased in the hippocampal tissue, whereas no changes were found in neocortical tissues. Flip-flop expression: no significant alterations were found in relative abundance of spliced variants containing the flip exon. The increased editing at the R/G site in the hippocampal tissue of epilepsy patients may enhance responses to glutamate, resulting in a synapse operating at an increased gain.

    Neurobiology of disease 2004;15;2;371-9

  • Glutamate receptors: RNA editing and death of motor neurons.

    Kawahara Y, Ito K, Sun H, Aizawa H, Kanazawa I and Kwak S

    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. kwak-tky@umin.ac.jp

    The aetiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease, is largely unknown. Here we show that there is a defect in the editing of the messenger RNA encoding the GluR2 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptors in the spinal motor neurons of individuals affected by ALS. This failure to swap an arginine for a glutamine residue at a crucial site in the subunit, which occurs normally in the affected brain areas of patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, will interfere with the correct functioning of the glutamate receptors and may be a contributory cause of neuronal death in ALS patients.

    Nature 2004;427;6977;801

  • AMPA receptor alterations precede mossy fiber sprouting in young children with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Lynd-Balta E, Pilcher WH and Joseph SA

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

    Following neurological injury early in life numerous events, including excitotoxicity, neural degeneration, gliosis, neosynaptogenesis, and circuitry reorganization, may alone or in concert contribute to hyperexcitability and recurrent seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. Our studies provide new evidence regarding the temporal sequence of key elements of hippocampal reorganization, mossy fiber sprouting and glutamate receptor subunit up-regulation, in a subset of young temporal lobe epileptic patients. Without evidence of mossy fiber sprouting, the youngest age group (3-10 years old) of mesial temporal lobe epileptic patients demonstrated enhanced glutamate receptor subunit profiles, suggesting that the dendritic change precedes axonal sprouting. However, sclerotic hippocampal specimens from epileptic patients ages 12-15 years old had the characteristic features of glutamate receptor up-regulation and mossy fiber sprouting first identified in the adult, indicating that reconstructed circuits appear early in the course of the disease. Non-sclerotic hippocampal specimens from lesion associated temporal lobe epileptic patients of all age groups showed minimal cell loss, sparse staining of glutamate receptor subunits in the dentate gyrus, and little or no mossy fiber sprouting. These compelling findings suggest a progressive sequence of events in the reorganization of the dentate gyrus of sclerotic hippocampal specimens. We suggest that cell loss and up-regulation of glutamate receptor subunits appear early in temporal lobe epilepsy and contribute to the synaptic plasticity that may facilitate the subsequent sprouting of mossy fiber collaterals which compound an already precipitous state of decline. The combination of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic changes serves as a potential substrate for hyperexcitability.

    Neuroscience 2004;126;1;105-14

  • Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)-containing AMPA receptors.

    Kolleker A, Zhu JJ, Schupp BJ, Qin Y, Mack V, Borchardt T, Köhr G, Malinow R, Seeburg PH and Osten P

    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Activity-driven delivery of AMPA receptors is proposed to mediate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, both during development and learning. In hippocampal CA1 principal neurons, such trafficking is primarily mediated by the abundant GluR-A subunit. We now report a study of GluR-B(long), a C-terminal splice variant of the GluR-B subunit. GluR-B(long) synaptic delivery is regulated by two forms of activity. Spontaneous synaptic activity-driven GluR-B(long) transport maintains one-third of the steady-state AMPA receptor-mediated responses, while GluR-B(long) delivery following the induction of LTP is responsible for approximately 50% of the resulting potentiation at the hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses at the time of GluR-B(long) peak expression-the second postnatal week. Trafficking of GluR-B(long)-containing receptors thus mediates a GluR-A-independent form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the juvenile hippocampus.

    Neuron 2003;40;6;1199-212

  • New potential regulators of uterine leiomyomata from DNA arrays: the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2.

    Tsibris JC, Maas S, Segars JH, Nicosia SV, Enkemann SA, O'Brien WF and Spellacy WN

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida, 4 Columbia Drive, Room 524, Tampa, FL 33606, USA. jtsibris@hsc.usf.edu

    In the post-Genome era, new concepts emerge about the growth regulation of uterine leiomyomata. Screening of leiomyoma and myometrial tissues with DNA arrays revealed numerous genes up-regulated in leiomyomata that were not known to be expressed in the human uterus. GluR2, a subunit of a ligand-gated cation channel, is up-regulated in leiomyomata relative to myometrium by 15- to 30-fold at the protein and mRNA level and is localized in endothelial cells. GluR2 pre-mRNA in leiomyoma and myometrial tissues is nearly 100% edited at the Q/R site, indicative of low Ca(2+) permeability of the ion channels. In spontaneous leiomyomata in women or leiomyomata induced in the guinea pig model, there is a likely synergism linking increased production of estradiol and all-trans retinoic acid with up-regulation of nuclear receptor PPARgamma and RXRalpha proteins to support tumor growth. GluR2 might be coupled to this synergism directly or via interleukin-17B, kinesin KIF5 or related genes also up-regulated in leiomyomata. GluR antagonists should be tested as inhibitors of leiomyoma growth.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;312;1;249-54

  • Low editing efficiency of GluR2 mRNA is associated with a low relative abundance of ADAR2 mRNA in white matter of normal human brain.

    Kawahara Y, Ito K, Sun H, Kanazawa I and Kwak S

    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

    The ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits GluR2, GluR5 and GluR6 are subject to RNA editing at their Q/R sites, resulting in significant alterations in the channel properties of the receptors. RNA editing at the Q/R site of GluRs is both developmentally and regionally regulated. Here we provide the first quantitative measurements of both mRNAs of the GluR subunits and mRNAs of the RNA editing enzymes ADAR1-ADAR3 in a comparison of the efficiency of editing at the Q/R site with the expression levels of ADAR mRNA in human brain. We demonstrate that the Q/R site of GluRs in white matter is edited significantly less than in grey matter. In addition, by means of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of ADAR2 mRNA to GluR2 mRNA is significantly lower in white matter than in grey matter and that the GluR2 Q/R site editing decreased only when the ratio of ADAR2 mRNA (not that of ADAR1 mRNA) to GluR2 mRNA dropped below a threshold (20 x 10(-3)). These results suggest that Q/R site of GluRs editing is regulated in a regional, and hence presumably cell-specific, manner and that the GluR2 Q/R site editing is critically regulated by ADAR2 in human brain.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2003;18;1;23-33

  • Requirement of AMPA receptor GluR2 phosphorylation for cerebellar long-term depression.

    Chung HJ, Steinberg JP, Huganir RL and Linden DJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.

    Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) is a model of synaptic memory that requires protein kinase C (PKC) activation and is expressed as a reduction in the number of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors. LTD was absent in cultured cerebellar Purkinje cells from mutant mice lacking the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit and could be rescued by transient transfection with the wild-type GluR2 subunit. Transfection with a point mutant that eliminated PKC phosphorylation of Ser880 in the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of GluR2 failed to restore LTD. In contrast, transfection with a point mutant that mimicked phosphorylation at Ser880 occluded subsequent LTD. Thus, PKC phosphorylation of GluR2 Ser880 is a critical event in the induction of cerebellar LTD.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH01590, MH51106; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36715

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5626;1751-5

  • Human spinal motoneurons express low relative abundance of GluR2 mRNA: an implication for excitotoxicity in ALS.

    Kawahara Y, Kwak S, Sun H, Ito K, Hashida H, Aizawa H, Jeong SY and Kanazawa I

    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan.

    AMPA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity is currently the most plausible hypothesis for the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanism initiating this type of neuronal death is believed to be exaggerated Ca2+-influx through AMPA receptors, which is critically determined by the presence or absence of the glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) in the assembly. We have provided the first quantitative measurements of the expression profile of AMPA receptor subunits mRNAs in human single neurons by means of quantitative RT-PCR with a laser microdissector. Among the AMPA subunits, GluR2 shared the vast majority throughout the neuronal subsets and tissues examined. Furthermore, both the expression level and the proportion of GluR2 mRNA in motoneurons were the lowest among all neuronal subsets examined, whereas those in motoneurons of ALS did not differ from the control group, implying that selective reduction of the GluR2 subunit cannot be a mechanism of AMPA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in ALS. However, the low relative abundance of GluR2 might provide spinal motoneurons with conditions that are easily affected by changes of AMPA receptor properties including deficient GluR2 mRNA editing in ALS.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;85;3;680-9

  • Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors.

    Kohda K, Kamiya Y, Matsuda S, Kato K, Umemori H and Yuzaki M

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

    The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluRdelta2) is predominantly expressed in the postsynaptic densities of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses and plays a crucial role in cerebellar function. However, the mechanisms by which GluRdelta2 participates in cerebellar functions are largely unknown because GluRdelta2 does not bind glutamate analogs. We investigated the possibility that GluRdelta2 may be involved in channel formation together with other glutamate receptor families. We transiently expressed lurcher mutant AMPA receptor GluR1(Lc) and kainate receptor GluR6(Lc) in HEK293 cells. Cells expressing these constitutively active channels displayed a rectifying current-voltage (I-V) relationship. However, when cells were co-transfected with GluRdelta2(Lc), which had the arginine residue in the channel pore region, cells displayed a linear I-V relationship, a result that indicates GluRdelta2(Lc) formed functional heteromeric channels with GluR1(Lc) or GluR6(Lc). Assembly of GluRdelta2 with GluR1 or GluR6 was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays in HEK293 cells. In addition, GluRdelta2 receptors were partially co-immunoprecipitated from cerebellar synaptosomal fractions by antibodies against GluR2 or KA2. In contrast to lurcher channels, expression of wild-type GluRdelta2 significantly reduced the glutamate-induced current of the wild-type GluR1 receptors without affecting channel properties, such as current kinetics, dose-response relationship, and single-channel conductance. Thus, the heteromeric channel created by the association of wild-type GluR1 and GluRdelta2 may not be gated by glutamate and does not participate in glutamate-induced currents. These results suggest that GluRdelta2 and AMPA or kainate receptors can assemble to form heteromeric receptors in vitro and could modify glutamate signaling in vivo. These findings may help explain the role of GluRdelta2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 21765; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 36925

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2003;110;1;27-37

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptors by enhancing the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor/GluR2 interaction in developing neocortical neurons.

    Narisawa-Saito M, Iwakura Y, Kawamura M, Araki K, Kozaki S, Takei N and Nawa H

    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan.

    In hippocampal neurons, the exocytotic process of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors is known to depend on activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate channels and its resultant Ca(2+) influx from extracellular spaces. Here we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induced a rapid surface translocation of AMPA receptors in an activity-independent manner in developing neocortical neurons. The receptor translocation became evident within hours as monitored by [(3)H]AMPA binding and was resistant against ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists as evidenced with surface biotinylation assay. This process required intracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by the blockers of conventional exocytosis, brefeldin A, botulinum toxin B, and N-ethylmaleimide. To explore the translocation mechanism of individual AMPA receptor subunits, we utilized the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells carrying the BDNF receptor TrkB. After the single transfection of GluR2 cDNA or GluR1 cDNA into HEK/TrkB cells, BDNF triggered the translocation of GluR2 but not that of GluR1. Subsequent mutation analysis of GluR2 carboxyl-terminal region indicated that the translocation of GluR2 subunit in HEK293 cells involved its N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-binding domain but not its PDZ-interacting site. Following co-transfection of GluR1 and GluR2 cDNAs, solid phase cell sorting revealed that GluR1 subunits were also able to translocate to the cell surface in response to BDNF. An immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that BDNF stimulation can enhance the interaction of GluR2 with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. These results reveal a novel role of BDNF in regulating the surface expression of AMPA receptors through a GluR2-NSF interaction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40901-10

  • Flip and flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Tomiyama M, Rodríguez-Puertas R, Cortés R, Pazos A, Palacios JM and Mengod G

    Department of Neurochemistry, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IIBB-CSIC, IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

    Excitotoxicity mediated by AMPA receptors has been suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To investigate the relevance of AMPA receptors to motor neuron degeneration in ALS, we evaluated the expression of mRNAs coding for flip and flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR-A to GluR-D) in the cervical segment of the spinal cord from control individuals and patients with ALS using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Transcript mRNAs coding for flop variants were significantly decreased in the ventral horn of the spinal cord from patients with ALS, whereas the mRNAs for flip variants were preserved. These findings suggest that the relative abundance of flip variants vs. flop variants is increased in spinal motor neurons of ALS patients when compared to that of control individuals. Flip variants promote assemblies of slowly desensitizing AMPA receptors. These results imply that spinal motor neurons of ALS patients possess more slowly desensitizing AMPA receptors than those of control individuals. This expression change of AMPA receptors in ALS may account for vulnerability of motor neurons in this disease.

    Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 2002;45;4;245-9

  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylates tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme at threonine 735: a potential role in regulated shedding.

    Díaz-Rodríguez E, Montero JC, Esparís-Ogando A, Yuste L and Pandiella A

    Instituto de Microbiología Bioquímica and Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Salamanca, 37007-Salamanca, Spain.

    The ectodomain of certain transmembrane proteins can be released by the action of cell surface proteases, termed secretases. Here we have investigated how mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) control the shedding of membrane proteins. We show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) acts as an intermediate in protein kinase C-regulated TrkA cleavage. We report that the cytosolic tail of the tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is phosphorylated by Erk at threonine 735. In addition, we show that Erk and TACE associate. This association is favored by Erk activation and by the presence of threonine 735. In contrast to the Erk route, the p38 MAPK was able to stimulate TrkA cleavage in cells devoid of TACE activity, indicating that other proteases are also involved in TrkA shedding. These results demonstrate that secretases are able to discriminate between the different stimuli that trigger membrane protein ectodomain cleavage and indicate that phosphorylation by MAPKs may regulate the proteolytic function of membrane secretases.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;6;2031-44

  • RNA editing at arg607 controls AMPA receptor exit from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Greger IH, Khatri L and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, NYU School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA.

    AMPA-receptor (AMPAR) transport to synapses plays a critical role in the modulation of synaptic strength. We show that the functionally critical GluR2 subunit stably resides in an intracellular pool in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). GluR2 in this pool is extensively complexed with GluR3 but not with GluR1, which is mainly confined to the cell surface. Mutagenesis revealed that elements in the C terminus including the PDZ motif are required for GluR2 forward-transport from the ER. Surprisingly, ER retention of GluR2 is controlled by Arg607 at the Q/R-editing site. Reversion to Gln (R607Q) resulted in rapid release from the pool and elevated surface expression of GluR2 in neurons. Therefore, Arg607 is a central regulator. In addition to channel gating, it also controls ER exit and may thereby ensure the availability of GluR2 for assembly into AMPARs.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620

    Neuron 2002;34;5;759-72

  • The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor subtypes. Analysis of PDZ binding motifs.

    Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, Meyer G, Nakanishi S, Henley JM and Dev KK

    Department of Anatomy, Medical Research Council Centre of Synaptic Plasticity, Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    Using sequence homology searches, yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull-down approaches we have identified a series of glutamate receptor subunits that interact differentially with the PDZ proteins GRIP, PICK1, and syntenin. GST-pull-down experiments identified more interactions than detected by yeast two-hybrid assays. We report several receptor-protein interactions, strong ones include: (i) GRIP and syntenin with mGluR7a, mGluR4a, and mGluR6; (ii) PICK1 and GRIP with mGluR3; and (iii) syntenin with all forms of GluR1-4 and mGluR7b. We further characterized the novel mGluR7a-GRIP interaction found both in yeast two-hybrid and GST-pull-down assays and observed that mGluR7a localization overlapped with GRIP with in hippocampal neurons. The wide range of targets for PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin suggests they may represent a molecular mechanism that can concentrate and/or regulate a number of different receptors at a common site on a synapse. These data also suggest that the structural determinants involved in PDZ interactions are more complex than originally envisaged.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;18;15221-4

  • Interaction between GRIP and liprin-alpha/SYD2 is required for AMPA receptor targeting.

    Wyszynski M, Kim E, Dunah AW, Passafaro M, Valtschanoff JG, Serra-Pagès C, Streuli M, Weinberg RJ and Sheng M

    Department of Neurobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    Interaction with the multi-PDZ protein GRIP is required for the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We show that GRIP binds to the liprin-alpha/SYD2 family of proteins that interact with LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) and that are implicated in presynaptic development. In neurons, liprin-alpha and LAR-RPTP are enriched at synapses and coimmunoprecipitate with GRIP and AMPA receptors. Dominant-negative constructs that interfere with the GRIP-liprin interaction disrupt the surface expression and dendritic clustering of AMPA receptors in cultured neurons. Thus, by mediating the targeting of liprin/GRIP-associated proteins, liprin-alpha is important for postsynaptic as well as presynaptic maturation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 55547; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35050

    Neuron 2002;34;1;39-52

  • Control of kinetic properties of GluR2 flop AMPA-type channels: impact of R/G nuclear editing.

    Krampfl K, Schlesinger F, Zörner A, Kappler M, Dengler R and Bufler J

    Department of Neurology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, 31623 Hannover, Germany.

    The GluR2 flop subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors greatly determines calcium permeability and kinetic properties of heteromeric AMPA subunit assemblies. Post-transcriptional editing of this subunit at the Q/R/N site controls calcium permeability whereas editing at the R/G site is involved in the regulation of biophysical properties. We used patch-clamp techniques with ultrafast solution exchange to examine the kinetics of recombinant human homomeric GluR2 flop channels transiently expressed in HEK293 cells [edited at the R/G site and Q/R/N site (GR), and unedited (RN) and edited (GN) at the R/G site both with asparagine (N) at the Q/R/N site]. The time constant of desensitization after application of 10 mm glutamate was 1.38 +/- 0.05 ms (n = 10), 5.53 +/- 0.57 ms (n = 7) and 1.33 +/- 0.06 ms (n = 12) for the GluR2 flop GR, RN and GN channels, respectively. The time constant of resensitization was 75 ms for the GluR2 flop RN and 30 ms for the GN channels. The dose-dependence of the peak current amplitude, kinetics of activation and deactivation, and peak open probability did not differ between RN and GN channels. The study shows that desensitization and resensitization kinetics of homomeric GluR2 flop channels are controlled by a single amino acid exchange (glycine by arginine) at the R/G site. Quantitative analysis by computer simulation using a circular kinetic scheme allows the prediction of the main experimental results.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2002;15;1;51-62

  • PICK1 targets activated protein kinase Calpha to AMPA receptor clusters in spines of hippocampal neurons and reduces surface levels of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2.

    Perez JL, Khatri L, Chang C, Srivastava S, Osten P and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    The PICK1 protein interacts in neurons with the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) and with several other membrane receptors via its single PDZ domain. We show that PICK1 also binds in neurons and in heterologous cells to protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and that the interaction is highly dependent on the activation of the kinase. The formation of PICK1-PKCalpha complexes is strongly induced by TPA, and PICK1-PKCalpha complexes are cotargeted with PICK1-GluR2 complexes to spines, where GluR2 is found to be phosphorylated by PKC on serine 880. PICK1 also reduces the plasma membrane levels of the GluR2 subunit, consistent with a targeting function of PICK1 and a PKC-facilitated release of GluR2 from the synaptic anchoring proteins ABP and GRIP. This work indicates that PICK1 functions as a targeting and transport protein that directs the activated form of PKCalpha to GluR2 in spines, leading to the activity-dependent release of GluR2 from synaptic anchor proteins and the PICK1-dependent transport of GluR2 from the synaptic membrane.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;15;5417-28

  • Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms.

    Chen L, Chetkovich DM, Petralia RS, Sweeney NT, Kawasaki Y, Wenthold RJ, Bredt DS and Nicoll RA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells. Stargazin, the mutated protein, interacts with both AMPA receptor subunits and synaptic PDZ proteins, such as PSD-95. The interaction of stargazin with AMPA receptor subunits is essential for delivering functional receptors to the surface membrane of granule cells, whereas its binding with PSD-95 and related PDZ proteins through a carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain is required for targeting the AMPA receptor to synapses. Expression of a mutant stargazin lacking the PDZ-binding domain in hippocampal pyramidal cells disrupts synaptic AMPA receptors, indicating that stargazin-like mechanisms for targeting AMPA receptors may be widespread in the central nervous system.

    Nature 2000;408;6815;936-43

  • Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 differentially regulates its interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins.

    Chung HJ, Xia J, Scannevin RH, Zhang X and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glutamate receptor function at excitatory synapses. Recent studies demonstrating the rapid regulation of AMPA receptor function during synaptic plasticity have suggested that AMPA receptor interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins may be dynamically modulated. Here we show that PKC phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit differentially modulates its interaction with the PDZ domain-containing proteins GRIP1 and PICK1. The serine residue [serine-880 (Ser880)] in the GluR2 C-terminal sequence (IESVKI) critical for PDZ domain binding is a substrate of PKC and is phosphorylated in vivo. In vitro binding and coimmunoprecipitation studies show that phosphorylation of serine-880 within the GluR2 PDZ ligand significantly decreases GluR2 binding to GRIP1 but not to PICK1. Immunostaining of cultured hippocampal neurons demonstrates that the Ser880-phosphorylated GluR2 subunits are enriched and colocalized with PICK1 in the dendrites, with very little staining observed at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, PKC activation in neurons increases the Ser880 phosphorylation of GluR2 subunits and recruits PICK1 to excitatory synapses. Moreover, PKC stimulation in neurons results in rapid internalization of surface GluR2 subunits. These results suggest that GluR2 phosphorylation of serine-880 may be important in the regulation of the AMPA receptor internalization during synaptic plasticity.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;19;7258-67

  • Mechanisms for activation and antagonism of an AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor: crystal structures of the GluR2 ligand binding core.

    Armstrong N and Gouaux E

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    Crystal structures of the GluR2 ligand binding core (S1S2) have been determined in the apo state and in the presence of the antagonist DNQX, the partial agonist kainate, and the full agonists AMPA and glutamate. The domains of the S1S2 ligand binding core are expanded in the apo state and contract upon ligand binding with the extent of domain separation decreasing in the order of apo > DNQX > kainate > glutamate approximately equal to AMPA. These results suggest that agonist-induced domain closure gates the transmembrane channel and the extent of receptor activation depends upon the degree of domain closure. AMPA and glutamate also promote a 180 degrees flip of a trans peptide bond in the ligand binding site. The crystal packing of the ligand binding cores suggests modes for subunit-subunit contact in the intact receptor and mechanisms by which allosteric effectors modulate receptor activity.

    Neuron 2000;28;1;165-81

  • Mutagenesis reveals a role for ABP/GRIP binding to GluR2 in synaptic surface accumulation of the AMPA receptor.

    Osten P, Khatri L, Perez JL, Köhr G, Giese G, Daly C, Schulz TW, Wensky A, Lee LM and Ziff EB

    Max-Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Heidelberg, Germany. posten@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de

    We studied the role of PDZ proteins GRIP, ABP, and PICK1 in GluR2 AMPA receptor trafficking. An epitope-tagged MycGluR2 subunit, when expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons, was specifically targeted to the synaptic surface. With the mutant MycGluR2delta1-10, which lacks the PDZ binding site, the overall dendritic intracellular transport and the synaptic surface targeting were not affected. However, over time, Myc-GluR2delta1-10 accumulated at synapses significantly less than MycGluR2. Notably, a single residue substitution, S880A, which blocks binding to ABP/GRIP but not to PICK1, reduced synaptic accumulation to the same extent as the PDZ site truncation. We conclude that the association of GluR2 with ABP and/or GRIP but not PICK1 is essential for maintaining the synaptic surface accumulation of the receptor, possibly by limiting its endocytotic rate.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620

    Neuron 2000;27;2;313-25

  • A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing.

    Aruscavage PJ and Bass BL

    Department of Biochemistry/Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosines to inosines within cellular and viral RNAs. Certain glutamate receptor (gluR) pre-mRNAs are substrates for the enzymes in vivo. For example, at the R/G editing site of gluR-B, -C, and -D RNAs, ADARs change an arginine codon (AGA) to a glycine codon (IGA) so that two protein isoforms can be synthesized from a single encoded mRNA; the highly related gluR-A sequence is not edited at this site. To gain insight into what features of an RNA substrate are important for accurate and efficient editing by an ADAR, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of sequences required for editing at the R/G site. We observed highly conserved sequences that were shared by gluR-B, -C, and -D, but absent from gluR-A. Surprisingly, in contrast to results obtained in phylogenetic analyses of tRNA and rRNA, it was the bases in paired, helical regions whose identity was conserved, whereas bases in nonhelical regions varied, but maintained their nonhelical state. We speculate this pattern in part reflects constraints imposed by ADAR's unique specificity and gained support for our hypotheses with mutagenesis studies. Unexpectedly, we observed that some of the gluR introns were conserved beyond the sequences required for editing. The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5P30CA42014; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM44073, R01 GM044073, R01 GM044073-11

    RNA (New York, N.Y.) 2000;6;2;257-69

  • Phosphorylation of serine-880 in GluR2 by protein kinase C prevents its C terminus from binding with glutamate receptor-interacting protein.

    Matsuda S, Mikawa S and Hirai H

    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan.

    Phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor is an important mechanism of synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that the C terminus of GluR2 of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor is phosphorylated by protein kinase C and that serine-880 is the major phosphorylation site. This phosphorylation also occurs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells by addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Our immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that the phosphorylation of serine-880 in GluR2 drastically reduced the affinity for glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP), a synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein, in vitro and in HEK cells. This result suggests that modulation of serine-880 phosphorylation in GluR2 controls the clustering of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses and consequently contributes to synaptic plasticity.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1999;73;4;1765-8

  • Interaction of the C-terminal domain of delta glutamate receptor with spectrin in the dendritic spines of cultured Purkinje cells.

    Hirai H and Matsuda S

    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan. hirai@postman.riken.go.jp

    The interaction of neurotransmitter receptors with the underlying cytoskeleton via subsynaptic proteins is an important mechanism for the targeting of the receptors to synapses in the central nervous system. We show that delta glutamate receptors (delta receptors), expressed predominantly in the dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells, directly interact with spectrin, a member of the actin-binding family of proteins. Moreover, the interaction between spectrin and C-terminal domain of the delta receptor is 50% inhibited by 1 microM of Ca2+ in vitro, compared with that in the absence of Ca2+. These results suggest that delta receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells are anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via spectrin, and that Ca2+ elevation in the dendritic spines causes delta receptor declustering by dissociation of the receptors from spectrin. This mechanism for receptor anchoring at postsynaptic sites may regulate synaptogenesis and/or synaptic plasticity.

    Neuroscience research 1999;34;4;281-7

  • Subtype-specific assembly of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits is mediated by their n-terminal domains.

    Leuschner WD and Hoch W

    Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung Biochemie, Spemannstrasse 35, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    Glutamate receptors (GluR) are oligomeric protein complexes formed by the assembly of four or perhaps five subunits. The rules that govern the selectivity of this process are not well understood. Here, we expressed combinations of subunits from two related GluR subfamilies in COS7 cells, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors. By co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we assessed the ability of AMPA receptor subunits to assemble into multimeric complexes. Subunits GluR1-4 associated with indistinguishable efficiency with each other, whereas the kainate receptor subunits GluR6 and 7 showed a much lower degree of association with GluR1. Using chimeric receptors and truncation fragments of subunits, we show that this assembly specificity is determined by N-terminal regions of these subunits and that the most N-terminal domain of GluR2 together with a membrane anchor efficiently associates with GluR1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;24;16907-16

  • Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1.

    Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Synaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors is crucial for efficient signal transduction and integration in neurons. PDZ domain-containing proteins such as PSD-95/SAP90 interact with the intracellular C termini of a variety of receptors and are thought to be important in the targeting and anchoring of receptors to specific synapses. Here, we show that PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase), a PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with the C termini of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in vitro and in vivo. In neurons, PICK1 specifically colocalizes with AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Furthermore, PICK1 induces clustering of AMPA receptors in heterologous expression systems. These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors.

    Neuron 1999;22;1;179-87

  • Novel anchorage of GluR2/3 to the postsynaptic density by the AMPA receptor-binding protein ABP.

    Srivastava S, Osten P, Vilim FS, Khatri L, Inman G, States B, Daly C, DeSouza S, Abagyan R, Valtschanoff JG, Weinberg RJ and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016, USA.

    We report the cloning of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-binding protein (ABP), a postsynaptic density (PSD) protein related to glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) with two sets of three PDZ domains, which binds the GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits. ABP exhibits widespread CNS expression and is found at the postsynaptic membrane. We show that the protein interactions of the ABP/GRIP family differ from the PSD-95 family, which binds N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. ABP binds to the GluR2/3 C-terminal VKI-COOH motif via class II hydrophobic PDZ interactions, distinct from the class I PSD-95-NMDA receptor interaction. ABP and GRIP also form homo- and heteromultimers through PDZ-PDZ interactions but do not bind PSD-95. We suggest that the ABP/GRIP and PSD-95 families form distinct scaffolds that anchor, respectively, AMPA and NMDA receptors.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620; NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879

    Neuron 1998;21;3;581-91

  • The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs.

    Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, Vilim FS, Khatri L, Lee LM, States BA, Einheber S, Milner TA, Hanson PI and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and beta-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), as well as dendritic colocalization of these proteins. The assembly of the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is ATP hydrolysis reversible and resembles the binding of NSF and SNAP with the SNAP receptor (SNARE) membrane fusion apparatus. We provide evidence that the molar ratio of NSF to SNAP in the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is similar to that of the t-SNARE syntaxin-NSF-SNAP complex. NSF is known to disassemble the SNARE protein complex in a chaperone-like interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis. We propose a model in which NSF functions as a chaperone in the molecular processing of the AMPA receptor.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620; NIMH NIH HHS: MH42834

    Neuron 1998;21;1;99-110

  • AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in human NT2-N neurons results from loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis following marked elevation of intracellular Na+.

    Itoh T, Itoh A, Horiuchi K and Pleasure D

    Division of Neurology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Human NT2-N neurons express Ca2+-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPA-GluRs) and become vulnerable to excitotoxicity when AMPA-GluR desensitization is blocked with cyclothiazide. Although the initial increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) was 1.9-fold greater in the presence than in the absence of cyclothiazide, Ca2+ entry via AMPA-GluRs in an early phase of the exposure was not necessary to elicit excitotoxicity in these neurons. Rather, subsequent necrosis was caused by a >40-fold rise in [Na+]i, which induced a delayed [Ca2+]i rise. Transfer of the neurons to a 5 mM Na+ medium after AMPA-GluR activation accelerated the delayed [Ca2+]i rise and intensified excitotoxicity. Low-Na+ medium-enhanced excitotoxicity was partially blocked by amiloride or dizocilpine (MK-801), and completely blocked by removal of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that Ca2+ entry by reverse operation of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and via NMDA glutamate receptors was responsible for the neuronal death after excessive Na+ loading. Our results serve to emphasize the central role of neuronal Na+ loading in AMPA-GluR-mediated excitotoxicity in human neurons.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS08075, NS25044

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;71;1;112-24

  • Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+.

    Wollmuth LP, Kuner T and Sakmann B

    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany. wollmuth@sunny.mpimf-Heidelberg.mpg.de

    1. The voltage-dependent block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels by extracellular Mg2+ is a critical determinant of its contribution to CNS synaptic physiology. The function of the narrow constriction of the channel in determining the block was investigated by analysing the effects of a set different amino acid substitutions at exposed residues positioned at or near this region. NMDA receptor channels, composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits, were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. 2. In wild-type channels, the voltage dependence (delta) of the block Mg2+ was concentration dependent with values of delta of integral of 0.82 in 0.07 mM and higher concentrations. Under bionic conditions with high extracellular Mg2+ and K+ as the reference ion, Mg2+ weakly permeated the channel. Over intermediate potentials (approximately -60 to -10 mV), this weak permeability had no apparent effect on the block but at potentials negative to approximately -60mV, it attenuated the extent and voltage dependence of the block. 3. Substitutions of glycine, serine, glutamine or aspartate for the N-site asparagine in the NR1-subunit enhanced the extent of block over intermediate potentials but left the voltage dependence of the block unchanged indicating that structural determinants of the block remained. These same substitutions either attenuated or left unchanged the apparent Mg2+ permeability. 4. In channels containing substitutions of glycine, serine or glutamine for the N-site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit, the block Mg2+ was reduced at negative potentials. Over intermediate potentials, the block was not strongly attenuated except for the glutamine substitution which reduced the voltage dependence of the block to integral of 0.57 in 0.7 mM Mg2+. 5. Equivalent substitutions for the N + 1 site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit strongly attenuated the block over the entire voltage range. In 0.7 mM Mg2+, the voltage dependence of the block was reduced to 0.50 (glycine), 0.53 (serine) and 0.46 (glutamine). 6. Channels containing substitutions of the N-site or N + 1 site asparagines in the NR2A-subunit showed an increased Mg2+ permeability suggesting that these adjacent asparagines form a barrier for inward Mg2+ flux. Changes in this barrier contribute, at least in part, to the mechanism underlying disruption of the block following substitution of these residues. 7. The adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines are positioned at or near the narrow constriction of the channel. Pore size, however, did not determine how effectively Mg2+ blocks mutant channels. 8. It is concluded that, at the narrow constriction in the NMDA receptor channel, the adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines, the N-site and N + 1 site, but not the N-site asparagine of the NR1-subunit, form a critical blocking site for extracellular Mg2+. The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues.

    The Journal of physiology 1998;506 ( Pt 1);13-32

  • Antibody specific for phosphorylated AMPA-type glutamate receptors at GluR2 Ser-696.

    Nakazawa K, Tadakuma T, Nokihara K and Ito M

    Laboratory for Synaptic Function, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama, Japan.

    Possible phosphorylation sites on the Purkinje cell alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunits were identified using in vitro kinase assays of 17 synthetic peptides derived from the transmembrane-3 (TM3) domain to the end of C-terminal of a rat glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2). Only two peptides containing Ser-662 and Ser-696 were found to be efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC). The peptide including Ser-696 was also phosphorylated by protein kinase G (PKG). Another peptide containing Thr-692 of a rat GluRA, clone almost identical to GluR1, was phosphorylated by PKC but not by PKG. Antisera recognizing phosphorylated AMPA receptor subunits at GluR2 Ser-696 or the homologous sites of GluR1/3/4 were produced, and the specificity of one of them, named 12P3, was established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses. 12P3-immunocytochemistry on cerebellar slices demonstrated an AMPA-induced transient AMPA receptor phosphorylation, which appeared in Purkinje cell dendrites as well as somata immediately after AMPA treatment and disappeared after 20 min. This antibody may be a useful tool to study the role of AMPA receptor phosphorylation in producing synaptic plasticity.

    Neuroscience research 1995;24;1;75-86

  • RNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain tissue.

    Paschen W, Hedreen JC and Ross CA

    Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore.

    Editing of mRNA in the coding region of the second transmembrane domain of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR5, and GluR6 involves a change of the base A in genomic DNA to the base G in mRNA as described in rat brain. To determine whether this reaction occurs in humans as well as rats, we studied RNA editing of GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain. We compared the extent of editing in controls and cases with Huntington's disease. To assay the extent of editing in brain RNA, first strand cDNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction yielding a product across the region of the second transmembrane spanning segment in which editing takes place in rats. The PCR product was incubated with the restriction enzyme BbvI, which recognizes the sequence GCAGC present in the nonedited sequence of the mRNA in subunits GluR2 and GluR6. Thus, BbvI cuts the nonedited version but leaves the edited version intact. As in the rat, the GluR2 subunit mRNA was completely edited in human brain. The GluR6 subunit was nearly completely edited in all gray matter structures investigated including cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum with extent of editing ranging from 89% in the cerebellum to 95% in the cortex and striatum. No significant differences in the extent of RNA editing were apparent in control versus Huntington's disease brains. To compare the extent of editing in neurons and glia in the brain, editing in cerebral cortex (predominantly gray matter and thus neurons) was compared with editing in corpus callosum (white matter and thus nearly completely glial cells).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 16376

    Journal of neurochemistry 1994;63;5;1596-602

  • The organization of the gene for the functionally dominant alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor subunit GluR-B.

    Köhler M, Kornau HC and Seeburg PH

    Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, University of Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The murine gene encoding the GluR-B subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors was characterized with respect to exon-intron organization, transcriptional start site, alternatively spliced transcripts, and adenosine to guanosine substitutions between gene and complementary DNA sequence. The GluR-B gene spans > 90 kilobase pairs and harbors 17 exons. Transcription appears to initiate approximately 430 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon, with no intron in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene. Four alternatively spliced mRNAs are generated from the primary GluR-B transcript, two containing the modules Flip and Flop, and another two with alternate C-terminal coding sequence. The major GluR-B mRNAs in murine brain, 4 and 6 kilobase differ in the length of their 3'-untranslated region.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;26;17367-70

  • AMPA glutamate receptors and their flip and flop mRNAs in human hippocampus.

    Eastwood SL, Burnet PW, Beckwith J, Kerwin RW and Harrison PJ

    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.

    AMPA-preferring glutamate receptor genes gluR1-4 undergo alternative splicing into flip and flop mRNA isoforms. In the rodent hippocampus, gluR1 and gluR2 isoforms are differentially expressed. We have studied their distribution in human hippocampus. As in the rat, flop isoforms predominate over flip in dentate gyrus, whereas gluR1 flip is prominent only in CA3. In contrast to the rat, flop mRNAs are clearly present in CA3. At a cellular level, pyramidal neurones express moderate amounts of each isoform. In several hippocampal fields, scattered non-pyramidal cells--putatively interneurones and glia--show abundant expression. The findings are supported by immunocytochemical detection of gluR1 and gluR2/3. As the four encoded isoforms have distinct properties, their differential expression within the hippocampus, and between species, should be taken into account when considering the roles of AMPA receptors in normal and abnormal brain states.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Neuroreport 1994;5;11;1325-8

  • Biochemical and assembly properties of GluR6 and KA2, two members of the kainate receptor family, determined with subunit-specific antibodies.

    Wenthold RJ, Trumpy VA, Zhu WS and Petralia RS

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Deafness and Communication Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    To examine subunit assembly and biochemical properties of two members of the kainate family of glutamate receptors (GluR), antibodies were made to synthetic peptides corresponding to the carboxyl termini of GluR6 and KA2. Immunoblot analysis of membranes from human embryonic kidney cells transfected with glutamate receptor cDNAs showed that these antibodies are selective for their respective receptor subunit except that the antibody to GluR6 also recognizes GluR7, which is expected due to the sequence homology between the two subunits at the carboxyl terminus. In transfected cell membranes, immunoblot analysis with the antibody to GluR6 showed a major immunoreactive band at 118 kDa and minor bands at 103 and 28 kDa. The 103-kDa band appears to be a deglycosylated form of GluR6 since deglycosylation eliminates staining at 118 kDa and increases staining of the 103-kDa band. Immunoblot analysis of KA2 transfected cell membranes shows a major band at 123 kDa and minor bands at 109 and 37 kDa. Deglycosylation converts the 123-kDa band into a 109-kDa band. Analysis of brain tissues shows that both antibodies label single major bands which migrate at the same molecular masses as those from transfected cell membranes, 118 and 123 kDa for GluR6 and KA2, respectively. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that antibodies to GluR6 and KA2 selectively immunoprecipitated [3H]kainate binding activity, but not 3H-labeled alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) binding activity, from Triton X-100-solubilized rat brain membranes. Furthermore, each antibody coimmunoprecipitated GluR6 and KA2 from cells co-transfected with GluR6 and KA2 cDNAs and from detergent-solubilized rat brain membranes, indicating that these two subunits can coassemble into a molecular complex. Interestingly, GluR1 and GluR2, subunits of the AMPA receptor, also co-immunoprecipitated with GluR6 in cells co-transfected with GluR6 and GluR1 or GluR2 cD-NAs. Such complexes appear to be present to a limited extent in the brain.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;2;1332-9

  • Primary structure and functional expression of the AMPA/kainate receptor subunit 2 from human brain.

    Sun W, Ferrer-Montiel AV and Montal M

    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0319.

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) receptor subunit 2 (HBGR2) was isolated from a human brain cDNA library. The HBGR2 cDNA has an open reading frame of approximately 2.7 kb that codes for an 883-residue protein. At the amino acid level, HBGR2 is 98% identical to its rat counterpart GluR2, and 69% to the AMPA/KA receptor subunit 1 from human brain (HBGR1). Injection of cRNA transcripts from the HBGR2 into oocytes produces barely detectable kainate-activated ionic currents, indicating that the HBGR2 subunit alone weakly expresses homomeric receptor channels. Coexpression of HBGR2 and HBGR1 transcripts, however, evokes kainate-dependent currents which activate at higher agonist concentration than those required by homomeric HBGR1 receptor channels. Coexpressed receptors display a linear current-to-voltage relationship at variance with the inwardly rectifying profile exhibited by HBGR1 homomers. Hence, the HBGR2 subunit coassembles with the HBGR1 subunit to form heteromeric receptor channels akin to the glutamate receptors from rodent brain.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH-00778, MH-44638

    Neuroreport 1994;5;4;441-4

  • RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B: a base-paired intron-exon structure determines position and efficiency.

    Higuchi M, Single FN, Köhler M, Sommer B, Sprengel R and Seeburg PH

    Center for Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    A functionally critical position (Q/R site) of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B is controlled by RNA editing that operates in the nucleus, since in brain and clonal cell lines of neural origin, unspliced GluR-B transcripts occur edited in the Q/R site CAG codon and, additionally, in intronic adenosines. Transfection of GluR-B gene constructs into PC12 cells revealed that the proximal part of the intron downstream of the unedited exonic site is required for Q/R site editing. This intron portion contains an imperfect inverted repeat preceding a 10 nt sequence with exact complementarity to the exon centered on the unedited codon. Single nucleotide substitutions in this short intronic sequence or its exonic complement curtailed Q/R site editing, which was recovered by restoring complementarity in the respective partner strand. Base conversion in the channel-coding region of GluR-B directed by base paired sequences may be executed by a ubiquitous nuclear adenosine deaminase specific for double-stranded RNA.

    Cell 1993;75;7;1361-70

  • Expression of alternatively-spliced glutamate receptors in human hippocampus.

    McLaughlin DP, Cheetham ME and Kerwin RW

    Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

    Rat glutamate receptors have been shown to be expressed as two developmentally regulated, alternatively spliced isoforms. We have investigated the expression of these isoforms of GluRA and GluRB in the human hippocampus. The expression pattern of the mRNAs coding for these subunits does not correspond to that in the rat hippocampus, both isoforms being preferentially expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions, with lower expression in CA3, with the exception of GluRB flop, where hybridization in CA3 is only lower than in dentate gyrus. Cloning of cDNA from human frontal cortex has also revealed that the two isoforms of human GluRB have virtual nucleotide sequence identity with the alternative exons in the rat, confirming the usefulness of oligonucleotides complementary to the rat cDNAs as probes for these receptor subunits in human neuropsychiatric disorders.

    European journal of pharmacology 1993;244;1;89-92

  • Chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes.

    McNamara JO, Eubanks JH, McPherson JD, Wasmuth JJ, Evans GA and Heinemann SF

    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC.

    The chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes (GluR1-4) has been established using PCR with DNA isolated from mapping panels of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines and high-resolution fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization. This was accomplished with genomic clones containing putative human homologs of rat GluR 1-4 isolated by high-stringency screening of a cosmid library with the rat cDNAs encoding GluR1-4. The locations of GluR1-4, respectively, are 5q32-33, 4q32-33, Xq25-26, and 11q22-23. Evidence implicating glutamatergic synapses in a diversity of physiologic and pathologic processes together with concordance of the chromosomal locales and results of linkage analyses establishes GluR3 and GluR4 as candidate genes for a number of nervous system disorders including the oculocerebral-renal syndrome of Lowe and a form of manic-depressive illness.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00320; NINDS NIH HHS: NS17771, NS24448; ...

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1992;12;7;2555-62

  • Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of human brain glutamate receptors.

    Sun W, Ferrer-Montiel AV, Schinder AF, McPherson JP, Evans GA and Montal M

    Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093.

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding a glutamate receptor was isolated from a human brain cDNA library, and the gene product was characterized after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Degenerate PCR primers to conserved regions of published rat brain glutamate receptor sequences amplified a 1-kilobase fragment from a human brain cDNA library. This fragment was used as a probe for subsequent hybridization screening. Two clones were isolated that, based on sequence information, code for different receptors: a 3-kilobase clone, HBGR1, contains a full-length glutamate receptor cDNA highly homologous to the rat brain clone GluR1, and a second clone, HBGR2, contains approximately two-thirds of the coding region of a receptor homologous to rat brain clone GluR2. Southern and PCR analysis of a somatic cell-hybrid panel mapped HBGR1 to human chromosome 5q31.3-33.3 and mapped HBGR2 to chromosome 4q25-34.3. Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro-synthesized HBGR1 cRNA expressed currents activated by glutamate receptor agonists with the following specificity sequence: domoate greater than kainate much greater than quisqualate greater than or equal to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid greater than or equal to L-glutamate much greater than N-methyl-D-aspartate. The kainate-elicited currents were specifically blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione but were insensitive to 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and kynurenic acid. These results indicate that clone HBGR1 codes for a glutamate receptor of the kainate subtype cognate to members of the glutamate receptor family from rodent brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00047; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33868; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-44638

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;4;1443-7

  • RNA editing in brain controls a determinant of ion flow in glutamate-gated channels.

    Sommer B, Köhler M, Sprengel R and Seeburg PH

    Laboratory for Molecular Neuroendocrinology, University of Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    L-glutamate, the principal excitatory transmitter in the brain, gates ion channels mediating fast neurotransmission. Subunit components of two related classes of glutamate receptor channels have been characterized by cDNA cloning and shown to carry either an arginine or a glutamine residue in a defined position of their putative channel-forming segment. The arginine residue in this segment profoundly alters, and dominates, the properties of ion flow, as demonstrated for one channel class. We now show that the genomic DNA sequences encoding the particular channel segment of all subunits harbor a glutamine codon (CAG), even though an arginine codon (CGG) is found in mRNAs of three subunits. Multiple genes and alternative exons were excluded as sources for the arginine codon; hence, we propose that transcripts for three subunits are altered by RNA editing. This process apparently edits subunit transcripts of the two glutamate receptor classes with different efficiency and selectivity.

    Cell 1991;67;1;11-9

  • Flip and flop: a cell-specific functional switch in glutamate-operated channels of the CNS.

    Sommer B, Keinänen K, Verdoorn TA, Wisden W, Burnashev N, Herb A, Köhler M, Takagi T, Sakmann B and Seeburg PH

    Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Center for Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, F.R.G.

    In the central nervous system (CNS), the principal mediators of fast synaptic excitatory neurotransmission are L-glutamate-gated ion channels that are responsive to the glutamate agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). In each member of a family of four abundant AMPA receptors, a small segment preceding the predicted fourth transmembrane region has been shown to exist in two versions with different amino acid sequences. These modules, designated "flip" and "flop," are encoded by adjacent exons of the receptor genes and impart different pharmacological and kinetic properties on currents evoked by L-glutamate or AMPA, but not those evoked by kainate. For each receptor, the alternatively spliced messenger RNAs show distinct expression patterns in rat brain, particularly in the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus. These results identify a switch in the molecular and functional properties of glutamate receptors operated by alternative splicing.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1990;249;4976;1580-5

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000014 G2C Homo sapiens Human ARC Human orthologues of mouse AMPA receptor complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 9
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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